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What is sociology?

• Sociology- a science of society and different from
common sense
•  What is science?
• cognito certa per causa (knowing with certainty
through causality), de singularibus non est scientia
(in singularity there is no science)
•  Common sense- common of the senses. Question
is how much to rely on the senses?
•  Science- refined common sense.

Society – structure + processes
Social Structure - inter-individual behavior
regularity
Social structure (a collection of institutions) 

Social institutions – a collection of status-roles
(family, economy, polity, religion, education)
 
Socialization (a process; also works
as social control)
 
Status-role
  

 
• Value- abstract notions of right and wrong – example
honesty
• It is a question of desirability
• Norm- acceptable behavior from a status in particular
situations;
• acceptable collective behavior in particular situations
• Role- expected behavior from a status; a collection of
norms
• Status – social position (height, weight, beautiful are
not social status unless role flows from them)
• Status-Role- ambiguity, distance, overload, strain
(balancing successfully the role of a revolutionary,
father, son)

• Example – seller (status) do not over-
charge (role) to the buyer (status) and
buyer (status) do not give fake currency
(role)
• this social behavior is the norm derived
from the value honesty (applicable to the
economy institution)
• One can also visualize how the value of
honesty can be applied to the institution of
family, education, polity

• Socialization – process by which individuals learn the roles; signifies
that they are members; develop their self-concepts (looking glass self),
• social control acts as self control – outside influences becomes part of
the self
• Primary socialization- development of basic values; diffuse (agencies-
family, peer group); most important roles-sex, age
• Secondary socialization- acquisition of knowledge and skills; role
specific (agencies-occupation
• Compulsory vs voluntary socialization
• Childhood, adolescences are not universal distinct stages. How many
stages of life depends on which society you are in. shakespere- 8;
Hindu-4

• Agents of socialization working at cross purposes- family vs
peers, television
• Negative aspects of socialization- promotion of ideal roles
(indirectly a criticism of norms-values-institutions-society)
• Family- feminism- the bastion of oppression (patriarchy), the
perpetrator of stratification
• School- social reproduction and cultural capital
• Occupation- deskilling
• Religion- the opium of masses, fundamentalism
• TV vs computer- one way vs two way interaction

utilitarian. • Symbolic. usages. nirvana (religion). mores • Associations. democracy (polity) • Usages and rules. • Components of an institution • Concepts. temple (religion). phd.norms.black flag. household (family). order and regulate the activities of human beings which are necessary to the satisfaction of basic needs. books (education)..motherhood (family). • Social institutions • a system of concept. production tools (economy).of individuals • Instruments.ballot (polity). mangal sutra. currency note. folkways. sacred thread •   . associations and instruments which arising from the experiences of mankind. profit (economy).

peer group • Individual’s wanting for status acts as control from within.example. school. • Informal (in primary relation)and formal control (secondary relation) .• Social control • Agencies of socialization are also of social control.family.

• Major institutions • Family -mostly dealt by sociology and anthropology Economy.Marx-economy is the base on which stands the polity.economics • Religion.earlier education was imparted by priest in the east and clergy in the west • Education and state – state never let go of its control on education after the historic separation of religion and education • Religion and economy – Weber’s protestant ethic • Economy and polity. education .political science • Education – education • Religion and education.theology • State.

• Religion and state.cultural capital aiding education • Family and economy. We also have Turkey where the army intervenes if the politicians try to be islamic.• Family and education.traditionally hand in glove but now try to maintain arms length distance. much of Japan’s industrialisation has taken place in small shops where the workforce largely consists of the owner’s relatives (Wilbert Moore). How do you complain against your own uncle (David Harvey). Still we have states like pakistan where islam is official religion. .

internet marriage. exogamy •   . remarriage) • Household arrangements. extended (single parent family) • Residence. matri. divorce. joint. matriarchal.monogamous nuclear.and neo-local (husband and wife staying at a distance) • Descent and inheritance.• The Family structural principles • Marriage arrangement and types.monogamy and polygamy (change. equalitarian (influence of ideologies like feminism) • Incest taboo.endogamy. patriarchal. double descent • Authority/power.patri-.patri/matri-lenial.

viagra (religion may prohibit this interference of natural order of things) • Reproduction -Technology getting into it • Socialization. the child) • Economic -A more consumerist ethos .The day care centre and the schools • Affectional -Less on child more on spouse • Status -Still retaining • Protective -The courts have taken over (the man.• Sexual regulation –Relaxing. woman.

(1)embodied (2)objectified (cultural goods (the brands and imaginary reference group) and bads (wine). credentialising (Collins.educare. 1997).to bring up • ‘Dialectical process between the learner/s and predefined subject matter/s mediated by manifest agent and latent environment’. 1977). 1979). (3) institutional (the certificate as a cook) .• Education. cultural capital (Bourdieu. • Cultural capital. social reproduction. • It can be seen as a social ritual (Meyer and Rowan.

if we assume that the rational action is also mixed up with traditional action (habit). sociology is about how there is little choice. • Whether the wife should do the job or not? This is influenced by not only economics but family. (why warren buffet will donate 80% of his wealth to Gates foundation? His value of altruism may be deriving from religion) • As the economic action is embedded in a broad social action. affectional (emotional) action or ‘value’ action then economic action is a broad type of social action. the state (armed forces) . economy as an institution is embedded in other social institutions.the influence of values and norms • Economics is about choices. religion.• Economy – the principal debate is how economy is a social institution. • Economics is about rational action.

(taking TISS quarter or taking HRA).people are supposed to be self interested but not supposed to cheat.If I see new food I will judge on the basis of my knowledge about existing food. • Experience and action.while the middle class pursues the MBA.the sour grape story says that we will not pursue end till death but simply change our perception of the end. the business class pursues independent business (agencies of socialization are also of social control) • Means have to be socially approved. . • How do means and ends originate. (in a movie a foreigner mistakes pickle for a sweet dish) • From rational action (absolute calculation of all the means to achieve ends) to maximisation (absolute calculation of limited means) to satisficing (enough if it is good enough).• Rational action. information.means-ends relationtionship. • Sense data. knowledge. • You require a priori categories to decide whether something is rational or not.

But it is almost impossible for me to eat. insects. India is poor country but largest importer of gold. . She said it has to look unhygienic to taste well. • Salma Hayek eats ants.• Creating a demand violates an autonomous individual. for religion). • Demand. • If a jungle person will come and see cooking of meat he may say what are you doing spoiling the taste! • Once I asked my student how can she eat pani puri which looks so unhygienic.demand for gold (for marriage. It raises the question how human wants/choice arise? If we take the premise that self and society are related (socialization) then want is shaped by society.

1000 rupee may be looked upon with suspicion in a rural area and may not be easily accepted. .assumption of perfect knowledge of everybody leaves no scope for investment. There was strong reaction against vegetable retail chains.religious festivals and rites de passage.• Supply. Everybody will crowd on the same best opportunity.less capital formation • Distribution. Banks survive on trust. • consumption.Mcdonald won’t serve beef.less capital formation • Savings. (the global electronic herde) • Social Trust in economy . During USSR crisis the rouble was meaning less. Many times people act as if they can differentiate between a real and a fake 500 rupee note.it is in the distributor’s interest for not allowing the market to come up (the sethji) • Investment.in gold and real estate.

• Social trust in contract.family arose to pass on property to children. Engels.without trust the contract is like a piece of paper.surrogate mother • Property – property relation is social relation because who says that something is somebody’s property. • Market. If a low trust dynamic works the contract may fail.even within capitalism what will enter market or not is shaped by prevailing values. (Jhum cultivation).states can interfere robustly to create a free market. We do not go to the court at the first instance. • Emergence of market.property relation is the key relation. • . Marx.

Producers of vital and rare medicines can make exorbitant profit but are curtailed by social values or government. Government intervenes if a life saving medicine rises but not a consumer product.what is considered as a fair day work (how many hours) and fair wage is decided socially. • Black economy – a social institution/quasi institution – social order or disorder is not possible without cooperation of social actors.• Wage. .Marx. • Profit – what is considered as legitimate profit is decided socially.

relegare –that which bids together • Religion – other worldly explanation for this world.• Religion. the world before and the world after • Magic.from sacred to criminal. burqa in europe) .this worldly explanation for this world • Durkheim-sacred and profane . • The role of government in desacralising and resacralising (satipratha.other worldly explanation for this world • Science.sacred is that which is kept apart.

• While chrstianity. • Fundamentalism .• Monotheism.aham tavamasi • Diffuse vs organised religion.de-differentiation. In modern societies it is segmented.the concept of only one powerful god even if there are others means other religions are not true.there is no god except allah • Budhism. islam and budhist sangha are more organised. original solution for modern problems (do not fall in love) . • Islam.In tribal societies religion may be diffused. hinduism except temple centred is not that organised.not bothered about gods • Hinduism.

• People and state.• State. They obey the law as if it were custom. (we the people of india give ourselves this constitution) but government does the ruling.1)people defend the state.stare. 2)People pay taxes and maintain the state 3) people do not rebel against the state. in extreme situation the state can conscript people in the army. So the state can maintain the law and order with minimal police .de jure and de facto sovereignty • Ultimately people are sovereign.to stand • Ultimate power over a territory.

The relationship between the state and social stratification – caste. gender .• The relation between political power and social power. class.

Karl Marx • Superstructur e Interaction Means/forces of Relation of production production (physical + knowledge + mode of cooperation) .

imputed goal and not what this or that proletariat thinks Trade unionism-it only increases wages but keep alive labor. reducing demand. This relation obtains between head laborer and the capitalist.Marx suggests that the english working class ‘already a class against capital but not yet for itself’. It also produces only for exchange that is a source of problem. the capitalist and the landlord. This is relation between human agency and circumstances. Class interest. Class in itself.as more surplus is gathered it is invested in constant capital (machinery) that reduces the need for labor (principal source of profit) making more unemployment. The transfer of surplus from below and the exercise of power from above .Class – the relation of immediate transfer of surplus value. The struggle for economic benefits may change the workers so that they go beyond the economic struggle and into politics. . Falling rate of profit.

This means community feeling. The workers will first solve the problem nationally and then internationally because the zinith of capitalism happens internationally and communism can happen only world historically because we have to abolish the law of supply and demand.as capitalism develops great masses of workers are herded together in close proximity and this develops class consciousness. • Dictatorship of the proletraiat – • Communism- . political organization.• Class struggle.

moral • Types of action. appreciative.instrumental. roles. moral • Interaction amongst oriented actors • Institutionalization • Social system of status.cognitive. • Talcott parsons • Modes of orientation (1) motivational – cognitive (information). expressive. norms . evaluative (aesthetic) (2) value. cathectic (emotion).

altruism.ascription .specificity (primary vs secondary relation) • Achievement.particularism (action in a bureaucracy vs the special treatment to a valued customer in a private sector ) • Diffuse.collective (economic action vs the action governed by patriotism. special treatment to women. SC/ST etc) • (parsons won’t focus on the relation between Achievement. children.ascription (newcomers setting foot in the bollywood the hard way vs the children of the stars who are allowed many flops.affective neutrality – (primary vs secondary relation) • Universalism. It is not necessary because his orientation is analytical realism) . • Pattern variables • Self. community feeling ) • Affectivity.

affective neutrality (not emotional) • Universalism.specificity ( we discuss only sociology not family matters) • Achievement.collective. hospital etc) and not individual criteria) • Diffuse.particularism (selected as per general criteria (health.ascription (no body is considered ‘briliant’ here) . • Pattern variables • Students attending this class • Self.moved by your self interest (instrumental) • Affectivity.

collective • Affectivity.affective neutrality (emotional) • Universalism.specificity (discussion from study to personal matters) • Achievement.ascription (interaction influenced by individual characteristics) .particularism (interaction as per individual characteristics) • Diffuse. • Pattern variables • Students attending meghmudra (expressive) • Self.

the cultural system (through the process of socialization) • Integration.with the environment to survive- economic • Goal attainment.the political system • Latency (pattern maintainance). • Functional imperatives (applicable to subsystem as well as system ) • Adaptation.within the subsystems .

universality and indespensibility • Manifest and latent function . • Merton • Definition of function • Postulates of unity.

• The antinomy of freedom and equality can be resolved only if both are dragged down to the negative level of propertylesness and powerlessness.man born free. Conflict perspective • Simmel • Roussau. but everywhere he is in chains • A house cant be built of houses but bricks • Individual egoism vs self perfection as objective values • Society creates an ‘average’ of individual • Society claims the individual for itself • From concrete man to general man. Oppression is a situation where one is not willing to pay the price of freedom. • Intrinsic relation of Leader and led. equality.do the politicians lead the mass or follow the mass? .Society requires the individual to differentiate himself from the humanly general but forbids him to stand out from the socially general. • Liberty. fraternity • The very feeling of oppressiveness of authority suggests that the autonomy of the subordinate party is actually presupposed and never wholly eliminated.

• Social roles endowed with expectation of domination and subjection. • By strict marx standard authority becomes part of superstructure and not much important • Property is exclusion of others over the object thus implying authority • “ classes are social conflict groups the determinant of which can be found in the inclusion or exclusion from the exercise of authority in an imperatively coordinated association”. Domination in one does not mean domination in all .• Ralf dahrendorf •   • Legal Ownership and factual control of property – the separation in the present day • Private property and effective private property (means of production) • “the fundamental inequality of social structure and the lasting determinants of social conflict is the inequality of power and authority which inevitably accompanies social organization”.

superimposition (when different spheres-political.the system should allow to organize • Intensity. social.• Imperatively coordinated association – differential distribution of authority • Behind authority interest and therefore maintain existing authority structure • When individuals are aware of their interests they are interest groups and individuals with similar latent interests- quasi groups • 3 conditions for quasi groups to become interest groups- (1)social-close location (2) technical.organization and leadership (3) political. economic.superimpose each other) vs pluralism • Intra-generational mobility reduces intensity • Very sudden structural change vs less sudden (how much personnel in authority are changed) .

