Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 15

Introduction to the Elements of

Music
What are they?
 All music can be described in relation to the elements of
music, which are different _______________ of music.

 These include:
 Dynamics
 Rhythm/Metre
 Pitch/Melody/Harmony
 Instrumentation/Timbre
 Texture
 Tempo
 Structure/Form
Dynamics
Change in volume, musical expression,
determining partly the mood of the piece.
This indicates the loudness/softness of a
piece of music, and the way to attack
certain notes (ie. Accents)

These are notated using abbreviations or


symbols.
Some Common Dynamic Markings
ppp - pianissinissimo
pp – pianissimo (softer than piano)
p – piano (soft)
mp – mezzo piano (stronger than piano, but still soft)
mf – mezzo forte (medium strong)
f – forte (strong/loud)
ff – fortissimo (stronger than forte)
ARTICULATIONS
< - accent
- - sustain (sustenuto)
. = staccato (short note)
Some Common Dynamic Markings

< = Crescendo (cresc.) – getting louder


>= decresceno (decresc.) – getting softer
Sfz = surprise! – suddenly loud
Rhythm/Metre
Your definition: The arrangement of musical
time. Music is arranged in beats grouped
into measures. Meter is the grouping of
strong and weak beats. Rhythm is the
arrangement of note lengths in a piece of
music.

“Rhythm is shaped by metre”


Pitch/Melody/Harmony/Tonality
PITCH
Music is produced through VIBRATIONS.
The frequency of these vibrations produce
sounds of varying lowness or highness.

Slowly vibrations/bigger objects:


Faster vibrations/smaller objects:
Pitch/Melody/Harmony/Tonality
MELODY

This is the arrangement of series pitches in


musical time. This can be considered the
recognizable ‘tune’ of the piece.

This is the HORIZONTAL aspect of music


Pitch/Melody/Harmony/Tonality
HARMONY

This is a group of notes (chords) played together


and the relationship between a series of chords.

This usually supports the melody, played


simultaneously or as broken chords, giving
music it’s TEXTURE.

This is the vertical aspect of music.


Pitch/Melody/Harmony/Tonality
TONALITY
Also known as the key. A piece can be
centered around a certain set of pitches
(major and minor scales), where there is a
sense of completion when the CHORDS
return to the TONIC, from the DOMINANT
(Key of C: returning from G to C)
Instrumentation/Timbre
What is producing the music. This
describes what instruments [or voices] are
heard. This will greatly affect the mood of
the piece.

Timbre is also known as TONE COLOR,


which is the quality of sound that is used
to distinguish between instruments
Texture
This describes the layers in music and how
they relate to each other. This is also
related to the VERTICAL aspect of music.

THICK/THIN
MONOPHONIC
POLYPHONIC
HOMOPHONIC
Tempo
How fast or slow music is played. This is usually
marked using with symbols or italian terms

Some Common Tempo Markings


Largo
Andante
Allegro
Allegretto
Structure/Form
This explains how music is organized into sections. The
structure of the piece is an overall picture of how the
piece progresses (in sections, using repetition, phrase
structure etc).
Some common musical forms:
- Binary
- Ternary
- Rondo
- Through-Composed
- Strophic
- Sonata Allegro
- Theme and Variation
END