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THANK YOU

Hi,
Thank you for buying this great resource. This Power Point presentation covers the
NEW Next Generation Life Science Standards for Middle School. The Standard
that it focuses on is predominantly MSLS3-1. However it does touch on other
standards which you can find on the next page. This resource would be suitable for
K12 Middle and High school.

This resource concentrates on the following KEY areas and concepts:

1. The Structure of DNA.


2. DNA replication and growth
3. Protein Synthesis
4. DNA Mutations

There is sufficient material to cover a minimum of 8 lessons, each lesson consists of


information examples, review questions and research opportunities. No textbook is
needed, everything that you need can be found in this presentation. You may wish
to use a text book to enhance student learning and to allow students to research
further

Thanks. BiologyGuy.
For more resources: http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Store/Edward-White
Special thanks to:
THANK YOU

1.Jesse MacLeod Blue Bokeh at http://CreativeWebsites.me/ http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ , background


2. Pixabay http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/deed.en Public Domain: dna and cell, cool guy
3. By Ya-Hui Chi , Zi-Jie Chen and Kuan-Teh Jeang (The nuclear envelopathies and human diseases) [CC-BY-2.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons, mitosis
4. By Forluvoft (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons DNA
5. By OpenStax College [CC-BY-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons nucleus
6. Servier Medical Art https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en via flickr, chromosome
6. By File:Chromosome-es.svg: KES47 (talk) derivative work: KES47 (File:Chromosome-es.svg) [CC-BY-3.0
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons DNA, chromosomes and genes
7. By Mediran (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons cell
8. By OpenStax College [CC-BY-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons DNA replication.
9. I, Madprime [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) or
CC-BY-SA-2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5-2.0-1.0)], via Wikimedia Commons, DNA replication
10. Sverdrup http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:MRNA-interaction.png http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en,
MRNA-interaction.png
11. By Difference_DNA_RNA-DE.svg: Sponk (talk) translation: Sponk [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-
sa/3.0), CC-BY-SA-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0), GFDL
(http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0), CC-BY-SA-3.0-2.5-2.0-
1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons
RNA.
12. Charles Eisenmann This media file is in the public domain in the United States. This applies to U.S. works where the
copyright has expired, often because its first publication occurred prior to January 1, 1923. See this page for further
explanation Fedor Jeftichew
13. By National Cancer Institute [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons. Karyotype.
14. Kablam http://openclipart.org/detail/27954/super-hero---flame-by-kablam super hero.
Lesson Guide
Lesson 1: Introduction, how do we grow? Exploring mitosis,
growth, cancer and stem cells.

Lesson 2: What is found in a cell. What is the nucleus?

Lesson 3: What is the Structure of DNA?

Lesson 4: “DNA Structure” Activity.

Lesson 5: DNA Replication.

Lesson 6: How are proteins made? How do proteins give us


our characteristics?

Lesson 7: What are mutations? How do they occur?

Lesson 8: “Mutations” activity.


Next Generation Science Standards
Growth, Development, and Reproduction
of Organisms: MS. LS3-1. LS3A:

Life Science Standard:


MS-LS3-1. Develop and use a model to describe why structural changes
to genes (mutations) located on chromosomes may affect proteins and
may result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and
function of the organism. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on
conceptual understanding that changes in genetic material may result in
making different proteins.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not
include specific changes at the molecular level, mechanisms for protein
synthesis, or specific types of mutations.
Next Generation Science Standards MS. LS3-1.
LS3A: Genetics
LS3.A: Inheritance of Traits
Genes are located in the chromosomes of cells, with each chromosome pair
containing two variants of each of many distinct genes. Each distinct gene
chiefly controls the production of specific proteins, which in turn affects the
traits of the individual. Changes (mutations) to genes can result in changes
to proteins, which can affect the structures and functions of
Engineering Standard:Develop and use a model to describe
phenomena. (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2).
Cross Cutting Standard: Cause and Effect: Cause and effect
relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural systems. (MS-
LS3-2) may have more than one cause, and some cause and effect
relationships in systems can only be described using probability. (MS-LS1-
4),(MS-LS1-5),(MS-LS4-5) Structure and Function microscopic structures
and systems can be visualized, modeled, and used to describe how their
function depends on the shapes, composition, and relationships among its
parts, therefore complex natural and designed structures/systems can be
analyzed to determine how they function. (MS-LS3-1)
Next Generation Science
Standards MS. LS3-1. LS3A:
Genetics
How do organisms grow,
and develop?

Why do we have curly or


straight hair?
DNA
ROCKS
What are mutations?