This depends on segmentation of peoples’ emotional energies.• Lewis coser • Cause • Subordinates question the legitimacy.more violent • if the non-realistic just goes on it will become realistic • functional interdependence is a function of power differential and isolation of population . It depends on how much external constraint is imposed. • Violence • Realistic issues – less violent • core values. grievance redressal mechanisms. mobility avenue • Relative deprivation creates more conflict than absolute deprivation.

clear index of victory/defeat • leaders’ capacity to persuade followers – centralization.more number of less violent conflicts. internal cleavage • Functions for the respective parties • demarcation of boundaries • centralization of authority • ideological solidarity • suppression of dissent • Functions for the whole • more functional interdependence.more contributes to innovation and flexibility of the system • historically unless the conflict is violent nobody bothers .• Duration • magnitude of goals • clarity about goal • clarity about symbolic victory and defeat • interpretation about the cost of conflict – power differential.

coercive (violence). symbolic •  The powerful define the norm to suit their interest and that’s why that will be source of conflict • Organizational control can happen in three ways. coercive. • Randal Collins • Organizational control can happen in three ways. symbolic (normative) • Only people in leadership position can be driven by normative control. • Higher ups give subordinate ‘a piece of action’ .material (reward). Rest have to be by coercion and material reward.material.

mutuality Society is a complex of social events. “Social Situations” .. interrelatedness.a system of interaction Social: a quality of interaction..Sociology as a form of Consciousness Society: a large complex of human relationships.

and above all . looking behind the apparent . Sociology as a form of Suspicion • About: the ways in which human events are officially interpreted by the authorities • Also. an art of MISTRUST . a form of questioning self- conceptions • Thus. it is: seeing through.

divorce. but LAW. social problem is: not crime. not racial/caste discrimination but RACIALLY DEFINED STRATIFICATION SYSTEM . not divorce. workers efficiency • Sociology: How the whole system works. but MARRIAGE. by what it means it is held together? So. Social Problem • Public: when something does not work the way it is supposed to according to official interpretations: crime.

Sociological Perspectives: Man/woman in Society • Is Society a prison? • What is to be LOCATED IN SOCIETY? • Social location of self: what an individual may or may not do. (celebrating family) . What he/she expect from life. mental pressures. taken for granted meanings. morality. family and friends. formal and informal “code of Conduct”. in other words. customs and manners. Economic pressure. (and its politics) • Mechanisms of Social Control: Violence.

Gender • objective criteria and forms of consciousness • Definition of the situation: Reality is a matter of definition. To be located in society • Social stratification: Class. Caste. how do we define things? Past experiences? • Institutions: (structured ‘dos’ ) relates to individuals as A REGULATORY AGENCY . but.

sustained and transformed ( process of Socialization) is this a political process? . Sociological Perspectives: Society in Man/woman • Society provides us our identities: Social location of our being. our conduct and our expectations • Role theory: identity is socially bestowed .

but is in turn defined by us” . directed by others? Or do we have any freedom from external (imposed) constitution of our selves? • Or are we AGENTS IN CONDITIONS? • Paradox of our social existence: “society defines us. Sociological Perspectives • Now. do we have any choice at all? (from these social constitutions) Are we just puppets.

(Sartre). Agency and structures • Is freedom our necessary condition? (are we condemed to be free. alone. to face the darkness . • Is the option of freedom in conditions a kind of AGONY OF CHOICE? • Bad faith: the wish NOT to FACE Freedom • Sociological ecstasy: act of stepping outside caves.

What are social institutions? .

religion. They include the family. . and economic and political institutions. Social Institutions • Social Institutions • Social institutions are established or standardized patterns of rule- governed behavior. education.

  . Durkheim • Set the stage for later functionalist analyses of institutions by concluding that religion promotes social solidarity and collective conscience. Major perspectives Marx • Social institutions are determined by their society’s mode of production. • Social institutions serve to maintain the power of the dominant class. Weber • Social institutions are interdependent but no single institution determines the rest. • The causes and consequences of social institutions cannot be assumed in advance.

• Conflict theory • Social institutions tend to reinforce inequalities and uphold the power of dominant groups. . Theoretical Perspective • Functionalist theory • The social institutions listed in this section (along with other social institutions) fulfill functional prerequisites and are essential. • Emphasizes divisions and conflicts within social institutions. • Symbolic interactionism • Focuses on interactions and other symbolic communications within social institutions.

in some definitions. historical periods. • Key Questions: How do families vary across different societies. or. classes. and single parenting? . and work distributed within families? • How do parents. particularly mothers. and ethnic groups? • How are authority. long-standing ties of intimacy. marriage. Family Family: • A socially defined set of relationships between at least two people related by birth. adoption. domestic violence. balance the demands of work and family? • What are the causes and effects of divorce. resources.

regulating sexual behavior and reproduction.   . distributing resources. Competing views • Marx: The family upholds the capitalist economic order by ensuring the reproduction of the working class and by maintaining housewives as a reserve labor force. providing social support. • Functionalist theory: Functions of the family include socializing children.

violence in schools. and gender on educational institutions and experiences? • What are the causes and consequences of various trends in education. skills. Education • A formal process in which knowledge. • Key Questions: How do educational practices vary across different societies and historical periods? • How does education affect individuals’ subsequent activities and achievements? • What are the effects of class. and values are systematically transmitted from one individual or group to another. and increasing public funding of religious instruction? . such as grade inflation. race.

Marx, Functionalist, Conflict,
SI
• Marx: Education serves the capitalist order by producing
skilled workers with habits such as punctuality and
respect for authority.
• Functionalist theory: Functions of education include
transmitting shared values and beliefs, transmitting
specific knowledge and skills, sorting individuals based
on skill, and establishing social control over youths.
• Conflict theory: Educational tracking systems and other
differential treatment of students reinforce social
inequalities.
• Symbolic interactionism: Face-to-face interactions in
the classroom can have long-range consequences for
students’ educational achievements.

Religion
• Religion:
• A unified system of beliefs and practices pertaining to the
supernatural and to norms about the right way to live that is
shared by a group of believers. Sociologists treat religion as a
social rather than supernatural phenomenon.
• Key Questions: How do the world religions differ? How are
they similar?
• How have religions developed and changed, and why do
people engage with them?
• What is the relationship between religion and other aspects
of social life such as stratification, deviance, and conflict?
• What are the causes and consequences of contemporary
trends such as secularization, the splintering of religious
groups, and shifting church–state relationships?

Opium, spiritualism,
functions…..
• Marx: Religion is the “opium of the people”—it masks domination
and diverts workers from rebelling against exploitation.
• Weber: Classified religions by their approach to salvation:
– Ascetic religions require active self-mastery; mystical religions
require passive contemplation.
– Other-worldly religions require focus on the next life (e.g., heaven);
this-worldly religions require focus on earthly life.
• Durkheim: Religion provides social solidarity and collective
conscience; it expresses and celebrates the force of society over
the individual.
• Functionalist theory: Functions of religion include providing
meaning for life, reinforcing social norms, strengthening social
bonds, and marking status changes (e.g., marriage).Dysfunctions,
according to some, include justifying persecution.

Economic Institutions
• Sociologists understand the economy as the set of
arrangements by which a society produces, distributes, and
consumes goods, services, and other resources.
• Key Questions: What institutions and relations characterize
different economic systems (e.g., capitalism, socialism, and
feudalism)?
• How do consumption and leisure patterns differ among
various cultures, historical periods, and social groups?
• How do the structures of business organizations affect
productivity, job satisfaction, and inequalities?
• What are the causes and consequences of contemporary
trends such as economic liberalization, declining unionization,
and increased consumer debt?

Marx/Functionalism
• Marx: Economic organization (the means
and relations of production) determines the
major features of any society.
• Functionalist theory: Functions of
economic institutions include: production
and distribution of goods, assignment of
individuals to different social roles such as
occupations.
 

Political Institutions
• Political Institutions:
• Institutions that pertain to the
governance of a society, its formal
distribution of authority, its use of
force, and its relationships to other
societies and political units. The state,
an important political institution in
modern societies, is the apparatus of
governance over a particular territory.

Key questions • Key Questions: How do political institutions differ across historical periods and societies? • How do different social groups participate in political institutions. such as the economy and the mass media? . and with what consequences? • How and why do individuals participate in political processes such as voting or joining lobbying groups? • How are political institutions related to other aspects of society.

and strengthening group identity and norms. when in fact their control is quite limited. • Conflict theory: Pluralism and democracy are illusions that invite the powerless to believe that they have a voice in governance. entails distribution of power among many groups so no one group can gain control.Authority/Functions/Democr acy • Weber: Defines the state as an authority that maintains a monopoly on the use of violence in its territory. Pluralism. . resolving group conflicts. defining societal goals. a particularly functional type of political institution. • Functionalist theory: Functions of political institutions include protection from external enemies.

it is socially derived and socially sanctioned (Khap panchayats. social choice etc) • Every known society places certain limitations on the range of persons from among whom spouses may be chosen. Marriage • Marriage is a universal feature of human societies • It confers on men and women or of same sex ‘social legitimation’ to engage in sexual relations. kinship pressures. Two major rules of marriage present in almost all societies are: exogamy and endogamy . parent’s choice. reproduction (not necessary) and child rearing • To a large extent marriage is not a matter of free choice.

This practice serves to enhance and improve sociability among people by connecting groups of people. . Exogamy (Exit) • This is a social prescription that requires an individual to marry outside a specific culturally defined social groups of which he/she is a member.

of which he/she is a member • The function of endogamy is probably to regulate marriage in a way that preserve the cultural identity of a group • Caste endogamy is an excellent example. Concepts of physical pollution for example are related to the concept of caste endogamy. . Endogamy • This is just the opposite of exogamy. Here the social rule requires an individual to marry within a specific culturally defined social groups.

ctd • A person of higher caste who comes into physical contact with a person of lower caste becomes polluted. • When a woman of higher caste marries a man of lower caste it is a pratiloma marriage. The severity of this pollution depends upon the relative rank of the two castes in the local hierarchy • When a man of higher caste marries a woman of lower caste it is an anuloma marriage. .

The Marquesans of Polynesia. Forms of Marriage • Polyandry: one wife many husbands. Hindu mythology. form of marriage in which one woman marries more than one man at a given time. where conditions are harsh and perhaps the effort of two men are needed to support a family. It is quite widespread in Tibet. Draupadi’s marriage to five brothers is instance of polyandry . Todas of Nilgiri hills have this practise.

some African tribes and Crow of North Americas. one man has two or more wife at a given time. • Hindu Marriage Act 1955. one wife. It is found among Eskimos. . declares polygyny as an offence • Monogamy: one man. Polygyny • Polygyny: one husband many wives. In the system of polygyny.

and residing together. adoption. . all such persons are considered as members of one family’. marriage. Family • The most important primary group • The American Bureau of Census defines family as ‘ a group of two or more persons related by blood.

Basic Characteristics • A mating relationship • A system of nomenclature – name and descent.traced by father side is patrilocal and that from woman’s side is matrilocal • Economic provisions • Common habitation • Emotional basis .

Engels on the notes of Marx and Morgan: • Family is the first form of institution where instance of private property can be traced. . Women and children are enslaved by the head of the family. Private Property and the State. Marxian view • The Origin of the Family.

He is the owner and administrator of the family property and rights. children are known by the name of the father • Male heir of the family takes control . • Wife after marriage comes to live in the home of the husband • Father is the controller of property. descent is traced through father. Presides over the religious rites. On the basis of authority • Patriachal family: the male head of the family.

Matriarchal • Authority is the woman head of the family whereas male are subordinates • Descent is traced through mother • Marriage relations may be transient. For example Nairs of Kerala. the husband is only allowed to visit wife in the night • Children are brought up in home of mother. Husband is sometimes merely a casual visitor. Descent – matrilineal and matrilocal • Property is transferred through mother .

Kinship • Kinship is social relationship based on real. putative or fictive consanguinity (related by blood) : or on the model of consanguine relations • Kinship refers solely to relationship based upon descent and marriage .

Kins • Kins are of two types: • Consanguinity – thought to be biologically related by blood • Affinal kin.related through marriage .

Murdoch makes two kind of family that all individual belong to: • A family or orientation. consists of his/her spouse and children .where one is born • A family of procreation. Rules of Residence • It is imperative that the interacting individuals live together under the same roof.family established by a person after his/her marriage.

man who participates in marriage). Uxorilocality • Bilocal residence. Types • Patrilocal residence.married couples residing in the parental home of the bride (woman).residing near the parents of either spouse . Virilocality • Matrilocal residence.married couple reside in the parental home of the bridegroom (groom.

married couple goes to live with bridegroom’s maternal uncle.transitory role of residence • (even)Avunculocal residence. Industralised countries have neolocal residence . • Neolocal residence.Patrilocal residence. Residence • Matri.independent location away from either’s spouse.

Descent • Patrilineal • Matrilineal • Types of Unilineal Descent Groups • Lineage • Clan • Phratry • Moeity .

a degree of joking is allowed • Teknonymy.friendliness.putting restriction on intimacy • Joking relationships. Kinship Usages • Avoidance.Sir Edward Taylor coined the word-to denote a custom prevalent among some peoples of naming the parent from the child (Bunnu ke papa. maa etc ) .

Caste. and Feminism . Gender.

distinguished by the customary practices of caste and religious communities. community. • What is patriarchy? Why is ‘marriage within caste so critical? What role do women play in continuity of caste? Why is ‘purity’ . ‘chastity’ so important for women? Why does shame and honor of the family. clan lie between women’s legs? What are some of the questions related to caste and gender? • Tracing differences within women’s issues. • Women’s movement . Basic Framework • The recent scholarship on the complex relationship between the regulation of caste and gender purity has led to the argument that women are embraced by ‘multiple patriarchies’ .

in any given family. History of Patriarchy • The origin of patriarchy is traced back to any biblical characters were regarded as father of the human race • In simple terms. the definition of patriarchy is. the male is the head of family or tribe • In sociological sense. ‘a form of social organization in which a male is the family head and title is traced through the male line’ .

