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Power Quality in

Distribution
Systems
Course Code: 2EL601
Mrs. Seema P. Diwan
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Course: Power Quality in Distribution
Systems(2EL601)
• Prerequisite: Power system Engineering
and Power electronics

• Assessment:
–20% internal marks based on CLASS TEST
/ ORAL
–30% MSE
–50% ESE
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Course Objectives :

This course is intended to provide basic knowledge of causes,


consequences and solutions of power quality problems that
affect the operation of computerized processes and electronic
systems.
It also aims to provide a theoretical background to correctly
approach the problem of reactive, harmonic and unbalance
compensation, in the context of the applicable power theory.

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Course Learning Outcomes:
CO After completion of the course the Bloom’s Cognitive
student will be able to level Descriptor

CO1 Explain the basic concepts of Power 2 Understan


Quality disturbances, reactive power ding
compensation, voltage regulation,
power definitions and other figures of
merit under distorted conditions.
CO2 Apply the theory and algorithms to 3 Applying
realize reference current generation,
reactive power compensation, voltage
regulation and harmonic compensation.
C03 Compare theories of load 4 Analyzing
compensation, reference generation,
figures of merits and power definitions,
Standards applicable to Power Quality.
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Course Contents:
Module 1 Hrs.
Introduction to Power Quality 4
Introduction, Electromagnetic phenomena – Transients, Long and short duration voltage variations, wave form
distortion.

Module 2 Hrs.
Fundamentals of Harmonics 6
Representation characteristic harmonics, Harmonic indices Harmonic sources-6&12 pulse related harmonics, harmonic
effects on power apparatus and on measurements, interference with communications

Module 3 Hrs.
Harmonic Mitigation Techniques 6
Shunt passive filters, types, Design considerations and illustrative examples, Active filters: types, current and voltage
source active filters, shunt, series & Hybrid active filters, Detuned filters.
Module 4: Introduction to custom power devices Hrs.
Concept of Custom Power Devises, and their applications in power system.
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Module 5: Theories of Load compensation Hrs.
Theories of Power Factor correction, voltage regulation and load compensation.
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Module 6: Control Theories of Load Compensation Hrs.
Instantaneous reactive power, PQ theory, Limitations of PQ theory, Symmetrical Components Theory. Modeling of
DSTATCOM.
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In Semester Evaluation Planned

Topic / Planned Actual Date /


Type of ISE CO evaluated
Module Date / Week Week

Class Test / 1 1,2 1


Assignment

Oral Exam / 2 All 1,2,3


Class Test

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Module - 1
Introduction to Power Quality

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What is Power Quality?
• Can be defined as:
– “Any power problem manifested in
• voltage,
• current,
• or frequency deviations
that results in failure or mal operation of
customer equipment”

POWER QUALITY is
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Major reasons for increased
concern about Power Quality
Reason 1:
Newer Generation load equipment, with
microprocessor based controls and power
electronic devices, is more sensitive to
power quality variations than was
equipment used in the past.

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LOADS
Our power systems were designed for:

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Now the power system serves

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Disturbing loads

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Sensitive Loads

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Reason 2:
The increasing emphasis on overall power
system efficiency has resulted in
continued growth in the application of
devices such as high efficiency adjustable
speed drives and shunt capacitors for
power factor correction to reduce loss.
Result : Increase in harmonic levels.
Impact of increased harmonic level is
point of concern.
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Reason 3:
Many things are interconnected in the
network. Integrated processes means that
failure of any component has more
important consequence.

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Classical Distribution Systems

PQ TUTORIAL: PART I 16/57


Future Distribution Systems

PQ TUTORIAL: PART I 17/57


Future Distribution system

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Why power quality failures? Write
categories of power quality
failures with percentage.
Example: Because of Utility
problem, Customer end problems,
Natural Phenomenon etc.

POWER QUALITY is
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Power Quality Failures
• Capacitor switching
causing transient
• Momentary fault on any
point on the system
causing sag and swell
• Degradation of
electronic component
over time causing
failure for the transient
below there rated
capacity
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What is Power Quality?
• Can be defined as:
– “Any power problem manifested in
• voltage,
• current,
• or frequency deviations
that results in failure or mal operation of
customer equipment”

POWER QUALITY is
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The cost of Power Quality
EPRI in report titled:
“The cost of power Disturbances to Industrial
and Digital Economy Companies”, July 2001
states that the “US economy is losing
between $104 billions and $164 billions a
year to PQ phenomena”

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Why is Power Quality Important?

