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Leadership and

Management
System 4 Model of Management
a) Autocratic Leaders > little trust in
employees
b) Benevolent leaders > kind to
employees
c) Consultative leaders > seek employee’s
advice about decisions
d) Participative leaders > shares power
Managerial Grid
Contingency Theories
• Leadership behaviors range from
authoritarian to permissive and vary in
relation to current needs and future
probabilities,
• Most effective leadership style is the one that
best complements the organizational
environment, the task to be accomplished,
and the personal characteristics of the people
involved in each situation.
1. Fiedler’s Contingency Theory
• A leader is most effective when he
matches leadership style to situational
factors
• 3 steps
1. Identify the leadership style
2. Define the situation
3. Matching leaders and situation
• 3 situational factors of leadership
1. manager-follower relationship
2. Task structure
3. Manager power
Situational Leadership Theory
• suggests that no single leadership style is
"best.“
• the most effective leaders are those that
are able to adapt their style to the
situation and look at cues such as the type
of task, the nature of the group, and other
factors that might contribute to getting
the job done.

• 4 Primary Leadership Styles
1. Telling (S1)
2. Selling (S2)
3. Participating (S3)
4. Delegating (S4)
• Leadership and Maturity Levels
1. M1 > lack the knowledge, skills &
competence
2. M2 > willing & enthusiastic but lack
the ability
3. M3 > have the skills & capability but
unwilling to take responsibility
4. M4 > highly skilled & willing to
complete the task
• Leadership styles appropriate for the
maturity level
a) M1 – S1
b) M2 – S2
c) M3 – S3
d) M4 – S4
Situational Leadership Style II
• Effective leaders must base their behavior
on the developmental level of group
members for specific tasks which is
determined by each individual’s level of
competence and commitment.
1. Enthusiastic learner (D1)
2. Disillusioned learner (D2)
3. Capable but cautious performer (D3)
4. Self-reliant achiever (D4)
• Leadership Styles
1. Directing (S1)
2. Coaching (S2)
3. Supporting (S3)
4. Delegating (S4)
Contemporary Theories
1. Quantum Leadership
> leader’s role is to encourage employees
to close the door on receding practices
and challenge them to simply turn
around and squarely confront the
opportunities & challenges of emerging
practice
2. Charismatic Leadership
Leaders are driven by their convictions &
commitment to their cause

3. Transactional Leadership
Leaders promote compliance of followers
through rewards and punishments
Contingent reward & management-by-
exception
4. Transformational Leadership
> A leader works with subordinates to
identify needed change, creating a vision
to guide the change through inspiration,
and executing the change in tandem with
committed members of the group.