Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 28

ROTATIONAL DYNAMICS

TORQUE
-derived from the Latin
word torquere, which
means ' to twist'

- it is the effort or the

cause for an object to
rotate.
 Force is required for an object to start
rotating, the direction of the force determines
how fast will the object rotate and if rotation
will occur.
TORQUE
 The influence exerted on the body that allows it to rotate is
the torque (𝜏).
 Torque is directly proportional to the force F and the lever
arm r:

𝜏 = 𝑟𝐹

mN
 Unit for Torque is Nm
F

𝜽
F﬩
Fll
r

The component of the force perpendicular (F﬩) to

the lever arm contributes to torque, whereas its
parallel component (F ll) does not. Thus, the torque
is

𝜏 = 𝑟𝐹 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃
F

𝜽
F﬩
Fll
r

The component of the force perpendicular (F﬩) to

the lever arm contributes to torque, whereas its
parallel component (F ll) does not. Thus, the torque
is
The torque is
The torque is zero. at a max.
value
RIGHT-HAND RULE

Torque is also a vector quantity; so its has

magnitude and direction. Its direction can be found
using the right-hand rule
EXAMPLE 1
You exerted a downward 500-N force on a
wrench. What is the magnitude and direction of
the torque you exerted on the wrench at the
position shown in the figure?

F
F﬩
Fll
EXAMPLE 2
 Determine the torque on a bolt, if you are pulling
with a force of 200 N directed perpendicular to a
wrench of length 20 cm?
EXAMPLE 3
 Calculate the force required to produce 20 Nm
torque at an angle of 50º from along a 300 cm
rod?
EXAMPLE 4
 Calculate the force required to produce 20 Nm torque at an
angle of 50º from along a 300 cm rod?
MOMENT OF INERTIA
 Rotational inertia of the rigid body.
 Denoted by the symbol I.

 We can write
SAMPLE PROBLEM 1
Spheres of different masses are connected by
massless rods as shown in the figure here. Find the
moment of inertia of the system about the axes of
rotation P and Q. Axis P is perpendicular to the plane
of spheres A, B and C, while axis Q connects spheres
B and C. Q
P
2.00 m 0.40 kg
0.30 kg A B

C 0.60 kg
CONDITIONS FOR EQUILIBRIUM
 Based on Newton’s laws, the 1st condition
for equilibrium is that the vector sum of all
the external forces acting on the body is zero.

 In component form,
 In rotational motion, equilibrium can be achieved “if
the sum of the external torques exerted on the body
is zero at any point.”This is the 2nd condition for
equilibrium.

 A body is said to be in static equilibrium if it is at rest

(no translational motion and no rotational motion)
and both conditions for equilibrium are met.
ROTATIONAL KINETIC ENERGY
 An object rotating in its axis also has kinetic energy
associated with its rotation.

 Kinetic energy of the rigid body is therefore the sum of all

the kinetic energies of these particles.
 This rotational kinetic energy of the rigid
body.

 The symbol I and w play the same roles as

m and v, respectively.
SAMPLE PROBLEM 1
What is the rotational kinetic energy of a 1.20
axis and an angular speed 0.38 rad/s?
SAMPLE PROBLEM 2
 Determine the rotational kinetic energy of electric
motor if angular velocity is 100 π rad/s and
moment of inertia is 50 kgm2.
PROBLEM SET

(ROTATIONAL MOTION &

ROTATIONAL DYNAMICS)
1. A wheel with a diameter of 40.0 cm accelerates uniformly
from 100 rpm to 200 rpm in 8.0 s. (a) What is the angular
acceleration of the wheel? (b) how far will a point on the
edge of the wheel travel in this time?

2. The blades in a blender rotate at a rate of 500rpm.

Determine the magnitude of the linear velocity:
(a) a point located 5 cm from the center
(b) a point located 10 cm from the center
3. In a hurry to catch a cab, you rush through a frictionless
swinging door and onto the sidewalk. The force you exerted on
the door was 500 N, applied perpendicular to the plane door.
The door is 1.0m wide. Assuming the you push the door at its
edge, what was the torque on the swinging door?

4. A yoyo is a solid cylindrical-shaped object wrapped by a

string. If the yo-yo has a mass of 0.020kg and a radius of 10.0
cm, find its speed when the string is unwound, moving
downward at a distance of 1.0 m. The unwinding of the string
took place without slipping?