• It affects both utilities as


suppliers and customers as
users

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Impact on Customer Side
• Computers and communication equipment are
susceptible to power system disturbances
which can lead to loss of data and erratic
operation.
• Automated manufacturing processes such as
paper – making machinery, chip-making
assembly lines ,etc. can shutdown in case of
even short voltage sags

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Induction and synchronous machines can have excessive
losses and heating.
Impact on Customer Side (Cont.)
• Home electronic equipment are vulnerable to power
quality problems-e.g., blinking VCR (Video-Cassette
Recorder) machines and digital clocks.
• Equipment and process control malfunction
translates to dollars of expense for replacement parts
and for down time ,impacting adversely on
profitability and product quality.

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Impact on Utility Side
• Increased losses in cables , transformers and
conductors, especially neutral wires.
• Errors in energy meters , which are calibrated
to operate under sinusoidal conditions.

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Failure of power –factor correction capacitors due to
resonance conditions.
Impact on Utility Side (Cont.)
• Interference with ripple control and power line
carrier systems used for remote switching, load
control,etc.
• Unhappy customers as well as malfunction and
failure of system components and control systems,
impacting adversely on profitability.

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Incorrect operation of protective relays,
particularly in solid-state and
microprocessor controlled systems.

Mal-operation Nuisance tripping

Trip level set lower than the fundamental value. Trip level set higher than the fundamental value.
The relay should trip as the fundamental value The relay should not trip as the fundamental
is higher than the trip level. But the presence of value is lower than the trip level. But the presence
harmonics has reduced the peak value. Hence of harmonics has increased the peak value. Hence
the protective relay will not trip. the protective relay will trip.
Classification of Power Quality
• Terminology for describing power quality
phenomenon.
• Classification
– Steady state vs non-steady state
– Based on the duration of the event
– Duration and magnitude
– Frequency range

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Categories and Characteristics of Power System
Electromagnetic Phenomena IEC

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Categories and Characteristics of Power System
Electromagnetic Phenomena

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Power Disturbance:
• Any deviation from the normal value of the input.
• Harmonic , noise , notching
• Transient
• Under voltage
• Overvolatge
• Swell
• Sag (dip)
• Interruption

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Voltage Quality within Utility Distribution
Event that is undesirable and momentary
in nature.
Transients – very quick < 1 cycle
– Normal cause is lightning strike
– No lights flicker
– Utilities employs lightning arrestors at substations
and at primary switches located at each building
electric service equipment
– End users need to purchase/install TVSS equipment
to further clamp the voltage spike.

( TVSS : transient voltage surge suppressor )


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Lightning

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Direct Strike

Conduction: An overvoltage that propagates along a conductor which has


been in direct contact with the lightning strike. This effect is all the more
destructive as the majority of the lightning energy is propagated through the
entire network. This problem is resolved by fitting the installation with suitable
device able to support high currents.

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Induction

Induction: caused by the electromagnetic field radiated by the lightning strike.


It generates an overvoltage on conductors within a range that is proportional to
the power and the rate of speed variation of the lightning strike. Consequently,
under the influence of abrupt variations in current, the cables, and even the
ducts which act as aerials, may be subjected to destructive overvoltages. This
is the reason that placing the network underground does not guarantee
lightning protection.
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Strike on Ground near FACILITY

Rising up from the ground: When a lightning strike hits, an overvoltage


can rise up from the ground attempting to find a more favourable path to
ground. This can, in part, be dealt with through a) equipotential bonding
between the metal structures and ground of the entire installation of a
structure. b) overvoltage protection installed on services.

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Transient voltage surge suppressors TVSS

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Impulsive Transient

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Oscillatory Transient

An oscillatory transient is a sudden, non power frequency


change in the steady-state condition of voltage, current,
or both that includes both positive and negative polarity
values.

• An oscillatory transient consists of a voltage or current whose


instantaneous value changes polarity rapidly.
• It is described by spectral content, duration and magnitude..