• The production of caste and gender through cultural rules or norms is significantly enhanced by dowry. and control of sexuality. Leela Dube • In her essay ‘caste and gender’. Dube examines the gendered structures that caste practice rely upon. • The pressures of endogamy compel large number of women to agree for arranged marriages .

Three interrelated concept of caste • Overlapping or intersectional themes that Leela Dube identified • Occupational continuity and reproduction of the caste. food and rituals and finally marriage and sexuality .

with industralization and new developments. yet a large number of traditional cultivating caste can be identified . • Although. the growth of new professions and ‘open recruitment’ have come up as important aspects of social change • Nevertheless. although is open to all castes. Occupational continuity • Women’s work contributes substantially to the occupational continuity of a caste group. there is a link and continuity of caste and occupation • Agriculture.

and cooking. • In the South. a Raot. there are specific untouchable castes whose women work as midwives. washing utensils. . bringing water. Significance of women’s work • The cultural recognition of the significance of women's work in the continuity of caste-linked occupations have been long established. grinding spices. • For example. a washer woman’s ritual functions are indispensable for the washing of soiled clothes • In every region of India. (grazier and water carrier) woman has an important role to play during feasts and ceremonies. in Chhatisgarh.

Women get stuck with traditional jobs? • In a study of scavenger women in Delhi. occupation. Karlekar (1976) found that while men were increasingly leaving the ritually ‘defiling occupations’ of their caste. the Padyachi and Nadar families have their women take up work as domestic helps in private homes. • Link between caste and ethnicity. which included jobless young men. women remained in the same traditional field. gender and production of poverty and inequality (Ayyar. who were trying to acquire skills or exploring job opportunities • Similarly. • These women had to support the household. forthcoming work in World Bank Poverty Reduction Papers) .

play key role in he process of socialization. • The task of safeguarding food from pollution. Food and Rituals • Food constitutes a critical element in the ritual idiom of purity and pollution • In other words. both the exclusiveness of the castes as bounded entities and inter caste relationships are articulated by the idiom of castes • Women. • Home is under custody of women . averting danger etc is task of women. are also principal protagonists in this arena.

spiritual etc • Foods then are substances which carry the capacity to affect and transform the person who consumes them • Food restrictions are seen in two aspects- prohibition of certain foods for women. impurity. calm. Food and hierarchy • Foods are hierarchically classified in terms of intrinsic purity. strength. anger.passion. vulnerability and resistance of pollution and in terms of specific characteristics they embody. and prohibition of inter dining or acceptance of food from other ‘lower castes’ .

Food and Sexuality • Women are to be prohibited from eating Tamsik foods. quantity. quality. time are constrained by caste and its rankings • The control over food is at once the protection of women from the transgression of sexual norms and a safeguards against a breach of the boundaries of caste . which are considered to raise passion and desire • Women’s practices concerning the consumption of food in terms of intake.

Marriage and Sexuality • Key area of caste axis. which rests on marriage and sexuality • The caste system is premised upon the cultural perception of fundamental difference in male and female sexuality • Hierarchy of sexes and the difference in the levels of purity and pollution • Low caste women apart from ‘self pollution’ (menses)have to deal with others pollution like washing soiled clothes. midwifery. cleaning other people’s home. so these women are the most impure . polluting craftwork etc .

and do not cook the pure food offered to these deities. . Widows are not supposed to perform pujas of family deities.• Menstrual pollution is known to impose disabilities on women in respect of food. A man on the other hand is not similarly affected if he becomes a widower. it is mainly from the bodily process of menstruation and child birth • The other source of impurity for women is widowhood. worship of deities and ancestors • Brahmin and other high caste women do not incur pollution from others.

• Logic is: ‘superior seed can fall on an inferior field but inferior seed cannot fall on superior field’ . it is a ‘external pollution’ • It is echoed by upper caste feminists that upper caste women are much more vulnerable than lower caste women when it comes to permanent pollution. Controlled Sexuality • Sexual involvement is much more serious matter of concern for women than men • It is believed that women through inter caste sexual relations the act affects her ‘internal pollution’ and affects her permanently and whereas for men.

pregnancy is disaster not just because in patrilineal society paternity is essential for group placement but also because the issue of caste boundaries and her own purity are involved • Thus. Paternity • In the case of unattached. Marriage and sexuality constitute a central arena in which caste impinges on women's lives . unmarried woman.

Maharashtra. Cowbelt . and brings into impurity. Like a Virgin • The value of virginity is directly linked to the concern of female purity • The pre pubertal phase is looked upon as a stage of intrinsic purity and is celebrated in many ways • The custom of worshipping and feeding virgin girls on specific das such as the eight day of Navaratri is widespread in India • A pre-pubertal girl is looked as a manifestation of Devi or Avatar of Goddess. • The purity and the consequent privileged status of a girl in the pre-pubertal stage contrasts sharply with. in the next phase of puberty • Rituals are observed in Orissa. UP.

well paid etc . Dowry • Caste both imposes constraints and creates the dominant ethos which underlies the practice of dowry within the Hindu society • Dowry has also become the easiest way of improving family’s lifestyle and a source of ready cash • The pressures of endogamy compel them to stick to arranged marriages and trap them in negotiations with a premium on dowry • Higher demands from the groom’s family in case if he is better educated.

The principles of caste inform the specific nature of sexual asymmetry in Hindu society. the boundaries and hierarchies of caste are articulated by gender relations (Dube. 1990) . Caste is not dead. In conclusion • Birth • Sex • Food • Puberty • Virginity • Impurity • Work • Sexuality • Marriage • Widowhood • Patriarch's family • Caste and Gender are intrinsically linked.

Women’s Movement • It is said that women position in Buddhism and early Vedic times were enviable one • She could access education. the congruence between the normative ideal and the empirical reality did not last long and law givers like Manu brought down the status of women for centuries thereafter . and in domestic life could participate as equal partner to the male • However. select her own mate.

were concerned about the specific evils like Sati and child marriage • Mostly educated elite of India were involved in early women’s movement and hoped that Indian women (per se upper caste women) could do better through education and association would be able to serve their families and communities in constructive manner . 19th century Reform Movements • Raja Ram Mohan Roy.

the goal was equal rights for men and women. economic and familial spheres as compared to women . The meaning attached to ‘equal rights’ was the extension of the rights enjoyed by men in political. Conceptions • There were two different conceptions of improving women position in India • The first goal was to uplift women in general . The meaning attached to this upliftment was to reform some social practices so as to enable women to play more important and more constructive role in society • In the second conception.

Organization • In the 1930 women’s organization focused mainly on women’s upliftment • All India Women Conference in 1932 emphasized on equal rights • The interesting element here is elite women’s movement and demands for political participation were readily accepted. Hindu Code Bill. autonomy and entitlements to women. . charter of rights for women. • Post independence. as it promised property rights. The principle of female suffrage was quickly accepted but the campaign for property rights provoked much opposition and initial failure as well. prepared by Dr Ambedkar was defeated in the parliament.

Muslim. entitlements. etc) . Types of women’s organization • Post 1970s. different types of organization and movement have developed in India • Most of these movements are supported by academicians and activist • The new perspective on women’s movement demand rights. autonomy than reforms and upliftment • Leadership is concentrated in cities and in hands of elite. or upper caste women (Hindu.

witchcraft. sexual violence. political participation. Issues like women empowerement. harassment. etc have been taken up. . agricultural laborers organizations. wife beating. alcoholism. tribal organization. democratic rights groups. Groups • 1) Agitational Propaganda : consciousness raising groups which may be termed as autonomous groups • 2) Grass Roots or Mass Based Organizations: like the trade unions.

journalist etc • 5) Political Wings: Women’s Wings in politics • 6) Documentation Groups: Women involved in documenting women’s issues . lawyers. services to destitute. researchers. types • 3) Service Providers: women organizations providing shelter. etc being taken up • 4) Professional Women’s Groups: Such as doctors. scientists.

nukkad plays etc • Non profit publications have been started . mohalla. pamphlets. leaflets. Mobilization • Various methods have been used to mobilize • Street politics. articles. street corner meetings.

Different Frameworks • Within women's movement there are different frameworks that are used by women to articulate oppression and offer resistance/emancipation • Liberal Feminist.believe in legal reform for changing women's status • Radical Feminist. Sharmila Rege) .who hold men responsible for their miseries • Socialist Feminist – broader context of political economy • Dalit Feminist Standpoint (Babytai Kamble.

Organizations • Young Women Christian Asccociation (YWCA) • Janvadi Mahila Samiti (CPM) • National Federation of Indian Women (CPI) • Mahila Dakhshita Samiti (Janata Dal) • Mahila Morcha (BJP) .

Movements • Anti Arrack Movement • Chipko Movement • SEWA .

Society and Social Inequalities • Caste as determinant of life-chances in post independent india • Gender and restricted access • Religion and issues of minority .

Tribe. Gender and Inequality • Details of Monthly Per Capita Consumption Expenditure of NSSO • Income difference among the SC/ST/OBC against General • Gender Index • Arjun Sengupta Report detailing the real India post 1990s . Statistical Evidence on Caste.

Social Justice . Constitutional Safeguards and Protective Discrimination • Justice was used as equivalent to righteousness in general • Influenced by Plato. philosophers have concentrated on the tension between: • 1) Justice as an impartial application of established substantive rules and • 2) Justice as an ideal criteria or reformer of such rule .

or to devise a total appreciation absorbing rules and facts into final dispositive (creating a category that needs protection) judgment • 2)Substantive Justice: this was related more to state welfare: • A) Distributive Justice: it applies to allotment of honor. voluntary. wealth and social goods and should be proportionate to civic merit • B) Corrective Justice: it may apply to private. outside the law courts is confided peculiarly to judiciary whose duty is to restore a ‘middle point of equality’ . Types of Justice • 1)Procedural Justice: employing correct methods to develop rules of conduct. to ascertain certain facts of particular case.

Prohibition of practices of untouchability • Article 23. against forced labour . Constitutional Provisions • Article 15 (4) speaks about educationally and socially backwards • Article 16(4) uses the term backward class and speaks of inadequate representation in services • Article 17.

and economical empowerment • Article 340 of Indian constitution empowers the state to investigate the condition of the backward classes and to help them by grants . and state shall take full responsibility for their social. Ctd • Article 45 mentions free and compulsory education • Article 46 mentions the weaker section of the people include he SC and ST. educational.

discrimination. non representation of certain social groups. Significance • Social Justice • Recognizes elements of backwardness. etc • Article 15 reasserts that ‘ no one can prevent the state from making any special provision for the advancement of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes . labour. caste. illiteracy.

state shall promote with special care the educational and economic interest of the weaker sections of SC.ST and shall protect them for social justice and all forms of exploitation .protects cultural. educational rights of minorities • Article 46. specify the tribes or tribal community which shall be deemed as ST • Article 25. STs • Article 342 of the constitution provides the president of India may with respect to any state or ut.Right of freedom of religion • Article 29.

provision for the admin of the Scheduled Areas and Tribes • Article 275. General • Article 164. provides inclusion of fifth schedule. provides grants for special funds by the Union Government to State Govts for promoting welfare of the STs • Article 330 and 332 reserve the right of seats for the SC/ST in the House of People and state legislatures . provides Ministry of Tribal Welfare • Article 244.

ctd
• Article 335 assures the SC and ST, will be given
special attention when filling the post in services
• Article 338 provides for a special officer for the
SC/ST, this to be appointed by the President
• Commitment to Social Justice
• Preamble is the soul of our constitution
• Key to understand, the idea of social justice and
protection given to SC/ST/BC/Minorities

Dalit Movement
Movements of lower castes for social justice

Challenges to Caste
Hierarchy
• Buddhism: 6 century BC

• Other movements: Bhakti, Kabir etc.

Colonial Period 18 thto1947

• British did not oppose caste system

• Reinforced it through Manusmriti

• Change in socio-economic formation led to
questioning old system

19 Century
th

• Jyotiba (Mahatma) Phule raised issue of social
equality
• Justice Party in Madras Presidency led by
EVR Naicker challenged caste hierarchy.
• Linked to rationalist (atheist) movement
• Later founded Dravida Kazgham (DK)
• Caste was a North Indian phenomenon

Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
Foremost in fight for equality
Annihilation of Caste: Questioned basis of
permanent division of labour based on caste
1.There must be laws to dismantle caste system
2.Should be only one standard book for Hindus
that should be accepted by all, including the
untouchable castes

Priests should be servants of the state 5. Proposed ideal social order based on liberty (choice of occupation). Suggested examination for priests 4.3. equality (of opportunity) and fraternity (no discrimination based on caste. Abolish traditional caste-based priesthood. freedom of association) .

Caste and Class • Related but not identical • Economic basis versus social basis • Caste is more important in Indian context • Stress on class overlooks caste .

Buddhaism . Ideologies • Ambedkarism defines ideology of broader anti-caste movement • Annihilation of caste and ending Brahaminical superiority • Later believed that there was no solution within Hindu fold.

Questioned Gandhi’s views on development—rural development and gram swaraj (self-governing villages) Challenged communist view of base and superstructure: said superstructure should be knocked down to change base .

• Suggested united working class struggle on the eradication of caste and untouchability • Linguistic basis of nationalism • Strong state for transforming society .

Descent groups .

Types of descent groups • Family • Property • Lineage • Work • Clan • Kinship relations • Caste • Marriage • Status • Gender relations .

• Caste – Kinship linkages provided by marriage give its strength – Breach in linkages brings down the status • Of family • Clan • Caste – Female sexuality • Caste purity .

class.• Tradition. gender or seniority – Violence . culture and honour • Power – Caste.

