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AKV6009 Cross-Cultural Communication

Nemira Mačianskienė
Edward Twitchel Hall
(1914-2009)
• Anthropologist (BA, MA,
PhD), cross-cultural
researcher
• Grew up in New Mexico
• Commanded African-Am.
regiment in WWII
• Director of Foreign Service I,
professor of Anthropology
AKV6009 Cross-Cultural Communication
Nemira Mačianskienė
Hall’s contribution to CC/IC
 Scholarly field of intercultural communication –founder
 Cultural perception of space theory (during WWII) –
proxemics
 How time affects communication - chronemics
 NVC = C that does not involve the exchange of words
 Emphasis on out-of-awareness level of information
exchange
 Supported cultural relativism: “A particular cultural
element should only be judged in light of its context”
 Participatory training methods should be used - IC –
applied type of training of US diplomats
AKV6009 Cross-Cultural Communication
Nemira Mačianskienė
Edward

Hall
Hall, E.T. (1959). The Silent Language, New York: Doubleday.
 Hall, E.T. (1966). The Hidden Dimension, New York: Doubleday
 Hall, E.T. (1976). Beyond Culture, New York: Doubleday
 Hall, E.T. (1983). The Dance of Life, The Other Dimension of Time, New
York: Doubleday
 Hall, E.T. (1985). Hidden Differences: Studies in International
Communication, Hamburg: Grunder and Jahr
 Hall, E.T. (1990). Hidden Differences: Doing Business with the Japanese,
Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/ Doubleday
 Hall, E.T. (1990). Understanding Cultural Differences, Germans, French
and Americans, Yarmouth: Intercultural Press
 Hall, E.T. (1994). West of the Thirties. Discoveries Among the Navajo
and Hopi . New York: Doubleday

AKV6009 Cross-Cultural Communication
Nemira Mačianskienė
Hall’s Classification of Cultures

AKV6009 Cross-Cultural Communication


Nemira Mačianskienė
The Anthropology of Manners,
Hall (1955)
 US male – 18-20 inches (46-51 cm)
 Latin Am – 8-13 (20-30 cm)

 (1 inch – 2,54 cm)

AKV6009 Cross-Cultural Communication


Nemira Mačianskienė
Hall’s Classification of Cultures

What does your score tell you about your attitude toward time?

AKV6009 Cross-Cultural Communication


Nemira Mačianskienė
Hall’s Classification of Cultures

What does your score tell you about your attitude toward
interpersonal relationships?

AKV6009 Cross-Cultural Communication


Nemira Mačianskienė
Watch the lecture
 Hall’s Classification of Cultures
https://vimeo.com/63715908

AKV6009 Cross-Cultural Communication


Nemira Mačianskienė
Hall‘s continuum
The United States
Swiss (German)

Scandinavian

Japanese
English

Chinese
Mexican

African
German

Spanish
French

Italian

Greek

Arab
 ______________________________________________
Low context cultures High context cultures

AKV6009 Cross-Cultural Communication


Nemira Mačianskienė
Hall’s Classification of Cultures

• A High Context Culture


• A culture in which the context of the
message, or event carries a large part of its
meaning and/or significance
• A Low Context Culture
• A culture in which the message, event or
action is seen as something separate, having
meaning onto itself

AKV6009 Cross-Cultural Communication


Nemira Mačianskienė
Hall’s Classification of Cultures
– Time
 HCC – polychronic attitude: believe that people,
things and events each have their own time.
 LCC – monochronic attitude:
- schedule 1 event at a time,
- emphasize punctuality,
- “time is money” – no waste of time

AKV6009 Cross-Cultural Communication


Nemira Mačianskienė
Hall’s Classification of Cultures - Space
 A High Context Culture
People stand closer while talking, touch a
lot, pay more attention to body language

 A Low Context Culture

Personal space & more distance around


one’s body are needed. Tendency to feel
violated when personal space is invaded.

AKV6009 Cross-Cultural Communication


Nemira Mačianskienė
Hall’s Classification of Cultures –
Interpersonal Communication
 A High Context Culture
< focus on legal contracts & > on social relationships
> dependence on power & influence of established
networks than on individual characteristics
 A Low Context Culture
contracts are > important than spoken word,
everything is usually written down
legal means are > relied upon than social bonds;
people sometimes “pass the buck”
AKV6009 Cross-Cultural Communication
Nemira Mačianskienė
Assignment 5: Changing minds:
Hall’s Cultural Factors
http://changingminds.org/explanations/culture/hall_culture.htm

Read and be able to explain:


 Context – High & Low + Contrasting the two
 Factors:
 Overtness of messages
 Locus of control & attribution of failure
 Use on NVC
 Expression of reaction
 Cohesion & separation of groups
 People bonds
 Level of commitment to relationships
 Flexibility of time AKV6009 Cross-Cultural Communication
Nemira Mačianskienė
Time
 Monochronic vs Polychronic + Contrasting the two
 Factors:
 Actions
 Focus
 Attention to time
 Priority
 Respect for property
 Timeliness

AKV6009 Cross-Cultural Communication


Nemira Mačianskienė
Space
 The study of Space & our relationship with it
Proxemics (E. T. Hall)
 The need for space – personal space
 High territoriality – ownership, borders, boundaries
 Low territoriality
 Contrasting: Australian Aborigines vs Westerners

AKV6009 Cross-Cultural Communication


Nemira Mačianskienė
Assignment 6:
Low and High Context
Communications
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8tIUilYX56E

 Watch the video lecture & take notes of the ideas that
were not mentioned in the previous lecture on Hall’s
Classification of Cultures?

 What new ideas did you hear in this video lecture?

AKV6009 Cross-Cultural Communication


Nemira Mačianskienė