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Classification
oscillatory
transient

Medium
High Frequency Low Frequency
Frequency
Transient Transient
Transient

Spectral Between 5 and


content-greater Less than 5 kHz
500 kHz
than 500kHz
Duration-
In microseconds ie 10s of
0.3 to 50 ms
several cycles of microseconds
principle frequency

Cause: Back to back


Capacitor bank
Local system response to capacitor energization and
impulsive transient energization and ferroresonance 63
cable switching
Voltage Quality

• Long term voltage Variations


Long duration variations encompass root-mean-square (rms) deviations at
power frequency for longer than 1 min.
– As load increases, voltage drops (and vice versa)
– Utilities compensates the long-duration voltage variations through the
use of automatic load tap changers at the substation
– System voltage tolerance limits are set in ANSI C84.1. The system
voltages are designed to always operate in the range limits (108 –
126V)
--Long duration voltage variation can be either overvoltage or under
voltage.
- It is not the result of fault on the system. But as a consequence of
load variation.
- Displayed as plots of rms voltage verses time

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Overvoltage
An overvoltage is an increase in the rms ac voltage
greater than 110 percent at the power frequency for
a duration longer than 1 min.
• Overvoltages are usually the result of load switching
(e.g., switching off a large load or energizing a
capacitor bank).
• The overvoltages result because either the system is
too weak for the desired voltage regulation or
voltage controls are inadequate.
• Incorrect tap settings on transformers can also result
in system overvoltages.
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Overvoltage

Duration:> 1min
Magnitude:1.1-1.2pu 66
Undervoltage

An undervoltage is a decrease in the rms ac voltage to less


than 90 percent at the power frequency for a duration longer
than 1 min

• Undervoltages are the result of switching events that are the


opposite of the events that cause overvoltages.

• A load switching on or a capacitor bank switching off can cause


an undervoltage until voltage regulation equipment on the
system can bring the voltage back to within tolerances.
Overloaded circuits can result in undervoltages also.

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Undervoltage

Duration >1min
Magnitude: 0.8-0.9pu
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Sustained Interruptions
• When the supply voltage has been zero for a period of time in
excess of 1 min, the long-duration voltage variation is
considered a sustained interruption
-Voltage interruptions longer than 1 min are often permanent and require
human intervention to repair the system for restoration.
-The term sustained interruption refers to specific power system phenomena
and, in general, has no relation to the usage of the
term outage.
-Outage, as defined in IEEE Standard 100, does not refer to a specific
phenomenon, but rather to the state of a component in a system that has
failed to function as expected.
-Also, use of the term interruption in the context of power quality monitoring
has no relation to reliability or other continuity of service statistics. Thus, this
term has been defined to be more specific regarding the absence of voltage for
long periods. 69
Short Duration Voltage Variations
• This category encompasses the IEC category of voltage dips
and short interruptions. Each type of variation can be
designated as instantaneous, momentary, or temporary,
depending on its duration.
• Short-duration voltage variations are caused by
• fault conditions
• the energization of large loads which require high
starting currents
• intermittent loose connections in power wiring.
• The fault can cause either temporary voltage drops (sags),
voltage rises (swells), or a complete loss of voltage
(interruptions).

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Voltage Quality within Utility
Distribution

Sags / Swells
– Voltage imbalance lasting from 3-20 cycles
– Typical cause switching on the incoming by high
voltage transmission line
– Lights flickering are indicative of this fault
– Utilities does not protect for this condition

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Variation voltage magnitudes and duration IEEE 1159

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Voltage Sag
A sag is a decrease to between 0.1 and 0.9 pu in rms voltage
or current at the power frequency for durations from 0.5 cycle
to 1 min.