Cultural codes • Honour – – Izzat – At the expense of human sentiments and values – Love and kinship bonds sacrificed for morality and upkeep of honour – Ideology – Guides the social behaviour • Complicity – Between perpetrators of violence and police .

Challenges to cultural codes Within Without • Assertion of the • Assertion of lower younger members caste groups Linkages between the Honour of the upper two . caste denial of honour to the lower caste .

" the father reportedly told the police. The father and the uncle declared it a "heinous crime". The village elders were concerned about protecting the 'izzat' (honour) of the village. western UP. Poonam.In August 1993. a low caste girl Sarita. Satish belonged to her own caste group but hailed from an adjacent sister village6 and was also very distantly related to her. in village Khedakul of Narela (north Delhi). Nothing is known of the other couples. on their own volition five months after the elopement. This was the third elopement in the village among its low caste community. was shot dead by her uncle in broad day light for having an 'illicit relationship' with another jat boy of the same village. having made a runaway match. "Her action had soiled our honour. they were beheaded in the village chaupal by the girl's uncle. the sarpanch (headman) of the village. The grandmother of Sarita openly declared: "Our name is mud. . It was at a brick kiln in Haryana that they grew intimate and finally eloped. In this episode the girl was blamed by the villagers for "luring" the youth. This brutal hacking was to be a "lesson to others". they "dared to flaunt" their "disdain for the social norms". was axed to death along with her husband Satish. The crime was witnessed by the whole village. in village Khandravali in Muzzafarnagar district. and death as its only punishment. Intra-caste • month later in April 1991. All attempts to trace them failed. said Om Pal.4 Again. our pride. Their "'grave social violation" was compounded by their returning to the village. several villagers were witness to this crime. where according to the local opinion. However when they allegedly returned. Can I look anyone in the eye now". a jat girl. The families of both the victims were bricklayers.

assisted by his friend. Roshni. hanged in the morning and then set on fire. a low caste jatav boy. The entire village was witness to this savage and brutal murder. ran away with Brijendra. two of them still alive. Under its decree. All the three were caught.” . a jat girl of village Mehrana in western UP. they were tortured the whole night. Inter-caste • “…Perhaps the most shocking of the lot is the Mehrana murder case of March 1991. The jat panchayat sat in judgment on them.

Incest taboos • Got exogamy • Village exogamy • Marriage – The above rejection – Related to the importance of establishing inter-group relationship • Use of violence • Social networks – Structures of support and betrayal .

district Bhiwani – Sangwan and Punia got – 1995 – village Salani. Status concerns • Relaxation of restrictions in principles of village exogamy and clan exogamy • Cases – 1993 – village Pehtavas. Rohtak district – Bairagi and Chahar got .

Normally. gave up farming. His sons Mahender and Rajesh both grew up to take urban professions. it decreed the marriage void. more powerful and higher status brother and a younger. A 'khap' panchayat (multi-clan council) of 40 villages met on March 14 and held the alliance as incestuous.• November 1993. district Bhiwani. When Bakhtawar Singh Punia refused to accept the verdict a social boycott of the family was ordered. Bakhtawar Singh Punia got his two sons married into the Sangwan got of jats. The two groups of jats involved in the marriage belonged to the Punia and the Sangwan got. Chaudhary Chet Ram of the Sangwan got had adopted Dhod Ram Punia as his son. unique to the village. However the alliance began as an alliance between a bigger. in village Pehtavas. In 1850s. He joined government service as a police inspector. Over the years some of the families of Punias migrated to the city. weaker brother. the Sangwans and the Punias can and do inter. But because of a tradition. Bakhtawar Singh Punia was one such man. a marital alliance between them was considered 'sinful'. took up urban professions and became urban based. The two clans from then onwards became adopted brother got. confrontation and violence among jats occurred on account of infringement of certain clan taboos. the first important settler of the village. Living in the urban centres made Bakhtawar's family escape the direct ire of . The Punia sub-caste thus merged with the Sangwans.marry.

Inter-caste marriages • Short-lived and impermanent • Dissimilarity of culture • Problems of identity for future generations • Purity of blood .

Upper caste women and lower caste men • Folk songs – Celebrate liaison between upper caste women and lower caste men • Social and economic betterment of the lower castes – Jatavs and other lower castes becoming socially and economically more powerful – Jats show a new determination who have become rich through green revolution .

Lower caste women • High caste women – Considered vulnerable to low caste men • Lower caste women – Do not have purity – “vo to hoven he aise hain. mahare ladakon ka ke kasur” – There women are sexually promiscuous. What is the fault of our boys? .

Traditions of inter-caste marriages • Jat ek samundar hai aur jo bhi daruya es samunder mein parti hai who samunder ki bun jati hai • Beeran ki kai jaat – women have no caste • Karewa marriages with inter-caste alliances • British rule and invocation of Hindu law .

They took her away and hanged her” • Growing urbanization of Haryana – But rural urban divide not as tight.they said to me that ladkiwalas did not have a say in the matter and that they alone would decide what punishment was to be meted out to the girl. Assertion of power • Caste Panchayats – “the panchayat walas stepped in…. massive overlap – Daily commuting to Delihi – 1 lakh Haryanvis – Urban consumerist culture – Jeep and a gun and a bottle of rum – virile martial race .

non- Brahmans • Kumbapettai. Brahmans vs. in Tanjore region of Tamil Nadu – Kathleen Gough (1956) • Brahmans • Shudras • Adi Dravidas .

non-Brahman • Occupation • Moral values . Brahman vs.

washermen – Adi-Dravidas • Pallans • Brahman street – agraharam . peasants. potters. fishermen.30 acres of land • 6.do not hwon land • Management of land – Non-Brahmans • Cowherds. Brahmans • Households – 36 • 30 – 3.

clan and lineage • Clan – Five clans – descended from five sages – Kuttam – Patrilineage – Exogamy. Subcaste. clan deity – Unity seen in performance of rituals .

with our without children . Dwelling group • Patrilineal. patrilocal and extended family with a joint ownership of land – 36 • 7 – complete joint families • 8 – incomplete • 13 – nuclear families with married couples • 8 – widows.

Relations in elementary family • Parents and sons – Son treated with indulgence – Asymmetrical relation between • Father and son • Brothers • In contrast with low caste mutual equality • Partial repudiation of emotional ties with women • Sexual relations – valued only for begetting a son • Girl – non-person until married – Gift of a virgin .

Non-Brahman • Relationship to land • Economic independence of low caste women • Equality and solidarity of peers • Religious values • Economic arrangements • Sensuality and aggression • Asymmetry in the kinship system . Brahman vs.

Transitory residents. invisible workers .

Residence • Residence after marriage • Female residence • household pattern and family • Work categories • Division of labour .

Aaoni jaoni • Agriculture work • Changes in purdah • Wage work • Daughter’s work and prestations • Aoni jaoni and incorporation .

Marriage and Kinship Basic concepts 2 .Family.

Theoretical Perspectives • Functionalism • Conflict • Marxism .

long-standing ties of intimacy is defined as a ‘family’ • Kinship ties are connections between individuals. in some definitions.socially acknowledged and approved union between two adult individuals can be defined as Marriage. Definition • A socially defined set of relationships between at least two people related by birth. marriage. established either through marriage or through the lines of descent that connect blood relatives • Marriage. . adoption. or.

and single parenting? . particularly mothers. and ethnic groups? • How are authority. For Family • Key Questions: How do families vary across different societies. domestic violence. balance the demands of work and family? • What are the causes and effects of divorce. and work distributed within families? • How do parents. resources. historical periods. classes.

marriage. all such persons are considered as members of one family’ . Family • The most important primary group • The American Bureau of Census defines family as ‘ a group of two or more persons related by blood. adoption. and residing together.

Basic Characterstics • A mating relationship • A system of nomenclature – name and descent.traced by father side is patrilocal and that from woman’s side is matrilocal • Economic provisions • Common habitation • Emotional basis .

Engels on the notes of Marx and Morgan: • Family is the first form of institution where instance of private property can be traced. Marxian View • The Origin of the Family. . Women and children are enslaved by the head of the family. Private Property and the State.

He is the owner and administrator of the family property and rights. • Wife after marriage comes to live in the home of the husband • Father is the controller of property. On the basis of authority • Patriarchal family: the male head of the family. Presides over the religious rites. children are known by the name of the father • Male heir of the family takes control . descent is traced through father.

Matriarchal • Authority is the woman head of the family whereas male are subordinates • Descent is traced through mother • Marriage relations may be transient. the husband is only allowed to visit wife in the night • Children are brought up in home of mother. Husband is sometimes merely a casual visitor. Descent – matrilineal and matrilocal • Property is transferred through mother . For example Nairs of Kerala.

Marriage • Marriage is a universal feature of human societies • It confers on men and women or of same sex ‘social legitimation’ to engage in sexual relations. social choice etc) • Every known society places certain limitations on the range of persons from among whom spouses may be chosen. kinship pressures. reproduction (not necessary) and child rearing • To a large extent marriage is not a matter of free choice. Two major rules of marriage present in almost all societies are: exogamy and endogamy . it is socially derived and socially sanctioned (Khap panchayats. parent’s choice.

. This practice serves to enhance and improve sociability among people by connecting groups of people. Exogamy (Exit) • This is a social prescription that requires an individual to marry outside a specific culturally defined social groups of which he/she is a member.

Concepts of physical pollution for example are related to the concept of caste endogamy. Endogamy • This is just the opposite of exogamy. Here the social rule requires an individual to marry within a specific culturally defined social groups. of which he/she is a member • The function of endogamy is probably to regulate marriage in a way that preserve the cultural identity of a group • Caste endogamy is an excellent example. .

. Pollution? • A person of higher caste who comes into physical contact with a person of lower caste becomes polluted. The severity of this pollution depends upon the relative rank of the two castes in the local hierarchy • When a man of higher caste marries a woman of lower caste it is an anuloma marriage. • When a woman of higher caste marries a man of lower caste it is a pratiloma marriage.

Theoretical Perspectives • Functionalism • Conflict • Marxism .

Among the modern sociological theory it became enormously popular and profoundly influential in understanding sociology • It is heavily borrowed from biological sciences. Functionalism • Functional analysis is not new. especially the extension of the many analogies between society and organism. • Two most crucial elements in understanding functionalism have been: structure and interrelatedness .

Tenants • Functionalism is simply a view of society as ‘self-regulating’ system of interrelated elements with structured social relationships and observed regularities. inter relatedness and structural. • It is a sociological perspective which seeks to explain a social elements or cultural pattern in terms of its consequences for different elements as well as for the system as a whole • Basic premise.social system as a whole. they all operate for equilibrium and functionality .

and its components in harmony • Malinowski functionalism is often termed as individual functionalism because of its treatment of social and cultural systems as collective responses to biological needs of individuals modified by cultural values . Spencer’s Organic Analogy. Pareto’s conception of society as equilibrium and Durkheim’s – causal –functional analysis • Comte. Roots of functionalism : intellectual background • The history of Functional analysis may be traced to Comte’s Consensus Universalsis .he viewed society as a functionally organized system.

a system is more than the sum of its parts . institutions etc • To the functionalist. it is also the relationships among its parts. their primary interest is in the contribution of the elements to the maintenance of the system . At least two distinct kind of procedures are traced. In nutshell • The functional approach in sociology consists basically of an attempt to understand social phenomena in terms of their relationship to some system.observed and maintained pattern of behavior and second persistence of observed and maintained pattern of behaviour through norms. values.

functions are important . maintenance of society as a whole. stability. Talcott Parsons: revival of functionalism • Parsonian Functionalism views that ‘ social system depends on consensus of its members on common goals and values related to the basic needs of society • Entire social system as resting heavily upon ‘shared values’ • Order. interrelatedness. and maintenance of a structure are basic factors of functionalism • Balance. equilibrium. dependency.

Merton : modified and critiqued traditional view • He contributed to codification and systematization of functional analysis • 1) Postulate of functional unity of society • 2) Postulate of universal functionalism • 3) Postulate of indispensability .

it was based on biological analogy. Functional unity Formerly. the assumption was social institutions operate on commonly shared beliefs and practices are functional for every member of society Merton questions that assumption and contends that cultural items do not function uniformly for the society and its members Anthropologist have exaggerated unity. solidarity and integration. So he suggests. homogeneity. that we need to bring both positive and negative consequences of functionalism and specify which elements contribute and how . that society as well as integrated and constituents contribute to the functioning and maintenance of society as a whole Previously. and investigations need to be conducted on social integration.

belief. idea. Postulate of Universal Functionalism It assumes that all ‘standardized social and cultural forms have positive and only positive functions’ Every type of civilization. custom. myths have certain functions and they are good for the society. universities and educational systems catering to the rich and elite in form of excellence institutions will churn out inequalities for non elite students . artifact. Merton contended that not necessary that what is good for individuals is good for society A social custom for elites may have positive consequences than a non-elite for whom social customs may serve to have negative consequences For example.

if salvation is the function served by religion. Merton rejects this position. a simple system of faith will do. it must be meeting some basic needs of the system and hence it must be indispensable.Postulate of indispensability The assumption is that if a social pattern is well established. In essence what he says is ‘functional alternatives’ ‘functional substitutes have become important but what remains instrumental is social structure. interdependency as a whole .it can be fulfilled through democracy. he says that same cultural item may perform multiple functions and alternative items may fulfill the same functions For instance. The purpose is achieved. dictatorship or traditional monarch. why have a complex system of religion Need of government is required.

Conflict Perspective • Two distinct traditions can be traced of conflict theorist in classical works: • 1) the power relations tradition of political philosophy • 2) the tradition of competitive struggle in classical economics Marx. Dahrendorf set the tradition of conflict perspective . Coser.

this approach promotes institutionalisation of conflict . they push change • However. Recognize the conflict • Conflict exist • Historical notings • Recognizes the problems • Yes. conflict are good.

