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• CH 311 Heat Transfer

* Heat transfer is one of the most important industrial

* Throughout any industrial facility, heat must be added,
removed, or moved from one process stream to another.

* Understanding the basics laws and analysis techniques of

heat transfer operations is a key to success for engineers and
their mastery of the subject should me developed.

* There are 3 basic types of heat transfer mechanisms :

conduction, convection, and radiation.

*The two most common forms encountered in the chemical

processing industry are conduction and convection..
Lecture Schedule:

Tuesday 12:30 pm LH - 1

Wednesday 11:30 am LH - 1
Course Outcomes

 Fundamental concepts of heat transfer mechanisms

in fluids and solids along with the governing laws
and analogies.
 Development , interpretation and application of
corresponding equations for different geometries,
flow patterns under steady & unsteady conditions,

 Learning of various techniques to calculate and save

energy for industrial heating/ cooling processes,
 Ability to select, analyze and design an appropriate
heat transfer equipment for a process industry.
Assessment Mechanism

Announced Quizzes 20%

*PB- mini Project 5%
Assignments 5%
Midterm Exam 30%
Final Exam 40%

(*problem based))

Text Books:

1. Unit Operations Of Chemical

Engineering, 7th Edition.
Warren L McCabe, Warren L Smith.
2. Process Heat Transfer, 3rd
Donald Q. Kern.
Reference Books
1. Fundamentals of Heat
and Mass Transfer, 6th

Frank P. Incropera, David

P. Dewitt, Theodore L.
Bergman, Adrienne S.
2. Heat Transfer
Textbook, 3rd Edition.
John H. Lienhard IV &John H.
Lienhard V. A
Basic Concepts of Heat Transfer
• The exchange of thermal energy in physical systems
at different temp.
• The objects could be solid , liquid or gas, or vapour.
• 3 different modes of transfer heat:
i. conduction (through direct contact), Advection
ii. convection (through fluid movement), or
iii. radiation (through electromagnetic waves).
• Heat transfer occurs when the temperatures of
objects are not equal to establish an equilibrium
• Thermodynamics deals with the processes of
conversation of 1 form of energy to another form of

Transfer of energy—including thermal energy—is moved by the
physical transfer of a hot or cold object from one place to
another by accumulating/ storing energy e.g.
i. placing hot water in a bottle and heating a bed,
ii. Transfer of energy adding ice to cool down drinks.

e.g. An iceberg changes the temperatures to cause ocean

Transfer of energy—including thermal
energy—is moved by the physical transfer of
a hot or cold object from one place to
another by accumulating/ storing energy e.g.
i. placing hot water in a bottle and heating
a bed,
ii. Transfer of energy adding ice to cool
down drinks.

Heat flux can be calculated by the formula:

Q = V ρ Cp ΔT

where Q is heat flux (W/m²), ρ is density (kg/m³),

Cp is heat capacity at constant pressure (J/ kg·K ),
V is Volumetric velocity (m³/s)
ΔT is the change in temperature (K),
Modes of heat transfer
Conduction is heat transfer by means of molecular
agitation in a material without any motion of the material ;
• Diffusional heat transfer due to temperature gradients from molecule to
• Conduction is more significant in isotropic & homogeneous solids
because of no convective & radiatiative H.T. is negligible if the solid is
translucent to electromagnetic waves,
• Quantitative measure of conduction for a given gradient is the heat
Conduction heat transfer 𝑄 ∝ 𝐴 𝑑𝑇/𝑑𝑥
𝑄 = −𝑘 𝐴 𝑑𝑇/𝑑𝑥 (Watt)
𝑘 = − 𝑄 𝐴 𝑑𝑥/𝑑𝑇 (W/m ºC)
Fourier's law of conduction

Translucent i.e. The material permits light to pass through

Convection occurs by actual movement of fluid due to temp.
Heat transfer coefficient 'h' is a measure of rate of heat
transfer by convection,
h = f ( density, velocity, length & dia., specific heat ,
viscosity & thermal conductivity).
'h' signifies the characteristics of heat transfer media (liquid
or gas), temperature difference, flow pattern, type of
convection etc. dQ
~ h A (T2  T1 )
a. Forced convection: dt
When the flow be influenced by an external source e.g.
( stirring, agitating or mixing )
b. Natural or Free convection.
Coupled with the buoyancy forces or density variations
caused due to temperature variations of the fluid. 16
• Heat transfer occurs in the form of electromagnetic
waves between 2 surfaces at different temperatures,
• The medium should be partially transparent,
• Radiation is especially important at high
temperatures, e.g. during combustion processes or
solar energy .

