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Chapter 16

Sound and Hearing

PowerPoint® Lectures for


University Physics, Thirteenth Edition
– Hugh D. Young and Roger A. Freedman

Lectures by Wayne Anderson


Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc.
Goals for Chapter 16
• To describe sound waves in terms of particle displacements or
pressure variations
• To calculate the speed of sound in different materials
• To calculate sound intensity
• To find what determines the frequencies of sound from a pipe
• To study resonance in musical instruments
• To see what happens when sound waves overlap
• To investigate the interference of sound waves of slightly
different frequencies
• To learn why motion affects pitch

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Sound waves
• Sound is simply any
longitudinal wave in a
medium.
• The audible range of
frequency for humans is
between about 20 Hz and
20,000 Hz.
• Ultrasonic sound waves have
frequencies above human
hearing and infrasonic waves
are below.
• Figure 16.1 at the right shows
sinusoidal longitudinal wave.

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Different ways to describe a sound wave
• Sound can be
described by a graph
of displacement
versus position, or by
a drawing showing
the displacements of
individual particles,
or by a graph of the
pressure fluctuation
versus position.
• The pressure
amplitude is
pmax = BkA.
• Here B is bulk
modulus, k is
wavenumber, A is
displacement Bulk modulus B = Dp/DV/Vo is a measure of how
amplitude. incompressible a gas is.
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Amplitude of a sound wave
• Example 16.1:
– A sound wave of moderate loudness has pressure amplitude 3.0 x 10-2 Pa. Find
the maximum displacement if the frequency is 1000 Hz. In normal air, the speed
of sound is 344 m/s, and the bulk modulus is 1.42 x 105 Pa.

k = 2p/l = 2p f/v

A = pmax/Bk = pmax v/2pfB

A = 1.16 x 10-8 m

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Perception of sound waves
• The harmonic content greatly affects our perception of sound.

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Speed of sound waves
• The speed of sound
depends on the
characteristics of the
medium. Table 16.1 gives
some examples.

• The speed of sound:


v B
 (fluid)

v  Y (solid rod)

v   RT (ideal gas)
M

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Sound intensity
• The intensity of a sinusoidal sound wave is proportional to the
square of the amplitude, the square of the frequency, and the
2
square of the pressure amplitude. I  1  B 2 A2  pmax
2
2 v

Wave intensity Avg. wave intensity

Wave displacement

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The decibel scale
• The sound intensity level  is  = (10 dB) log(I/I0).
• Table 16.2 shows examples for some common sounds.

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Examples using decibels
• For a point source of sound, sound intensity falls as 1/r2
• Example 16.9, using Figure 16.11 below. When you double your distance from
a point source of sound, by how much does the sound intensity (in dB)
decrease?
• If r2 = 2r1, then the intensity falls off in the ratio I2/I1 = r12/(2r1)2 =1/4
• In the log space of dB, a ratio becomes a difference
2 – 1 = 10 log(1/4) = – 6.02
• The intensity drops by 6 dB.

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Standing sound waves and normal modes
• The bottom figure shows displacement
nodes and antinodes.
• A pressure node is always a displace-
ment antinode, and a pressure antinode
is always a displacement node, as
shown in the figure at the right.

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Organ pipes
• Organ pipes of different sizes
produce tones with different
frequencies (bottom figure).
• The figure at the right shows
displacement nodes in two cross-
sections of an organ pipe at two
instants that are one-half period
apart. The blue shading shows
pressure variation.

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Harmonics in an open pipe
• An open pipe is open at both ends.
• For an open pipe ln = 2L/n and fn = nv/2L (n = 1, 2, 3, …).
• Figure 16.17 below shows some harmonics in an open pipe.

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Harmonics in a closed pipe
• A closed pipe is open at one end and closed at the other end.
• For a closed pipe ln = 4L/n and fn = nv/4L (n = 1, 3, 5, …).
• Figure 16.18 below shows some harmonics in a closed pipe.
• Follow Example 16.11.

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Resonance and sound

• In Figure 16.19(a) at the


right, the loudspeaker
provides the driving force
for the air in the pipe. Part
(b) shows the resulting
resonance curve of the
pipe.
• Follow Example 16.12.

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Interference
• The difference in the lengths of the paths traveled by the sound
determines whether the sound from two sources interferes
constructively or destructively, as shown in the figures below.

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Loudspeaker interference

• Example 16.13 using Figure 16.23 below.


• Two loudspeakers A and B are driven by the same amplifier in phase.
(a) For what frequencies does constructive interference occur at point P?
(b) For what frequencies does destructive interference occur at point P?

• (a) The difference in distance between AP and


BP is d = 201/2 m – 171/2 m = 0.35 m.
Constructive interference occurs when the
difference in distance is d = 0, l, 2l, 3l, … =
nl = nv/f. So the possible frequencies are fn =
nv/d. Using the speed of sound in air as 350
m/s, the possible frequencies are fn = n 350
m/s / 0.35 m = 1000n Hz = 1000, 2000, 3000,
… Hz.
• (b) Destructive interference occurs when the
difference in distance is d = l/2, 3l/2, 5l/2,
Interference occurs for two coherent
… = nl/2 = nv/2f (n = 1,3, 5,…). So the
sources at the same frequency.
possible frequencies are fn = nv/2d = 500,
1500, 2500… Hz.
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Beats
• Beats are heard when two tones of slightly different frequency (fa
and fb) are sounded together. (See Figure 16.24 below.)
• The beat frequency is fbeat = fa – fb.

Beats occur for sources at two


different frequencies.
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The Doppler effect
• The Doppler effect for sound is the shift in frequency when there is
motion of the source of sound, the listener, or both.
• Use Figure 16.27 below to follow the derivation of the frequency the
listener receives.
v  vL v  vL  vL 
fL    1   f S Stationary source, moving listener
l v / fS  v
v  vL
fL  fS Moving source, moving listener
v  vS

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The Doppler effect and frequencies
• Follow Example 16.15 using Figure 16.30 below to see
how the frequency of the sound is affected.

v  vL
fL  fS = 350/380 fS (lower freq)
v  vS

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A moving listener
• Follow Example 16.16 using Figure 16.31 below to see
how the motion of the listener affects the frequency of
the sound.

v  vL
fL  fS = 320/350 fS (lower freq)
v  vS

Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc.


A moving source and a moving listener
• Follow Example 16.17 using Figure 16.32 below to see
how the motion of both the listener and the source
affects the frequency of the sound.

v  vL
fL  fS = 365/395 fS (lower freq)
v  vS

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A double Doppler shift
• Follow Example 16.18 using Figure 16.33 below.

v  vL
fL  fS = 350/320 fS (higher freq)
v  vS

v  vL
fL  fS = 380/350 fS (higher freq)
v  vS
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Shock waves
• A “sonic boom” occurs if the source is supersonic.
• Figure 16.35 below shows how shock waves are generated.
• The angle  is given by sin = v/vS, where v/vS is called the
Mach number.

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A supersonic airplane
• Follow Example 16.19 using Figure 16.37 below.

Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Inc.