Functionalism

Views of Gandhi on caste
system

Divisions for survival of
whole
• Essential divisions to maintain hierarchy
• Strongly believed in chaturvarna – four divisions of
society, brahmins, kshatriya, vaishyas and shudras
• Advocated that smaller caste should merge with
bigger castes
• He argued that inter dining and inter marriage
should not be made compulsion
• Compared village system to being that of a republic
• Was against industrialization and modernization
because they would destruct caste

Mr Gandhi belief? Reminder of
Functionalism
• “  I believe that if Hindu Society has been able to stand it is because it
is founded on the caste system.
• " The seeds of Swaraj are to be found in the caste system. Different
castes are like different sections of military division. Each division is
working for the good of the whole.
• " A community which can create the caste system must be said to
possess unique power of organisation.
• " Caste has a ready made means for spreading primary education.
Every caste can take the responsibility for the education of the
children of the Caste. Caste has a political basis. It can work as an
electorate for a representative body. Caste can perform judicial
functions by electing persons to act as judges to decide disputes
among members of the same caste. With castes it is easy to raise a
defence force by requiring each caste to raise a brigade.

Occupational Division- soul of
caste system
Caste is another name for control. Caste puts a limit on enjoyment.

• " To destroy caste system and adopt Western European social system
means that Hindus must give up the principle of hereditary
occupation which is the soul of the caste system.
• Hereditary principle is an eternal principle. To change it is to create
disorder. I have no use for a Brahmin if I cannot call him a Brahmin for
my life. It will be a chaos if every day a Brahmin is to be changed into a
Shudra and a Shudra is to be changed into a Brahmin.
• " The caste system is & natural order of society. In India it has been
given a religious coating. Other countries not having understood the
utility of the Caste System it existed only in a loose condition and
consequently those countries have not derived from Caste system the
same degree of advantage which India has derived.

Maha- Atma
• I am opposed to all those who are out to destroy the Caste System-
Gandhi (1922)
• The varna system is connected with the way of earning a living.
There is no harm if a person belonging to one varna acquires the
knowledge or science and art specialised by persons belonging to
other varnas. But as far as the way of earning his living is concerned
he must follow the occupation of the varna to which he belongs
which means he must follow the hereditary profession of his
forefathers.
• " The object of the varna system is to prevent competition and class
struggle and class war. I believe in the varna system because it
fixes the duties and occupations of persons,
• "Varna means the determination of a man's occupation before he is
born.
• " In the Varna system no man has any liberty to choose his
occupation.  His occupation is determined for him by heredity."

Mr. M.K.Gandhi
• Mr. Gandhi : As a President of a Conference of the
Untouchables,  "I do not want to attain Moksha. I do not
want to be reborn. But if I have to be reborn, I should be
born an untouchable, so that I may share their sorrows,
sufferings and the affronts levelled at them, in order that I
may Endeavour to free myself and them from that
miserable condition. I, therefore prayed that if I should be
born again, I should do so not as a Brahmin, Kshatriya,
Vaishya, or Shudra, but as an Atishudra.” (Babasaheb
Ambedkar Writing and Speeches: What Congress and
Gandhi have done to the untouchables: chapter XI:
Gandhism: The Doom of the untouchables)

You should realise that you are cleaning Hindu Society. He was born and bred in orthodoxy. In my Ashram. he must do it himself and set an example. an eighteen years old Brahmin lad is doing the scavenger's work in order to teach the Ashram scavengers cleanliness.” . Ctd… • "l love scavenging. and that if he wanted the Ashram sweeper to do his work well. The lad is no reformer. But he felt that his accomplishments were incomplete until he had become also a perfect sweeper.

but how can it be ours to be " your slaves ? " • —THUCYDIDES. He is a scavenger because of his birth irrespective of the question whether he does scavenging or not. Crushing Gandhi and ism • lt may be your interest to be our masters. But why preach it as good for one class only ? Why appeal to the worst of human failings. namely. • Can there be a worse example of false propaganda than this attempt of Gandhism to perpetuate evils which have been deliberately imposed by one class over another ? If Gandhism preached the rule of poverty for all and not merely for the Shudra the worst that could be said about it is that it is a mistaken idea. . pride and vanity in order to make him voluntarily accept what on a rational basis he would resent as a cruel discrimination against him ? What is the use of telling scavenger that even a Brahmin is prepared to do scavenging when It is clear that according to Hindu Shastras and Hindu notions even if a Brahmin did scavenging he would never be subject to the disabilities of one who is a born scavenger ? For in India a man is not a scavenger because of his work.

Criticism rooted in a Perspective • To preach that poverty is good for the Shudra and for none else. by appeal to their failings is an outrage and a cruel joke on the helpless classes which none but Mr. Gandhi can perpetuate with equanimity and impunity. ( BAWS) . to preach that scavenging is good for the Untouchables and for none else and to make them accept these onerous impositions as voluntary purposes of life.

Conflict • Conflict is a theory or perspective which emphasize the role of Conflict especially between groups and classes in human society • The main features of conflict theories was that: • They accused the functionalist theorist of disregarding conflicts of values and interest in human societies. or at best regarding these as secondary phenomenon .

Roots • Origins can be located in works of Max Weber • Stressed on role of interests over norms and values • Pursuit of interest generates conflict as normal aspects of social life .

there are different sources of conflict. can cause conflict not only classes • Focus on institutionalisation of conflict • Ralph Dahrendorf and Rex for further reading .ideas. Marxian Thread • Conflict theory was drawn from Marx’s work • Stressed on conflict as basis of social change • It is conflict and not solidarity that is symbol of dynamic society • Differences with Marx. intellectuals.

Alternative
• As a alternative to functionalist,
conflict theorist offered an account of
both integration of society and social
change, which emphasized the role of
power, coercion, thus indicating role
of conflict as the most important
• They proposed that conflict has a role,
and that is to bring social change

Powerful arguments
• Although some scholars such as Gouldner
were influenced by Marxist or Marxism, one
important work of Lewis Coser’s argument
was based on Simmel. He cited social
functions and disruptive effects of conflict
• In essence, conflict theorist although
brought conflict to the forefront, they
suggested that there were more conflicts
than functional unity however, underscored
importance of institutionalization of conflicts
for continuity of soicety

Karl Marx
• 1818-1883
• German social theorist
• Dialectical materialism
• Historical Materialism

Historical Materialism
• General term for Marx and Engels
conception of historical, social, and
economic change, and the method of
analysis associated with this
• Marx’s conceptualisation of Historical
Materialism is expressed in his work
(1859) a contribution to the critique
of political economy’.

• Human beings are socially producing. This
distinguishes them from other animals/living
beings (German Ideology)
• The identity of humans lies in collective rather
than individual.
• The essence of man is not an abstraction inherent
in each particular individual. The real nature of
man is the totality of social relations” (Theses on
Feuerbach)

Change
• Drawn from dialectics (dialogue)
• Change represents opposing forces
• Positive (thesis) and negative (antithesis)
• Together (synthesis) they determine nature of
change

matter is supreme Ideas originate for material existence and not vice-versa ‘It is not consciousness that determines human existence. rather human existence determines consciousness’ . Materialism Vs Idealism For Marx.

equipment. cooperative work relations and forms of association. . relations between people and the objects of their work. and the relations between social classes. physical infrastructure) • social and technical relations of production : these include the property. tools. often codified in law. power and control relations governing society's productive assets. Modes of Production • Based on two aspects: •  a mode of production (in German: Produktionsweise. meaning 'the way of producing') is a specific combination of: • Productive forces : these include human labour power and the means of production  (eg.

and in producing they necessarily enter into relations which exist independently of their will. but to consume they must produce. Ctd • Contradiction between humans and nature • People must consume to survive. These again are shaped by contradictions • Between humans-those with property those without • Private property is the basis of division of labour • First forms of property seen in family •  the whole ‘mystery' of why/how a social order exists and the causes of social change must be discovered in the specific mode of production that a society has .

no surplus) • Asiatic mode of production (pre slavery. generally authority on the basis on semi-theocratic. villages. Outline • Primitive Communism (shared production. pre-feudal. incarnations of god itself. consumption. hamlets.messengers of gods. communities by the ruling class. exploited bands. control by use of violence) • Antique mode of production (property possession in form of individuals.claims that ruling class is descendants of gods rather than gods • Feudalism (he primary form of property is the possession of land in reciprocal contract relations: the possession of human beings as peasants or serfs is dependent upon their being entailed upon the land) .

. The ruling class is the  bourgeoisie which exploits the proletariat. The primary form of exploitation is wage labour . The primary form of property is the possession of objects and services through state guaranteed contract. Ctd • Early Capitalism (period from Mercantilism to Imperialism and is usually associated with the emergence of modern industrial society. Capitalism may produce one class (bourgeoisie) who possess the means of production for the whole of society and another class who possess only their own labour power. and finance capital. The key forces of production include the overall system of modern production with its supporting structures of bureaucracy and the modern state. which they must sell in order to survive.

mixed economy. Late Capitalism and Communism • Late Capitalism (state capitalism. investment bankers. emergence of corporations etc. distinctive characteristics is ‘financialization’ making money becomes a dominant industry- stocks. management of things. etc • Communism (classless society. management of people will be central concern) .

and put them in hostile opposition to the latter. they form a class” . CLASS • So far as millions of families live under economic conditions of existence that separate their mode: of life. their interests and their culture from those of the other classes.

religious. • Superstructure is determined by base . How is the class formed? • Base: Mode of production • Superstructure: Political. ideological etc.

Neither Marx nor I have ever asserted more than this. Engel’s clarification • According to the materialistic concept of history the ultimately determining factor in history is the production and reproduction of real life. abstract phrase. Hence if somebody twists this into saying that the economic factor is the only determining factor. he transforms this proposition into a meaningless. .

also exercise their influence upon the course of historical struggles and in many cases determine their form in particular" . Finally… • The economic situation is the basis. but the various elements of the super-structure ...

 From being ‘Children of God to Children of Ambedkar’ Examine the Rise of Ambedkar in Indian Polity and his movements for Social Justice .

disillusion. His ideas. .Atrocities. Electoral Politics.independence • Rise of shudras • Rise of Dalits.Ambedkar • Post Ambedkar • Dalit Panthers.political power – BAMCEF. Justice denied is justice delayed. and coopted leadership • Bahujan Samaj Party.Impact of Black Panthers Movement on young Dalit poets • Fragmentation. organizations • Communal Awards and Brahmindom • Efficiency over fair and goodness for masses • Gandhi Vs Ambedkar. I have no homeland’. Kanshiram. Timeline. through education.rise of a staunch Ambedkarite. ‘ Gandhiji. Aspects to be covered • Dalit world pre. • Yet Conditions of Dalits in India. Khairlanje. Poverty and inequality and oppression. socio-cultural aspects • Role of British in empowerment of Dalits • Deplorable practices against Dalits and Shudras • Resistance offered by Shudras.Poona Pact.

.Happy for you . That robbery is not a crime. Hurt. My ancestors. They had put all their power In your hands. Where was Brahma born from? You said Service is the duty of the Shudra. and yet. You now had slaves . Humane. They did not know how to loot. And they did not ask you. It is but culture. The body unclothed. They were happy too. How innocent they were.. Omprakash Valmiki • You said The Shudra is born from the feet of Brahma. The stomach unfed. For they saw you smiled. That murder. Is the badge of courage. They did not ask What will you give for it? You were happy. They smiled. Yet untouchable. And the Brahmin from his head. The weak and the innocent! Did not know.

Manu and Shudras) . Background Historical Past: how important is it? • It might be argued that the inequality prescribed by Manu in his Smriti is after all of historical importance. Manu is not a matter of the past. It is a  ‘living past’ and therefore as really present as any present can be (Untitled Works of Ambedkar. It is past history and cannot be supposed to have any bearing on the present conduct of the Hindu. I am sure nothing can be greater error than this. in chapter 57. It is even more than a past of the present.

 because. the capital of the Peshwas. their bodies cast too long a shadow. m. and whenever their shadow fell upon a Brahmin it polluted him. Heinous Practices against untouchables • The inequality laid down by Manu was the law of the land under the pre-British days may not be known to many foreigners. m. So also no Untouchable was allowed to live in a walled town . between 3 p. John Murray Mitchell. cattle and dogs could freely enter but not the Untouchables (Dr Ambedkar cites work of Dr. before nine and after three. and 9 a. p. so that he dare not taste food or water until he had bathed and washed the impurity away.‘Great Religions of India’. • Under the rule of the Marathas and the Peshwas the Untouchables were not allowed within the gates of Poona city. 63) .

had to lie at a distance on his face lest his shadow might fall on the Brahman (cited Bombay Gazetteer. Vol. He was made to drag a thorny branch of a tree with him to brush out his footsteps and when a Brahman came by. • Under the rule of the Marathas and the Peshwas the Untouchables might not spit on the ground lest a Hindu should be polluted by touching it with his foot.) . Ctd…. p. but had to hang an earthen pot round his neck to hold his spittle. XII. 175.

636 (b) • In the Punjab a sweeper was required while walking through streets in towns to carry a broom in his hand or under his armpit as a mark of his being a scavenger (Punjab Census Report 1911 p.&. Pan India Practices • In Maharashtra an Untouchable was required to wear a black thread either in his neck or on his wrist for the purpose of ready identification. E. IX p. 413) • In Bombay the Untouchables were not permitted to wear clean or untorn clothes. . Vol. • In Gujarat the Untouchables were compelled to wear a horn as their distinguishing mark[Ency R. In fact the shopkeepers took the precaution to see that before cloth was sold to the Untouchable it was torn & soiled.

to milk cows or even to use the ordinary language of the country • In South India Untouchables were expressly forbidden to cover the upper part of their body above the waist and in the case of women of the Untouchables they were compelled to go with the upper part of their bodies quite bare . Pan India • In Malabar the Untouchables were not allowed to build houses above one storey in height and not allowed to cremate their dead • In Malabar the Untouchables were not permitted to carry umbrellas. to wear shoes or golden ornaments.

