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 Group # 9:

 M.Zeeshan Shakeel
 Hafza Asgar
 Noor Shah
 Zeenat Rana
 Liquid nitrogen has an extraordinarily low
boiling point of -196 degrees Celsius.
 Yet when cold temperatures occur i.e.,
when adhesive tape is dipped in liquid
nitrogen liquid component of the adhesive
tape hardens.
 The tape loses its natural form and its
overall tackiness.
 It can therefore no longer make the
adequate contact needed for good adhesion
 When a hollow rubber ball is frozen with
liquid nitrogen, the molecules in the ball are
unable to move around.
 The potential energy is unable to convert
to kinetic energy.
 When ball hits against the wall it breaks into
pieces because it has become hard and
brittle when frozen.
 Dinner bell coated with latex paint makes
louder noise when placed in freezer
because latex paint is aqueous solution
which freeze in the freezer .
 Latex paint become hard due to which bell
makes louder noise.
 Also temperature has inverse relation with
the frequency of the bell.
 The rate of emulsion polymerization of styrene at
80◦C temperature upon the particle size of
resultant latex , and upon their intrinsic viscosity
of polymer produced.
 The aromatic diluents were found to much have
greater effect in reducing the rate of
polymerization is approximately third order in
initial concentration of monomer in oil phase as
 The intrinsic viscosity of polymer produced tend
to fall with rate of polymerization.
When temperature increase from 50 to 80◦C,
the range of constant polymerization become
narrow and reaction of system become
There are some reasons, the reaction does not
proceed quite 100% conversion.
The reason of wrinkles appear in shirt is:

A fiber is continuous polymer which when

spun into thread, make fabric. When
polymer chain are broken, often achieved
through heat, and then reset. This process
allow chain to take different shape, when
heat is taken away, the bond cool in new
shape ( a wrinkle).
How to wrinkles or creases straighten out:

 Use correct iron settling techniques to

remove deep wrinkles from your nylon
clothing without causing damage or leaving
unwanted shine.
 Use steam to remove clothing wrinkles. The
steam is obtained from hot shower or tea
kettle it helps to lose a wrinkle hold.
 When we want to separate the stamp from
envelop paper. Due to moisture with water, the
stamp glue weak, and it allow the stamp to drift
apart from envelop paper. So, this is reason we
moisturized the postage stamp with water.
 To a very large extent, high injection
pressures create internal stresses in the
molded part.
 In plunger-type machines, there is usually
excessive pressure loss. Therefore, injection
pressures are necessarily high in these
 , particularly with high viscosity materials.
Thus, parts produced in reciprocating screw
machines have better physical properties
 It is much easier to keep the melt
temperature within limits by the
regulation of screw speed and barrel
 Thus heat-sensitive polymers like PVC
and HDPE are easier to handle in
screw-type machines.
plunger-type Screw-machine
 In a semi crystalline polymers, two regions are
embedded together one is crystalline and other is
 So in case of crystalline region, more energy is required
to break the crystallinity to amorphous and then rubber
stage is achieved.
 But in case of amorphous polymer, chains in regular
symmetry do not exist i.e., no chain breakage required
only melting of polymer takes place.
 The influence of thermal expansion results in the
stiffness of the polymer.
 Extrusion of plastics occurs at or above the glass
transition temperature of the polymer which is thermal
expansion phenomenon.
 If a polymer is amorphous, a decrease is seen in the
modulus at temperature near Tg, which is the stiffening
of material.