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Introduction.

Pharmaceutical Chemistry- 111A (Pharmaceutical Analysis)


[Theory]
PHARM 511 Cr..Hr. 03
Introduction.

Pharmaceutical Chemistry- 111A (Pharmaceutical Analysis)


[Theory]
PHARM 511 Cr..Hr. 03
Spectroscopic Methods.

Chromatographic Methods.
• AAS AND AES
• Molecular Fluorescence Spectroscopy
• Flame photometry
• I.R Spectroscopy
• Mass Spectroscopy
• NMR Spectroscopy
• UV/Visible Spectroscopy
Chromatographic
methods
Column chromatography
Thin layer chromatography
Gas liquid chromatography
HPLC
LCMS
GCMS
Capillary Electrophoresis
.
Compound Analysis
How?

• Spectroscopic methods.
• Easier
• Faster
• Accurate information
• Non desrective
Electromagnetic Radiation.
• A stream of energatic
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The Electromagnetic
Spectrum &
Electromagnetic
Radiation
What are electromagnetic waves?
Produced by the motion of electrically
charged particles
Also called “electromagnetic radiation”
because they radiate from electrically
charged particles
LIGHT
According to the wave theory, light consists
of electromagnetic waves
– Radiowaves
– Microwaves
– Infrared waves
– Visible light
– Ultraviolet light
– X-rays
– Gamma rays
General Properties of Electromagnetic
Radiation
The electromagnetic radiation is looked at as waves which are
composed of a combination of two fields. An electric field and a
magnetic field at right angle to the electric field .
Properties of waves
Wavelength
Frequency
Amplitude
Cycles / second (Hertz)
. Wavelength ()
The wavelength of a wave is the distance
between two consecutive maxima or two
consecutive minima on the wave. It can also
be defined as the distance between two
equivalent points.
2. Amplitude (A)
The amplitude of the wave is represented
by the length of the electrical vector at a
maximum or minimum in the wave.
FREQUENCY
3. Frequency

The frequency of the wave is directly proportional to the


energy of the wave and is defined as the number of
wavelengths passing a fixed point in space in one
second.

4. Period (p)

The period of the wave is the time in seconds required


for one wavelength to pass a fixed point in space.

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VELOCITY
5. Velocity (v)
The velocity of a wave is defined as the multiplication of the
frequency times the wavelength. This means:
V = 
The velocity of light in vacuum is greater than its velocity in
any other medium

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Those shiny electrons!
Electrons can change energy levels
The energy change of the
electron gives off light with a
specific frequency
If an electron falls to energy level 1,
ultraviolet light is emitted
If an electron falls to energy level 2,
visible light is emitted
If an electron falls to energy level 3,
infrared light is emitted
The Importance of the
Atomic Spectrum
Like a fingerprint for the element
Each element has a unique number of
So, the atomic
electrons
spectra can be
So the electrons move to different
used to identify
energy levels when they absorb energy.
elements!
When the electrons fall, they produce a
spectra specific to that element