• All over India Brahmin was exempt from capital punishment. In Bengal the amount of rent for land varied with the caste of the occupant and if the tenant was an Untouchable he had to pay the highest rent.Letter Send to Damulsett Trimbucksett by Head of the caste Sonar (Goldsmith) Date: 9th August 1779 • Under the Maratha rule any one other than a Brahmin uttering a Veda Mantra was liable to have his tongue cut off and as a matter of fact the tongues of several Sonars (goldsmiths) were actually cut off by the order of the Peshwa for their daring to utter the Vedas contrary to law. and Brahmin landlords had their lands assessed at distinctly lower rates than those levied from other classes. He could not be hanged even if he committed murder. . Hard labour and death were punishments mostly visited on the Untouchables[ • Under the Peshwas Brahmin clerks had the privilege of their goods being exempted from certain duties and their imported corn being carried to them without any ferry charges. • Under the Peshwas distinction was observed in the punishment of the criminals according to the caste.

justice between Hindu and Hindu. Continuity of Manu • These facts will show that Manu though born centuries ago is not dead and while the Hindu Kings reigned. touchable and untouchable was rendered according to the Law of Manu and that law was professed based on inequality. .

Rise of Shudras In September. Dhananjay Keer. he is regarded as one of the most important figures in Social Reform Movement in Maharashtra. along with his followers. without knowledge development is lost. rightly notes him as "the father of Indian social revolution’ Without education knowledge is lost. For his fight to attain equal rights for peasants and the lower caste and his contribution to the field of education. 1873. formed the Satya Shodhak Samaj (Society of Seekers of Truth) with the main objective of the organisation as to liberate the Shudras and Ati-Shudras and to prevent them from exploitations and atrocities done by the Brahmins. without wealth shudras are ruined – (Jotirao Fule. his biographer. 1890) . without development wealth is lost. Jotirao.

He characterized this faith as outwardly religious but in essence politically motivated movements. who created the whole mankind. Rationalist • Jotiba subjected religious texts and religious behavior to the tests of rationalism. • Fule wanted to abolish this blind faith in the first instance. He questions " if there is only one God. All established religious and priestly classes find this blind faith useful for their purposes and they try their best to defend it. He accused them of upholding the teachings of religion and refusing to rationally analyse religious teachings. why did he write the Vedas only in Sanskrit language despite his anxiety for the welfare of the whole mankind? What about the welfare of those who do not understand this language?" .

Role of British • Education has the social privilege of upper caste. It was not only influenced by them but controlled by them. • The Woods Despatch of 1854. The court of directors. ‘ all schools maintained at the sole of cost of government shall be open to all classes of its subjects without distinction’ (Sinha: 1986: 42) . made the first effort in history of India. which was based on principle of open access and universalistic criteria of education. perhaps could be considered the first of its kinds in process of British efforts to impart education among the socially discriminated sections. until British arrived. Fule. when he opened schools for the education of non- Brahmins including untouchables and women in poona. • The establishment of British rule in India introduced a western system of education. gave a judgement.

that given minimum qualifications candidates belonging to non-Brahmin communities should be given preference over Brahmin candidates when making appointments in the public services. . In my view there was nothing wrong in this principle. • The Non-Brahmin parties had therefore laid down the principle. Some interesting developments: Non Brahmin parties in Bombay and Madras Presidency • The Brahmins have a more or less complete monopoly in the State services in all provinces in India and in all departments of State. It was undoubtedly wrong that the administration of the country should be in the hands of a single community however clever such a community might be. known as the principle of communal ratio.

No administration could be sympathetic if it was manned by the Brahmins alone. Governance and caste • “The Non-Brahmin Party held the view that good Government was better than efficient Government was not a principle to be confined only to the composition of the Legislature & the Executive. No administration could do any good unless it was sympathetic. They know that this is the only card they can play successfully by reason of their advanced position in education. be a good administrator ? He is as much an alien to the Indian masses as any foreigner can be. . How can the Brahmin who holds himself superior to the masses.. As against this the Brahmins have been taking their stand on efficiency pure & simple. It was through administration that the State came directly in contact with the masses. But that it must also be made applicable to the field of administration. But they forget that if efficiency was the only criterion then in all probability there would be very little chance for them to monopolise State service in the way and to the extent they have done. Ctd…. despises the rest as low caste and Shudras.

Non-Brahmin Parties in their eagerness to cleanse the administration of Brahmindom while they were in power. . In carrying out this principle the. did often forget the principle that in redressing the balance between the Brahmins and non-Brahminsim the public services they were limited by the rule of minimum efficiency. But that does not mean that the principle they adopted for their guidance was not commendable in the interests of the masses. • the Non-Brahmin Parties refused to make a fetish to efficiency and insisted that there must be introduced the principle of communal ratio in the public services in order to introduce into the administration an admixture of all castes & creeds and thereby make it a good administration. Why only Brahmins? • For if efficiency was made the only criterion there would be nothing wrong in employing Englishmen. Frenchmen. Germans & Turks instead of the Brahmins of India.

His father worked in military service. serving as paiks. recruited untouchable communities extensively. which gave them access to resources and association with new standards of life. a small town in central India. to an untouchable (Mahar) family. The rise of Ambedkar • Born on 14th April 1891 in Mhow. . Mahars and Mangs were among the martial races of India. or soldiers or occasionally as squadron leader. Dalits in Maharashtra also had a military tradition dating to the 16th and 17th century. British.

was not simply a Dalit leader.at. M. and world religions. . fondly known by his people and followers as ‘Baba Saheb’. Philosophy. & PhD (Columbia University) . M.Sc and D. He was a national leader. Brief Bio Sketch • Master of Arts and Doctorate in Economics.A. • Dr Bheemrao Ramji Ambedkar . Germany.Sc at (London School of Economics and Political Science). Grey’s Inn.law . was deeply interested in Pali. London.in a different sense from the well-known elite nationalists who led the struggle for freedom from British colonial rule. not even a leader only of all caste-oppressed. barrister. Shortly studied Sanskrit at Heidelberg.

Ambedkar as a Nationalist • Ambedkar’s nationalism was expressed in all his life’s work. of Pakistan. women. he wrote on caste. . in his political decisions. (ILP and RPI). of Muslims and minorities. in the formation of irrigation and energy policies and his work in chairing the committee to draft the Indian constitution. He played major role in the construction of Indian planning. in the programs of various political parties. his many books and essays. as a charter of women’s right in free India. he became law minister in the first cabinet after independence whose most famous activity was guiding the Hindu Code Bill.

became a Subedar-major in charge of a military school in Mhow.the major breakthrough was through British. . But by that time. and his father Ramji. the seeds of change were sown.Martial Race. Ambedkar’s grandfather Maloji was in the army. The journey • Mahar. • Recruitment in the army for untouchables was stopped in 1893.

• Some of them were varkaris. and there were who were influenced by non-Brahmanic and Muslim traditions • Ramji. some were Mahanubhavas. have had a strong. was a follower of Kabir and observed the prayers and rituals of Kabeerpanthi sect. a much older equalitarian movement. religious –cultural traditions. .Religious Cultural Traditions • Mahars. were warded off as untouchables. although were ostracized. followers of the cult of vithoba.

never experienced caste discrimination until he left his military home • In Satara. so he could learn English or Persian. young Ambedkar and other untouchable students were forced to sit separately in schools. and when he wanted to study Sanskrit. he was not allowed as he was untouchable. . Childhood Experiences • Baba Saheb. no barber could be found to cut their hair.

Baba Saheb’s elder brother. Elphinstone College. He would read his books at a Wilson College garden. Sayajirao Gaikwad of Baroda supported Ambedkar’s education. Sayajirao also funded for his higher studies in USA. Baba Saheb took recluse in books. . A distinguished reformist scholar. who studied at the best college of Mumbai then. Teachers ignored him and student friends did not wanted to be with him. Krishna Arjunrao Keluskar. Balram took up a job in factory. to fund family and education of Baba Saheb. noticed Babasaheb for his long studious readings and recommended his name for scholarship. Progressive Maratha. Bombay • The family moved to Bombay.

departed for his major experience with higher education in world centre. in 1915 and submitted PhD 1916 in Economics.A. He did his M. an economist and the most famous philosopher of USA. • Ambedkar was contacted by nationalist leaders like Lala Lajpat Rai. New York life exposed him to openness and liberty. who was touring the US on behalf of Indian Home Rule League of America. Bhimrao. Prof John Dewey. He was at Columbia University under the guidance of Professor Edward Seligman. to recruit support for Anti-British struggles . America and Dewey • In July 1913.

Ambedkar quit them. Ambedkar’s essay on ‘responsibilities of a representative government in India’ sparked a heated controversy. Nationalism of upper caste questioned? • Ambedkar attended several meetings with Lala’s organization. everyone stayed away from him. timely interventions will be done for addressing caste problems. Well known political scientist. . Lalaji’s position was once freedom was achieved. that ideology reflected in the essay were too much revolutionary politics to be appropriate for a student group. publications and involved himself in students union. Professor Harold Laski. • He got back to his books. papers. but also debated with the problems of caste. ended the debate by concluding. becoming friendly with its members. He was branded as revolutionary.

depressed classes in the political sphere. Mohandas Gandhi • Dr Ambedkar writes to Southborough Committee on demanding ‘separate representations’ of untouchables.The dangerous years.1920s • Departure of Tilak • Arrival of South African returned lawyer. . in Legislative Council • First effort at Southborough Committee 1919: Intervened in the formulation of British policies regarding to Depressed Classes. The committee was looking at communal representation in politics.

The matter does not end with that division. as lower and higher castes. similarly caste divides Hindus. customs. Untouchables need protection not for their property but from the consifistication of their personality itself • 4) The theological bias among the non Brahmins. further there are touchable Hindus and untouchables • 2) to become a community. Summary of his arguments • Challenge was to establish that untouchables are different from caste- Hindus • What was the need for their equal rights? • What would be appropriate method to ensure equal rights? • Arguments put forward by Ambedkar: • 1) As religions divides. Hindus. etc among members of its community. Denial of Marathas to work under Mahar officers . Parsis. And this was missing among the untouchables and the caste-Hindus • 3) Shudras may also be facing the intellectual superiority of Brahmins but it differs in terms of rights with untouchables. i.e. (Thorat and Narendra Kumar : 2008) . Christians. case cited…. of shudras against untouchables is so high that they rejected to work under Mahar officers. Muslims. there have to have common beliefs.

The standing of the community in terms of economic and educational status instead of numerical strength should be taken into account in determining its quota of representation. (BAWS. Efforts at Simon Commission • ‘Injustice had been done to the DC b 1909 by completely ignoring their representationas compared to their population in Legislative Council. Vol 2: 437)” . their representation was based on nomination in 1919. the lower the standing of a community. Moreover. that was emphatically opposed. Thus. which was endorsed by Chelmsford Report and Muddimam Commission. the greater the electoral advantage to its over the rest – Ambedkar. 1982.

Yet Gokhale and Ambedkar.Two major shifts in Ambedkar’s assertion • DC should get political representation • DC should have educational and economic standing. not only efficient government is required but also a good government. Brahmins vehemently opposed to this. . Ambedkar argued that untouchables were excluded completely in employment. • DC and their representation in governance. and for them appointment should be made on the basis of selection and not open competition. in democracy. which includes fair representation of all communities in government and its various appartus. pursued the matters and suggested that .

and caste was completely neglected • Gandhi. Gandhi had bigger plan. as thought by Ambedkar because. development and economic issues. on the other hand. . could argue for DC • The elitist. under the fold and framework of ‘Brahamanic Hindu’ and this led to major clash with Ambedkar. he combined social issues and political concerns. with exposure to west and sharper minds. was hope initially. He wanted to take issues of untouchables. The Round Table Conferences • Indian Nationalist movements and their failure to stop the rising power of Ambedkar in policy matters • Ambedkar. But. Nehru and the leftist had two focus.

political space for DC. Harijan Sevak Sangh. which would have brought benefits to DC • He set up organization.communal awards. Mahatma and his doings • Gandhi opposed separate electorates for untouchables. through which he later argued he was representing untouchables . which would have ensured an independent. with entitelements • He went on fast to oppose Ramsey MacDonald Award. congress sponsored organization.

Ambedkar purchased a printing press. The British secret police visited his office. Departure for London • Before going to London. Gandhi claimed he is representative of untouchables. so who was Ambedkar? . Indian police reported that Ambedkar was on the black list of both Indian and English communist (Omvedt: 2004:42) • Ambedkar launched his paper Janata • Gandhi appeared at second round table conference with all the prestige of being a national hero behind him. • Here.

Buddham. Gacchami.Ambedkar • Confrontation with Gandhi • Public Space.Law of Manu was replaced by Law of Mahar • The post independence years. towards Buddhism • Dr Ambedkar and the freedom struggle of Dalits • What Ambedkar means to Dalits? • God? Statues? Or the inability of caste Hindus to understand what Ambedkar is for untouchables . Radical Ambedkar • I will not die a Hindu.‘Building a palace on dung heap’ • The final years. Sharanam.Mahad Satyagraha and Kalaram Mandir Pravesh ‘Temple entry’ • Class Radicalism – Against Brahamnism and Capitalism • Shaping Independent India.

FC1: Understanding Society SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS 241 .

Important concept in sociology. Approaches to understanding it: (1) Radcliffe-Brown considered all social relations of person to person to be a part of SS. Firth. or of both together. • Emphasized its need looking at society like a biological entity (organic structure). Also the distinction between the system of ‘ideal relations’ and the system of ‘actual relations’ between persons as SS. Social Structure (SS) Herbert Spencer used it first. or of relationships between social groups. • Thus. (2) SS is a complex of the principal groups and institutions which constitute societies – M. • To R. the study of SS to be undertaken in terms of: institutional arrangements. Ginsberg. the systematic ordering of social relations (Social Organisation) by acts of choice and decision constitutes the SS. 242 .

