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Chapter 16

PowerPoint® Lectures for

University Physics, Thirteenth Edition
– Hugh D. Young and Roger A. Freedman

Lectures by Wayne Anderson

Goals for Chapter 16
• To describe sound waves in terms of particle displacements or
pressure variations
• To calculate the speed of sound in different materials
• To calculate sound intensity
• To find what determines the frequencies of sound from a pipe
• To study resonance in musical instruments
• To see what happens when sound waves overlap
• To investigate the interference of sound waves of slightly
different frequencies
• To learn why motion affects pitch

Sound waves
• Sound is simply any
longitudinal wave in a
medium.
• The audible range of
frequency for humans is
20,000 Hz.
• Ultrasonic sound waves have
frequencies above human
hearing and infrasonic waves
are below.
• Figure 16.1 at the right shows
sinusoidal longitudinal wave.

Different ways to describe a sound wave
• Sound can be
described by a graph
of displacement
versus position, or by
a drawing showing
the displacements of
individual particles,
or by a graph of the
pressure fluctuation
versus position.
• The pressure
amplitude is
pmax = BkA.
• Here B is bulk
modulus, k is
wavenumber, A is
displacement Bulk modulus B = Dp/DV/Vo is a measure of how
amplitude. incompressible a gas is.
Amplitude of a sound wave
• Example 16.1:
– A sound wave of moderate loudness has pressure amplitude 3.0 x 10-2 Pa. Find
the maximum displacement if the frequency is 1000 Hz. In normal air, the speed
of sound is 344 m/s, and the bulk modulus is 1.42 x 105 Pa.

k = 2p/l = 2p f/v

A = pmax/Bk = pmax v/2pfB

A = 1.16 x 10-8 m

Perception of sound waves
• The harmonic content greatly affects our perception of sound.

Speed of sound waves
• The speed of sound
depends on the
characteristics of the
medium. Table 16.1 gives
some examples.

• The speed of sound:

v B
 (fluid)

v  Y (solid rod)

v   RT (ideal gas)
M

Sound intensity
• The intensity of a sinusoidal sound wave is proportional to the
square of the amplitude, the square of the frequency, and the
2
square of the pressure amplitude. I  1  B 2 A2  pmax
2
2 v

Wave intensity Avg. wave intensity

Wave displacement

The decibel scale
• The sound intensity level  is  = (10 dB) log(I/I0).
• Table 16.2 shows examples for some common sounds.

Examples using decibels
• For a point source of sound, sound intensity falls as 1/r2
• Example 16.9, using Figure 16.11 below. When you double your distance from
a point source of sound, by how much does the sound intensity (in dB)
decrease?
• If r2 = 2r1, then the intensity falls off in the ratio I2/I1 = r12/(2r1)2 =1/4
• In the log space of dB, a ratio becomes a difference
2 – 1 = 10 log(1/4) = – 6.02
• The intensity drops by 6 dB.

Standing sound waves and normal modes
• The bottom figure shows displacement
nodes and antinodes.
• A pressure node is always a displace-
ment antinode, and a pressure antinode
is always a displacement node, as
shown in the figure at the right.

Organ pipes
• Organ pipes of different sizes
produce tones with different
frequencies (bottom figure).
• The figure at the right shows
displacement nodes in two cross-
sections of an organ pipe at two
instants that are one-half period
pressure variation.

Harmonics in an open pipe
• An open pipe is open at both ends.
• For an open pipe ln = 2L/n and fn = nv/2L (n = 1, 2, 3, …).
• Figure 16.17 below shows some harmonics in an open pipe.

Harmonics in a closed pipe
• A closed pipe is open at one end and closed at the other end.
• For a closed pipe ln = 4L/n and fn = nv/4L (n = 1, 3, 5, …).
• Figure 16.18 below shows some harmonics in a closed pipe.

Resonance and sound

• In Figure 16.19(a) at the

right, the loudspeaker
provides the driving force
for the air in the pipe. Part
(b) shows the resulting
resonance curve of the
pipe.

Interference
• The difference in the lengths of the paths traveled by the sound
determines whether the sound from two sources interferes
constructively or destructively, as shown in the figures below.

Loudspeaker interference

• Example 16.13 using Figure 16.23 below.

• Two loudspeakers A and B are driven by the same amplifier in phase.
(a) For what frequencies does constructive interference occur at point P?
(b) For what frequencies does destructive interference occur at point P?

• (a) The difference in distance between AP and

BP is d = 201/2 m – 171/2 m = 0.35 m.
Constructive interference occurs when the
difference in distance is d = 0, l, 2l, 3l, … =
nl = nv/f. So the possible frequencies are fn =
nv/d. Using the speed of sound in air as 350
m/s, the possible frequencies are fn = n 350
m/s / 0.35 m = 1000n Hz = 1000, 2000, 3000,
… Hz.
• (b) Destructive interference occurs when the
difference in distance is d = l/2, 3l/2, 5l/2,
Interference occurs for two coherent
… = nl/2 = nv/2f (n = 1,3, 5,…). So the
sources at the same frequency.
possible frequencies are fn = nv/2d = 500,
1500, 2500… Hz.
Beats
• Beats are heard when two tones of slightly different frequency (fa
and fb) are sounded together. (See Figure 16.24 below.)
• The beat frequency is fbeat = fa – fb.

Beats occur for sources at two

different frequencies.
The Doppler effect
• The Doppler effect for sound is the shift in frequency when there is
motion of the source of sound, the listener, or both.
• Use Figure 16.27 below to follow the derivation of the frequency the
v  vL v  vL  vL 
fL    1   f S Stationary source, moving listener
l v / fS  v
v  vL
fL  fS Moving source, moving listener
v  vS

The Doppler effect and frequencies
• Follow Example 16.15 using Figure 16.30 below to see
how the frequency of the sound is affected.

v  vL
fL  fS = 350/380 fS (lower freq)
v  vS

A moving listener
• Follow Example 16.16 using Figure 16.31 below to see
how the motion of the listener affects the frequency of
the sound.

v  vL
fL  fS = 320/350 fS (lower freq)
v  vS

A moving source and a moving listener
• Follow Example 16.17 using Figure 16.32 below to see
how the motion of both the listener and the source
affects the frequency of the sound.

v  vL
fL  fS = 365/395 fS (lower freq)
v  vS

A double Doppler shift
• Follow Example 16.18 using Figure 16.33 below.

v  vL
fL  fS = 350/320 fS (higher freq)
v  vS

v  vL
fL  fS = 380/350 fS (higher freq)
v  vS