Pabs   Aa  Ts 4
•Surface Area, A
•Absorption coefficient, a = 0 to 1
•Stefan-Boltzmann constant
σ = 5.67 x 10-8 W.m-2.K-4
Ludwig Boltzmann

i. All objects above absolute zero emit

radiant energy , even in vacuum.
ii. The rate of emission increases with
the increase in temp. of the object.
A common sense experiment
Four containers were placed equidistant from a heater. Which
container would have the warmest & coldest water after ten
Dull metal Shiny black

Shiny metal Dull black

dull black container would be the warmest after ten

The __________
radiation the best.
minutes because its surface absorbs heat _______
shiny metal container would be the coolest because it is
The _________
the poorest at __________
absorbing heat radiation.
• Heat: The form of energy that can be transferred from one
system to another as a result of temperature difference.
• Thermodynamics is concerned with the amount of heat
transfer as a system undergoes a change from one form of
energy to another form.
• Heat Transfer deals with the determination of the rates of
heat transfers due to variation of temperature.
• Transfer of energy always occurs from higher to the lower-
temperature medium.
• Heat can be transferred by conduction, convection,
radiation to establish equilibrium.

• Thermodynamic analysis
• Thermodynamic analysis is an evaluation of how energy affects the
performance of mechanical systems or vice versa.
• Develop mathematical models for a system (Work & heat conversion
across a system boundary) one equilibrium state to another.
• Rate of heat transfer.
• The determination of amount of heat transferred in unit time,
expressed in Watts, BTU/hr.
• Heat flux Amount of heat transferred per unit area per unit time,
expressed in Watts/ m2, BTU/hr-ft2.
• Heat source Strength Amount of heat transferred per unit Volume
per unit time expressed in Watts/ m3, BTU/hr-ft3.
i. Heat transfer occurs from higher to the lower-temperature,
ii. Heat transfer stops when the two mediums reach the same
( Conduction , Convection, Radiation)

H.T. With & without


Distillation, heating, boiling

vaporization, condensation,
Re- boiling.

H.T. in a chemical/process industry

• Heat exchange frequently occurs in most of the processes in industries.
• H. Ex. Devices are essentially required either a process is physical or
chemical or two streams are at different temperature
• To exchange heat from hot to cold stream.
Process Equipments includes – Heaters, Coolers, Heat Pumps,
H. Exchangers, Boilers, Condensers, Evaporators, Dryers. Reactors,
Compressors, Waste Heat Boilers, Reformers, Crackers , Converters, etc.
Thermal diffusivity, m2/s: Represents how fast heat diffuses
through a material ( )

A material that has a high thermal conductivity or a

low heat capacity will obviously have a large thermal
The larger the thermal diffusivity, the faster the
propagation of heat into the medium.
Materials having small value of thermal diffusivity,
means that most of the heat is mostly absorbed by
the material, and a small amount of heat is
Historical Background
• Inthe middle of the 19th
century that we had a
true understanding of
the nature of heat.
• An English scientist
James P. Joule published
a convincing article in
1843 that heat is not a
physical substance, it is
a caloric transfer or

 Heat: The energy associated with the random


motion of atoms and molecules.

 Kinetic theory:
The molecules as tiny balls that are in motion and thus
possess kinetic energy depending upon temperature.

 Caloric theory: Heat is a;

 Fluid like substance called the caloric that is a mass-
less, colorless, odorless,
Basic Terminologies

 Internal energy: May be viewed as the sum of the

kinetic and potential energies of the molecules.
 Sensible heat: The kinetic energy of the
 Latent heat: The internal energy associated with
the phase of a system.
 Chemical (bond) energy: The internal energy
associated with the atomic bonds in a molecule.
 Nuclear energy: The internal energy associated
with the bonds within the nucleus of the atom
Unit of thermal diffusivity is
(A) m²/hr.
(B) m²/hr. °C
(C) kcal/m² hr
(D) kcal/m. hr °C

Thermal conductivity of wood depends on pores.

(A) Density
(C) Temperature
(D) All of the above
Thank You