• “Social structure is the complex of the major institutions and groups in society” seems to be a better definition . so institution is the unit with which we build the conception of ‘social structure’ • Role to build institution. • Just as “role” is the unit with which we build our conception of ‘institution’. F. and Institution to build structure. Social institutions constituting social Structure • (3) S. 243 . Nadel emphasizes the importance of ‘roles’ individuals play and their linkages to SS.

” The minimum requirements seem to be made available through SI such as: – Family: for its own continuation (procreation). marriage etc.’ SI is a system of norms organized to deal with a basic human need. – State: for distribution of economic and political resources. They bind the members of the group together. • The existence of human society requires certain arrangements or processes. education. and the implementation of religious beliefs. 244 . i. serving to maintain or increase social cohesion. • Social institutions meet basic human needs in regard to family life. Social institutions (SI) • • “A system of norms and values that has a specific and defined purpose and a set of rules related to its particular function. – Religion: for the explanation of events that seem incomprehensible. – Education system: for the care and training of the young.. death. and to give social recognition to significant personal events: birth. • Social institutions are essential to maintain the ordered arrangement of social structure. the allocation of political power. They prescribe a way of doing things. a system of ritual. Institutions are collective mode of behaviour. ‘functional pre-requisites of society.e. the production and distribution of goods.

2) economics. trading. 2) college. 3) mosque. taboo etc. 2) divorce. 3) university etc. property. democracy. 4) education 1) school. Primary Institutions Secondary Institutions 1) the family 1) marriage. 5) state 1) interest groups. banking etc. credit. monogamy. 245 . polygamy. totem. 2) temple. 3) religion 1) church. party system.

labour unions and redirect education. training forKeeping the youth off the labour market. inculcation ofweakening the control of parents or basic values development of friendship.Institutions Manifest/intended functions Latent/unintended functions Family Procreation and rearing children Support in old age and sense of pride over children Education Development of literacy. 246 . Religion Worship of god & instructions inDeveloping attachment to one’s religious religious ideology community. to alter family life and to create religious hatred. occupational roles. Economic system To produce and distribute goods To promote urbanization.

son and daughter. constituting a single household. • Main conduit of norms and values. • Family is “a group defined by a sex relationship sufficiently precise and enduring to provide for procreation and upbringing of children” – MacIver • Family is “the biological social unit composed of husband. • Quintessential Primary group. interacting and inter-communicating with each other in their respective social roles o husband and wife. • The chief agency of socialization. brother and sister creating a common culture” – Burges and Locke. blood or adoption. Family • Basic unit in all societies. 247 . wife and children” – Eliott and Merrill • “Family is a group of persons united by the ties of marriage. • The source of solace. mother and father.

248 . • An economic provision to satisfy the economic needs of the family. • A system of nomenclature: family name. its own system of tracing descent. • Common habitation: home for its living. Characteristics: • Mating relationship. • Economic needs. Family Family has its origin in certain needs of man: • The need for procreation. • Family through Marriage. • To satisfy sexual urge. • Bond among members.

3. Matriarchal: 1. father as supreme lord of family. is lives with senior male member holds power. The husband is sometimes merely a casual visitor. 5. 2. children brought up in the home of wife’s relatives. wife moves to husband’s house. property is transferred through the mother and only females succeed to it. Types of family On the basis of authority: Patriarchal & Matriarchal Patriarchal family: 1. Descent is reckoned through the father. 2. children are known by the name of the family of their father. 249 . Authority in the family is with the wife or her relatives. Marriage relations are transient. 4. 2. Descent is reckoned through the mother. children can inherit the property of their father. 3.

Types of family On the basis of structure: • Nuclear • Extended family. • Patrilocal (Wife moves to husband’s home) - On the basis of marriage: • Monogamous (one man marries one woman ) • Polygamous (one man marries many women). ISSUES: 250 . • Polyandrous (one woman marries many men and lives with all of them or with each of them alternatively). On the basis of residence: • Matrilocal (husband moves wife’s home).

their offspring and relatives through marriage). Types of family On the basis of ancestry: • Matrilineal (mother the basis of ancestry). On the basis of blood relationship: • Conjugal family (spouses. • Patrilineal (ancestry through father). • Consanguinous family (blood relatives together with their mates and children) 251 . • Exogamous (marriage with members outside the group). On the basis of In-group & out-group affiliation: • Endogamous (marriage within group).

• “Religion is attitude towards superhuman powers” – Ogburn. • “Whenever and wherever man has a sense of dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious and higher than man’s own. • “Religion…implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power” – MacIver. there is religion. customs and norms are based on what religion advocates as right or wrong. 252 . the root of worship and prayer” –Christopher Dawson. and the feelings of awe and self-abasement with which man is filled in the presence of such powers is essentially a religious emotion. • It is the most influential force of social control. RELIGION • It is said that all laws. • Religion is a belief in “powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and of human life” – James G Frazer.

ritual. 253 .” • According to Anderson and Parker. each religion consists of four primary components. iv) Method salvation. that is to say. Religion • Religion is a “unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things. • But there are godless religion like Bhuddhism that does not believe in supernatural power from heaven. These are: i) Belief in supernatural forces. things set apart and forbidden” – Durkheim. ii) Man to adjustment to supernatural powers. • Sumner and Keller asserted that “Religion in history from the earliest to very recent days has not been a matter of morality at all but of rites. observance and ceremony. iii) Certain acts defined as sinful.

254 . Origin of religion • No definite answer to its origin. religion also arose from the intellectual power of man in response to certain felt needs of man. or because of conditions accompanying his life on earth. that which is universal in experience must be a genuine expression of man’s life. • David Hume. “The fact that men everywhere and always have developed religion—for there is no evidence that any tribe or race has existed without it points to the truth that religion must have its roots in human nature. • Like other social institutions. • Spencer and Tyler contented that religion originated primarily in ghost-fear and that animism lies at the very basis of all religions. • Galloway observes. Max Muller and Giddings claimed that religion as creation of man was based on an illusion and that fear accounted for its origin. No accident or environment or tenacity of tradition can account for what is constant and persistent.

art and music. • Religion controls and affects economic life. • Enhances self-importance. • Promotion of literature. Role of Religion • Rationalizes and makes bearable individual suffering in the known world. • Helps to knit the social values of society into cohesive whole. Materialism did not grow (till recently) because Hinduism stresses on spiritual progress than the material progress. • Friendship function: opportunity for establishing friendship. • Social welfare. ISSUES: 255 . • Agency of social control.

What are social institutions? .

Social Institutions • Social Institutions • Social institutions are established or standardized patterns of rule- governed behavior. education. . religion. They include the family. and economic and political institutions.

  . Durkheim • Set the stage for later functionalist analyses of institutions by concluding that religion promotes social solidarity and collective conscience. • The causes and consequences of social institutions cannot be assumed in advance. Major perspectives Marx • Social institutions are determined by their society’s mode of production. • Social institutions serve to maintain the power of the dominant class. Weber • Social institutions are interdependent but no single institution determines the rest.

Theoretical Perspective • Functionalist theory • The social institutions listed in this section (along with other social institutions) fulfill functional prerequisites and are essential. • Emphasizes divisions and conflicts within social institutions. • Symbolic interactionism • Focuses on interactions and other symbolic communications within social institutions. • Conflict theory • Social institutions tend to reinforce inequalities and uphold the power of dominant groups. .

adoption. and work distributed within families? • How do parents. • Key Questions: How do families vary across different societies. particularly mothers. balance the demands of work and family? • What are the causes and effects of divorce. Family Family: • A socially defined set of relationships between at least two people related by birth. long-standing ties of intimacy. and ethnic groups? • How are authority. in some definitions. and single parenting? . domestic violence. marriage. historical periods. classes. resources. or.

providing social support. regulating sexual behavior and reproduction. Competing views • Marx: The family upholds the capitalist economic order by ensuring the reproduction of the working class and by maintaining housewives as a reserve labor force.   . distributing resources. • Functionalist theory: Functions of the family include socializing children.

and values are systematically transmitted from one individual or group to another. and gender on educational institutions and experiences? • What are the causes and consequences of various trends in education. skills. such as grade inflation. Education • A formal process in which knowledge. • Key Questions: How do educational practices vary across different societies and historical periods? • How does education affect individuals’ subsequent activities and achievements? • What are the effects of class. race. violence in schools. and increasing public funding of religious instruction? .

• Symbolic interactionism: Face-to-face interactions in the classroom can have long-range consequences for students’ educational achievements.Marx. transmitting specific knowledge and skills. and establishing social control over youths. SI • Marx: Education serves the capitalist order by producing skilled workers with habits such as punctuality and respect for authority. Conflict. . Functionalist. • Functionalist theory: Functions of education include transmitting shared values and beliefs. • Conflict theory: Educational tracking systems and other differential treatment of students reinforce social inequalities. sorting individuals based on skill.

deviance. Sociologists treat religion as a social rather than supernatural phenomenon. and why do people engage with them? • What is the relationship between religion and other aspects of social life such as stratification. and conflict? • What are the causes and consequences of contemporary trends such as secularization. • Key Questions: How do the world religions differ? How are they similar? • How have religions developed and changed. the splintering of religious groups. Religion • Religion: • A unified system of beliefs and practices pertaining to the supernatural and to norms about the right way to live that is shared by a group of believers. and shifting church–state relationships? .

it expresses and celebrates the force of society over the individual. include justifying persecution. functions….g. according to some. marriage).. strengthening social bonds. • Durkheim: Religion provides social solidarity and collective conscience. heaven).. • Functionalist theory: Functions of religion include providing meaning for life. – Other-worldly religions require focus on the next life (e. Opium.Dysfunctions. this-worldly religions require focus on earthly life. • Weber: Classified religions by their approach to salvation: – Ascetic religions require active self-mastery.g. mystical religions require passive contemplation. and marking status changes (e. spiritualism.. . reinforcing social norms. • Marx: Religion is the “opium of the people”—it masks domination and diverts workers from rebelling against exploitation.

and feudalism)? • How do consumption and leisure patterns differ among various cultures.. and social groups? • How do the structures of business organizations affect productivity. and other resources. socialism. job satisfaction. Economic Institutions • Sociologists understand the economy as the set of arrangements by which a society produces. historical periods. capitalism. declining unionization. services. and inequalities? • What are the causes and consequences of contemporary trends such as economic liberalization. and consumes goods. • Key Questions: What institutions and relations characterize different economic systems (e.g. and increased consumer debt? . distributes.

• Functionalist theory: Functions of economic institutions include: production and distribution of goods. assignment of individuals to different social roles such as occupations.   . Marx/Functionalism • Marx: Economic organization (the means and relations of production) determines the major features of any society.

and its relationships to other societies and political units. an important political institution in modern societies. . its formal distribution of authority. its use of force. Political Institutions • Political Institutions: • Institutions that pertain to the governance of a society. is the apparatus of governance over a particular territory. The state.

and with what consequences? • How and why do individuals participate in political processes such as voting or joining lobbying groups? • How are political institutions related to other aspects of society. such as the economy and the mass media? . Key questions • Key Questions: How do political institutions differ across historical periods and societies? • How do different social groups participate in political institutions.

resolving group conflicts. Pluralism. entails distribution of power among many groups so no one group can gain control.Authority/Functions/Democr acy • Weber: Defines the state as an authority that maintains a monopoly on the use of violence in its territory. • Conflict theory: Pluralism and democracy are illusions that invite the powerless to believe that they have a voice in governance. when in fact their control is quite limited. a particularly functional type of political institution. defining societal goals. . and strengthening group identity and norms. • Functionalist theory: Functions of political institutions include protection from external enemies.

reproduction (not necessary) and child rearing • To a large extent marriage is not a matter of free choice. it is socially derived and socially sanctioned (Khap panchayats. Marriage • Marriage is a universal feature of human societies • It confers on men and women or of same sex ‘social legitimation’ to engage in sexual relations. kinship pressures. social choice etc) • Every known society places certain limitations on the range of persons from among whom spouses may be chosen. Two major rules of marriage present in almost all societies are: exogamy and endogamy . parent’s choice.

This practice serves to enhance and improve sociability among people by connecting groups of people. Exogamy (Exit) • This is a social prescription that requires an individual to marry outside a specific culturally defined social groups of which he/she is a member. .

Endogamy • This is just the opposite of exogamy. of which he/she is a member • The function of endogamy is probably to regulate marriage in a way that preserve the cultural identity of a group • Caste endogamy is an excellent example. Here the social rule requires an individual to marry within a specific culturally defined social groups. Concepts of physical pollution for example are related to the concept of caste endogamy. .

ctd • A person of higher caste who comes into physical contact with a person of lower caste becomes polluted. The severity of this pollution depends upon the relative rank of the two castes in the local hierarchy • When a man of higher caste marries a woman of lower caste it is an anuloma marriage. . • When a woman of higher caste marries a man of lower caste it is a pratiloma marriage.

Draupadi’s marriage to five brothers is instance of polyandry . The Marquesans of Polynesia. Forms of Marriage • Polyandry: one wife many husbands. Todas of Nilgiri hills have this practise. form of marriage in which one woman marries more than one man at a given time. It is quite widespread in Tibet. where conditions are harsh and perhaps the effort of two men are needed to support a family. Hindu mythology.

declares polygyny as an offence • Monogamy: one man. In the system of polygyny. • Hindu Marriage Act 1955. . Polygyny • Polygyny: one husband many wives. some African tribes and Crow of North Americas. one wife. one man has two or more wife at a given time. It is found among Eskimos.

marriage. Family • The most important primary group • The American Bureau of Census defines family as ‘ a group of two or more persons related by blood. all such persons are considered as members of one family’. and residing together. adoption. .