• 20 percent sag will be considered an event during which the rms


voltage decreased by 20 percent to 0.8 pu.
• Voltage sags are usually associated with system faults but can
also be caused by energization of heavy loads or starting of
large motors.
• Effects:
• Duration-dependent
• Failure of computer equipment
• Outages of sensitive process plants

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Voltage Sags
• Effects:
– Duration-dependent
– Failure of computer equipment
– Outages of sensitive process plants

• Measures
– CBEMA Curve (1978): less stringent restrictions
– ITIC Curve (1996): demands more severe
performance standards

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Sag or Dip

Duration:3s-1min
Magnitude:0.1-0.9pu
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Process Solenoid Relay & Contactor Operated
Devices that can “trip” with
25% Voltage Sag Events

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Voltage Swell
A swell is defined as an increase to between 1.1 and 1.8 pu in
rms voltage or current at the power frequency for durations
from 0.5 cycle to 1 min.

• Swells are characterized by their magnitude (rms value) and


duration.
• The severity of a voltage swell during a fault condition is a
function of the fault location, system impedance, and grounding.
• Swell can occur :
• temporary voltage rise on the unfaulted phases during an SLG
fault.
• switching off a large load or energizing a large capacitor bank.

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Swell

Duration:3s-1min
Magnitude: 1.1-1.2pu 81
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Voltage Imbalance
Voltage imbalance (also called voltage unbalance) is sometimes
defined as the maximum deviation from the average of the three-
phase voltages or currents, divided by the average of the three-
phase voltages or currents, expressed in percent.
OR
The ratio of either the negative- or zero sequence component to
the positive-sequence component can be used to specify the
percent unbalance

• Voltage unbalance can also be the result of blown fuses in one


phase of a three-phase capacitor bank.
• Severe voltage unbalance (greater than 5 percent) can result
from single-phasing conditions.

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Waveform Distortion
Waveform distortion is defined as a steady-state deviation from
an ideal sine wave of power frequency principally characterized
by the spectral content of the deviation

There are five primary types of waveform distortion:


■ DC offset
■ Harmonics
■ Interharmonics
■ Notching
■ Noise

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DC Offset
The presence of a dc voltage or current in an ac power system
is termed dc offset

Cause:
• Asymmetry of electronic power converters.
• Incandescent light bulb life extenders, for example, may consist
of diodes that reduce the rms voltage supplied to the light bulb
by half-wave rectification.

Effect:
• Detrimental effect by biasing transformer cores so they saturate
in normal.
• Additional heating and loss of transformer life
• Electrolytic erosion of grounding electrodes and other
connectors 85
Harmonics
Harmonics are sinusoidal voltages or currents having
frequencies that are integer multiples of the frequency at
which the supply system is designed to operate (50 to 60 Hz)
Cause:
• nonlinear characteristics of devices and loads on the power
system.
Harmonic indices:
Harmonic distortion levels are described by the complete
harmonic spectrum with magnitudes and phase angles of each
individual harmonic component.
• The total harmonic distortion (THD), is a measure of the
effective value of harmonic distortions.
• The total demand distortion (TDD) is the same as the total
harmonic distortion except that the distortion is expressed as a
percent of some rated load current rather than as a percent of
the fundamental current magnitude at the instant 86of
Interharmonics
Voltages or currents having frequency components that are not
integer multiples of the frequency at which the supply system is
designed to operate (e.g., 50 or 60 Hz) are called
interharmonics
Cause:
• It is generally the result of frequency conversion . It varies with
load.
• static frequency converters, cycloconverters, induction
furnaces, and arcing devices.

Effect:

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Notching
Notching is a periodic voltage disturbance caused by the
normal operation of power electronic devices when current is
commutated from one phase to another.
• Notching is characterised by the harmonic spectrum of the
affected voltage.
• Higher order frequencies are associated with notching.
• The notches occur when the current commutates from one
phase to another. During this period, there is a momentary
short circuit between two phases, pulling the voltage as close
to zero as permitted by system impedances.

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Noise
Noise is defined as unwanted electrical signals with broadband
spectral content lower than 200 kHz superimposed upon the
power system voltage or current in phase conductors, or found
on neutral conductors or signal lines.

Cause:
• Noise in power systems can be caused by power electronic
devices, control circuits, arcing equipment, loads with solid-
state rectifiers, and switching power
• Noise problems are often exacerbated by improper grounding
that fails to conduct noise away from the power system.

Effect:
• Noise disturbs electronic devices such as microcomputer and
programmable controllers..
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Noise

Duration: steady state


Magnitude: 0-1%
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End of module one. Any questions?

• END OF MODULE ONE

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