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Readings in Philippine

Educational Philosophy

 Lyceum of the Philippines University, an

institution of higher learning, inspired by the
ideals of Philippine President Jose P. Laurel, is
committed to the advancement of his
philosophy and values: “Veritas et Fortitudo”
(truth and fortitude) and “Pro Deo et Patria”
(for God and Country).
LPU Batangas Campus Vision

 To be a recognized university in the Asia Pacific

Region by 2022.
LPU Batangas Campus Mission

 LPU-B, espousing the ideals of Jose P. Laurel, is
dedicated to the holistic development of the individual
constantly in pursuit of truth and acts with fortitude
(Veritas Et Fortitudo) to serve God and country (Pro
Deo Et Patria). It is committed to provide quality
education and develop leaders, lifelong learners and
globally competitive professionals who possess the
4C’s – competence, commitment, credibility and
Institutional Core Values

 LPU-B aims to develop and strengthen the following core values:

 G – God Centeredness
 L – Leadership
 I – Integrity
 N – Nationalism
Context Analysis
 Context analysis considers the time and place the historical document
was written as well as the situation or the circumstances during the
 Works pertaining to events in the past are analyzed by also taking into
account the author of the document, his/her biological background, role
in the event, and the intent for writing the document

Two other questions to consider when doing a context analysis:

1. How authoritative is the account/source?
2. How is it relevant today?
Learning History

 Learning Outcomes
at the end of this lesson, you should be able
1. Demonstrate an understanding of history
2. Explain the significance of history
 It is the historians duty to draw insights from the dates
and realities that have shaped the lives of men and
women and the society. And in understanding these
ideas, historians (or in fact students of history) can
comprehend how situations happened, identify their
elements, and think how these situations can solve
today’s predicaments and help plan for the future.

The study of history is the study of beliefs and desires,

practices, and institutions of human beings.
Why study history?

 An examination of the past can tell us a great deal about how we came
to be who we are. It means looking at the roots of modern institutions,
ideas, values, and problems.
 Looking at the past teaches us to see the world through different eyes –
appreciating the delivery of human perceptions, beliefs, and cultures.
Different and/or new perspective will enable us to analyze critically the
present contexts of society and beings.
Meaning of history

 Greek word istoia meaning learning

 Aristotle - history meant a systematic account of a set of natural
phenomena, whether or not chronological factoring was a factor in the
 Latin word Scientia (English science) came to be used more regularly to
designate non chronological systematic accounts of natural phenomena
and the word history was reserve usually for accounts of phenomena
(especially human affairs) in chronological order.
 Common definition, the word history now means, “the past of mankind”.
Activity 1

Form groups of five members. Pause for a few minutes

and thick about for a few minutes and think about or
reflect on your past. Has your past influenced you in
one way or another? How does your past shape your
identify and behavior? Discuss your answers to your

 Research on what Teodoro Agoncillo, Reynaldo Ileto, and Renato

Constantino said about history. Do you agree with them?
Understanding sources

 Learning Objectives:
At the end of the lesson, you should be able to:
1. Identify the differences between a primary source and
a secondary source
2. Enumerate materials which can be considered primary
3. Evaluate materials in terms of authenticity, credibility,
and provenance
Primary Sources

 Materials proposed by people or groups

directly involved in the event or topic
being studied. These people are either
participants or eyewitnesses to the
event. These sources range from
eyewitness accounts, diaries, letters,
legal documents, official documens
(government or private), and even
Examples of primary sources:
 Photographs that may reflect social conditions of historical
realities and everyday life
 Old sketches and drawing that may indicate the conditions of
life of societies in the past
 Old maps that may reveal how space and geography were used
to emphasize trade routes, structure build-up, etc.
 Cartoons for political expression or propaganda
 Material evidence of prehistoric past like cave drawings, old
syllabaries, ancient writings
 Statistical tables, graphs, and charts
 Oral history or recordings by electronic mens of accounts of
eyewitness or participants; the recordings are then transcribed
and used for research.
 Published and unpublished primary documents, eyewitness
accounts, and other written sources.
Secondary sources

 “the testimony of anyone who is not an eyewitness–

that is one who was not present at the even of which
he tells” (Gottschalk)

1. Books
2. Articles
3. Scholarly journals that had been interpreted primary
sources or had use them to discuss certain events of