Basic Characteristics • A mating relationship • A system of nomenclature – name and descent.traced by father side is patrilocal and that from woman’s side is matrilocal • Economic provisions • Common habitation • Emotional basis .

Engels on the notes of Marx and Morgan: • Family is the first form of institution where instance of private property can be traced. Women and children are enslaved by the head of the family. Marxian view • The Origin of the Family. Private Property and the State. .

Presides over the religious rites. On the basis of authority • Patriachal family: the male head of the family. children are known by the name of the father • Male heir of the family takes control . He is the owner and administrator of the family property and rights. • Wife after marriage comes to live in the home of the husband • Father is the controller of property. descent is traced through father.

Descent – matrilineal and matrilocal • Property is transferred through mother . Matriarchal • Authority is the woman head of the family whereas male are subordinates • Descent is traced through mother • Marriage relations may be transient. For example Nairs of Kerala. the husband is only allowed to visit wife in the night • Children are brought up in home of mother. Husband is sometimes merely a casual visitor.

Kinship • Kinship is social relationship based on real. putative or fictive consanguinity (related by blood) : or on the model of consanguine relations • Kinship refers solely to relationship based upon descent and marriage .

related through marriage . Kins • Kins are of two types: • Consanguinity – thought to be biologically related by blood • Affinal kin.

family established by a person after his/her marriage. Rules of Residence • It is imperative that the interacting individuals live together under the same roof. Murdoch makes two kind of family that all individual belong to: • A family or orientation.where one is born • A family of procreation. consists of his/her spouse and children .

married couple reside in the parental home of the bridegroom (groom. Uxorilocality • Bilocal residence. man who participates in marriage).residing near the parents of either spouse . Virilocality • Matrilocal residence. Types • Patrilocal residence.married couples residing in the parental home of the bride (woman).

Industralised countries have neolocal residence .independent location away from either’s spouse. • Neolocal residence.transitory role of residence • (even)Avunculocal residence. Residence • Matri.Patrilocal residence.married couple goes to live with bridegroom’s maternal uncle.

Descent • Patrilineal • Matrilineal • Types of Unilineal Descent Groups • Lineage • Clan • Phratry • Moeity .

Kinship Usages • Avoidance.friendliness. maa etc ) .Sir Edward Taylor coined the word-to denote a custom prevalent among some peoples of naming the parent from the child (Bunnu ke papa.putting restriction on intimacy • Joking relationships. a degree of joking is allowed • Teknonymy.

Social Movements Theory Dalit Movement .

Definition • Social movement is one of the major forms of collective behavior • It is defined as ‘collectivity acting with some continuity to promote or resist change in the society or a group of which it is a part’ • Stated less formally. a social movement is a collective effort to promote or resist change .

citizens write letters to editor. sometimes leaving permanent organizations . and undirected groupings of people who are dissatisfied with things. the movement phases out. and thus people use various forms to express • Leadership and organization develops • After active life. origin • Unplanned. and grumble. unorganized. share ideas. intellectuals publish articles. • People talk.

theories • There are two types of theories of social movements • Psychological • Sociological .

discontent may be necessary but not a sufficient cause for social movement . corruption etc have been some of the conditions leading to discontent. However. People may endure great discontent without joining the movement itself. Movement may emerge out of the discontent. brutality. Oppression. Psychological • Discontent theory: this theory believes that social movement is rooted in discontent. inequality.

root of movement lies in personal failure. . The proponents of this theory argue that many of the social movements find their supporters among the unhappy. Personality Maladjustment • According to this theory. Hitler’s frustration of being rejected as a serious artist. persons whose lives lack meaning and fulfillment. frustrated. Example.

• More prominent in underdeveloped world. Sociological Theory • Relative Deprivation Theory: It is a term coined by Stouffer • According to him. relative deprivation arises as a result of gap between expectation and realization. because there is an increasing desire for material possession • Feelings of deprivation are easy to infer but difficult to measure .

• The resources to be mobilized include supporting beliefs. and any other possible aids. tactics. Resource Mobilization Theory • This theory attributes importance to the effective use of resources in promoting social movements. laws that can leverage the cause. since a successful social movement demands an effective leadership. organizations and officials that can be helpful. • The theory is mostly based on description and seriously challenged by scholars . potential benefits to be promoted. organization. target groups whom these benefits might attract.

Types of Social Movements • Migratory Movement. Common focus of discontent. Zionist movements. The Rastafari movement . and widely shared decision to move to a new location.discontent people may wish to move. a shared purpose of hope. the movement of Jews back to Israel. For example. it is called migratory movement. When many move in volume at the same time.

change their reactions to reality instead of trying to change reality itself. a music of social protest called Reggae has seized the popular imagination • Graffiti is another example • Black Rose is another example . • Jamaica. they choose to do something else. where poverty and inequality are extreme and economic distress has been growing. Expressive Movement • When people cannot move and cannot easily change things. • They try to change themselves.

Then this model could be copied and perhaps the entire could be transformed. Movements • Utopian: These are attempts to create a perfect society in miniature. Kibbutz of Israel is considered as an example • Reform movement: in such movements. . there are attempts to improve the society without greatly changing its basic social structure.

Example: the resistance offered against Mandal Commission Recommendations . Movements • Revolutionary Movement: A social revolution is sudden. sweeping and usually violent • Revolutionaries oppose reforms. often through execution or exile • Resistance Movement: it expresses opposition to recent change as people consider social change too fast. because they believe that significant reform is impossible under the existing social system • They see basic change is possible only after the existing order is overthrown and the elite are deposed.

• Embraces Buddhism or another egalitarian religion to raise their self respect and worth . and establishes a parallel legitimacy. Dalit Movement • Dalit Movement has been suggested to have two characteristics in terms of protest ideology • One which emphasizes withdrawal. self organization. and the other which abandons Brahminical Hinduism.

digging graves etc • Access to well. Ideological Base and Leaders • Mahar Movement. which was led by Dr Bheemroa Ambedkar • His movement represented an ideology of protest in the form of abandoning Hinduism and embracing Buddhism which is considered more egalitarian • Mahars were numerically significant caste who fell under untouchable category • They were made to do menial and worthless jobs. sweeping. public tanks schools were denied .

they were already fighting for their inclusion in military service • The entry of Dr Ambedkar in 1920s. made the Mahar movement more radical than reformatory • Ambedkar opposed to the patronizing attitude of upper caste leaders . ctd • Mahars organized themselves to improve their status and fight against several injustice done against them • In 1902.

adopted the ideology of anti-caste Hinduism and relied more on political machinery to achieve the basic rights • Thus. he had announced that ‘ I may be born as a Hindu but will not die as a Hindu’ . Use of Political Machinery • Ambedkar. Ambedkar was able to win political representation for the untouchables • This intellectual giant single handedly drafted the constitution of India. he and his followers became Buddhist. which introduced many safeguards in favor of the SCs • 14 October 1956. At Yeola in 1930s.

Namdeo Dhasal . Only I want to sleep peacefully And tomorrow morning see no varnas • . Dalit Panthers Movement • While I write this at night it’s three o’ clock Though I want to have a drink I don’t feel like drinking.

The most notable example of this protest came in light in the form of Golpitha. People were shocked by the raw energy exuded by each of its word entirely unfamiliar to the established literary circles. Golpitha – name of a red-light district in Mumbai. defiant idiom and terrible anger shook the establishment to its very foundation.a collection of poems by Namdeo Dhasal. Its proletarian lingo. They had never seen quite like it before. depicted the tough life of a dalit there and is considered as Dhasal’s most stellar work. iconoclastic imagery. A spate of poetry followed' .Anand Teltumbde . Namdeo Dhasal’s Literary Work • The times were just ripe for the protest movement of dalits to germinate….

Ram Puniyani • Dalit panthers came up as the most promising organisation for dalit rights and their path was that of alliance with the other oppressed sections of society. minorities. This last concerted effort fell to pieces with different leaders of dalit movement getting co-opted by one or the other political power or personality . adivasis and women. This indicated the line of alliance to be followed. They broadened the definition of dalits to include workers.

the Dalit Panther Party was formed in slums and Dalit colonies of Bombay. This organization takes its pride and inspiration directly from the Black Panther Party of the United States. India. This is especially evident in the villages. even today. . • This is a highly important development due to the fact that the Untouchables have historically been so systematically terrorized that many of them. live in a perpetual state of extreme fear of their upper caste oppressors. Formation • In April 1972.

and Dalit Panther organizations have subsequently spread to other parts of India. • Appropriation and Containing Dalit Rage: short lived movement which stirred the 1970s. the Dalit Panthers announced that the 25th anniversary of Indian independence would be celebrated as a day of mourning. • In August 1972. Dalit Panthers came to be militant organization .• The formation of the Dalit Panthers and the corresponding philosophy that accompanies it signals a fundamental change in the annals of resistance.

 Malcolm X • I am for violence if non-violence means we continue postponing a solution to the American black man's problem just to avoid violence.  . Nobody can give you equality or justice or anything. M • Nobody can give you freedom. you take it. Black Panthers of USA • A man who stands for nothing will fall for anything. If you're a man.

Malcolm X.Black Panthers Party .

Black Panthers Party .

Folk Music • Self Military Model • Self Defense • Demanded Arms and Licensed Guns for Dalits in Villages . Patterns of Dalit Panthers • Literature • Mobilization • Graffiti.

Christians. which is the largest democracy of the world. Parsis and Buddhists and account for over 85 per cent of the country's total population. . which comprises of the Scheduled Castes (SCs). the Other Backward Classes (OBCs) and Religious Minorities such as Sikhs. Muslims. BSP: Identity of Political Revolution • Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) or Majority People's Party is one of the only five prominent national political parties of India. The ideology of the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) is "Social Transformation and Economic Emancipation" of the "Bahujan Samaj ". the Scheduled Tribes (STs).

under which they have been vanquished. Manuwadi System • The people belonging to all these classes have been the victims of the "Manuwadi" system in the country for thousands of years. trampled upon and forced to languish in all spheres of life. which had been secured for the upper caste Hindus under the age-old "Manuwadi Social System". these people were deprived even of all those human rights. In other words. .

Ideological Base • Though the contributions of leaders of the downtrodden communities like Mahatma Jyotiba Phule. and that of Manyawar Kanshi Ram Ji later proved to be greatly effective  . Ramaswami have been immense in the fight against the obnoxious Manuwadi system. who was born in Scheduled Caste community. V. but the struggle of Baba Saheb Dr. Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj. Narayana Guru and Periyar E. Bhimrao Ambedkar.

• Besides waging a spirited campaign against the Manuwadi Social System. But he was fully conscious of the fact that these exploited sections of the society would not be able to get the full legal rights as long as the governments would remain dominated by the Manuwadi persons and parties. which continue to be victimised and trampled under this oppressive and unjust Manuvadi Social System. • By virtue of his pivotal role in the framing of the Indian Constitution. Ambedkar instilled consciousness among not only the Dalits. but also among those belonging to other backward groups. Dr. . these groups were given a number of rights in the Constitution on a legal basis to lead a life of dignity and self-respect.

• This was to be the modus operandi for the formation of Bahujan Governments at the Centre and in States. Ambedkar. . Only such governments could enforce all the constitutional and legal rights of the "Bahujan Samaj" and provide opportunities to its People to move forward in all spheres of life besides enabling them to lead a life of "self-respect". as enshrined in the Constitution. Master Key for Emancipation- Political Power? • Dr. bring them on a strong political platform and capture the "Master Key" of political power. during his lifetime. they would have to bond together all the Bahujan groups on the basis of unity and fraternity. had counseled the "Bahujan Samaj" that if they wanted to fully enjoy the benefits of their legal rights.

Ambedkar. Birth of BSP • Keeping in view this observation and advice of Dr. 1984.It has seized political power and it is a party led by untouchable castes with alliance of upper castes. on April 14. with the help of his associates. OBCs . which opens all the avenues for social and economic development • Kanshiram as a strategist • Criticism against BSP. Muslims. he prepared the "Bahujan Samaj" to secure the "master key" of political power.the bigger point. • For many years while he enjoyed good health. respected Kanshi Ram founded the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP).

NCHRW • 27 atrocities against Dalits every day  ·  13 Dalits murdered every week  ·  5 Dalits' homes or possessions burnt every week  ·  6 Dalits kidnapped or abducted every week  ·  3 Dalit women raped every day  ·  11 Dalits beaten every day  ·  A crime committed against a Dalit every 18 minutes·  .

Socio-cultural processes .

relationship between events. continuity of events. and results . Social process • Social process is the manner in which relations of the members of a groups once brought together. repetition of events. acquire certain distinctive character • The essential elements of social process are: sequence of events.

although this may be primarily a case of one group absorbing the others culture. McDonald culture) . this is known as assimilation • Cultural fusion in which two groups blend their cultures so that they become one. • Acculturation : Is the name given to the stage when one cultural group which is in contact with another. Assimilation • Assimilation is a process of mutual cultural diffusion through which persons and groups come to share a common culture. appropriates or borrows from it certain cultural elements and incorporates them into own ( Americanization. There is usually an exchange of cultural traits.

. Accommodation and Integration • The process whereby individuals adapt to situations of conflict resolving the basic conflict or changing the system of inequality is Accommodation (example tribal and dalit students who enter mainstream and choose not to talk about caste and tribal inequalities) • Integration: is harmonizing or unifying process whereby the various structural components of society are properly organized.

or dissatisfaction which individuals experience when they compare their situation with some standard or reference. Relative Deprivation • Deprivation is relative. People experience resentment or discontent about their condition not necessarily when they are deprived in an absolute sense. . other groups or comparison with oneself in the pasts. The standard might include other persons. variously expressed as anger. but when they feel deprived relative to some standard of comparison. • Relative deprivation refers to negative emotion. resentment.