What is DNA

BiologyGuy©
What Do I Need To Know?
We will cover:
Cells
Mitosis
Basic Structure of a cell
Genetics

What questions you need to be able to answer:


1. What is inside the nucleus?
2. How DNA, Genes and Chromosomes are linked?
3. What is the structure of DNA?
4. How are proteins made?
5. How do proteins give us our characteristics?
6. How can mutations in genes effect the structure and function of
an organism and their traits? BiologyGuy©
1
INTRODUCTION:

How Do Organisms Grow?


1. How do you think organisms grow? In your journal
explain how you think people grow, what is going on in the
body when someone gets taller or fatter?

?
BiologyGuy©
1.
INTRODUCTION:

How Do Organisms Grow?


Organisms are living things. Humans, plants even bacteria
are organisms.

Organisms grow by dividing cells. You start with one cell,


this then divides during a process called mitosis to form a
new cell, this cell can then divide and the process
continues.

Cell dividing
Cell

Daughter cell

BiologyGuy©
How Do Organisms Grow?
“Wait I’m confused….. You said what? Cells?
Mitosis? What are these things? Is that all that
is needed for things to grow?”

Cells are the building


Cell blocks of life, they
contain DNA in their
nucleus which
contains all of the
information needed to
make another cell.

Mitosis is the process by which a cell divides to produce two


daughter cells that are identical to the original parent cell.
BiologyGuy©
Mitosis:
When we grow we are basically getting more cells. These
cells are made by mitosis.

Parent Cell

2 daughter cells
This picture shows
Cells undergoing
Different stages of
Mitosis. BiologyGuy©
Mitosis:
PROPHASE
Parent Cell
METAPHASE

CYTOKINESIS Here are the


basic steps in
ANAPHASE
Mitosis. The
process starts
with a parent cell
TELOPHASE
and produces 2
daughter cells.

BiologyGuy©
Mitosis:
If cells were humans mitosis would look like this:.

Daughter cells
Parent cell

BiologyGuy©
Mitosis:
In a person the cells divide to grow different body parts, for
example when your ear grows the cells are multiplying and
making the ear bigger.

cells

“My Ear cells are about


to grow!” “Wait! Stop that is too much!”
BiologyGuy©
Mitosis:
What would happen if when a cell divided it did not divide
correctly? For example if a skin cell divided but instead of
producing a skin cell it produced a hair cell? What would
happen if a cell divided out of control?

“Argh.. My
ear is all
hairy!”
BiologyGuy©
Review:
1. How do organisms grow? Write a paragraph. Compare your
original answer to your new answer.
2. What are cells?
3. What is Mitosis? Why is it important in growth?
4. What would happen if cells did not replicate during mitosis?
5. Summarize the steps of mitosis.

BiologyGuy©
Research:
Here are some interesting topics that you might want to
research using a textbook or other resource:

1) What is MITOSIS? What are the different stages, what is


happening at each stage?

2) What is cancer? How many types are there? How is it


caused? What are the symptoms and how can it be
prevented and treated. 3) What are Stem Cells?
Where can you find
them? Why are they
important? What are they
used for?
4) Who was Robert Hooke?
BiologyGuy©
2
What Is Found In a Cell?
Cells are made up of many structures, many of these will be
covered in another unit on cells. What we need to focus on
is the NUCLEUS.
CYTOPLASM:
Gel like fluid,
RIBOSOME: inside the cell,
Site where allows movement
proteins are of organelles
made

CELL MEMBRANE NUCLEUS


Surrounds the cell. Contains DNA,
Controls what controls cells
enters and leaves activity
the cell.
BiologyGuy©
The Nucleus
The nucleus contains the very important genetic information,
called DNA - Deoxyribonucleic Acid. The DNA, contains all of
the information to build another cell, you could even build
another person with the information that is found in a person’s
DNA.
Nuclear envelope Nuclear
pores
chromatin
nucleus
nucleolus

DNA
Cisternae
BiologyGuy©
The Nucleus
In humans the nucleus contains chromosomes, there are 23
pairs of chromosomes, making 46 in total. Each paired
chromosome has 2 variants of a gene. Genes are made of
DNA. The genes code for our characteristics, such as eye
color, hair type, they may even determine personality.

NUCLEUS DNA
DNA
CHROMOSOME
BiologyGuy©
How are DNA, Genes and Chromosomes
linked?
nucleus chromosome

Cell
• The cell contains the nucleus

•The nucleus contains


chromosomes

•Chromosomes are made of


genes
Gene

•Genes are made of DNA


DNA

BiologyGuy©
Review:
1. What is the Nucleus? Where is it located?
2. How many chromosomes are there in a human cell.
3. What is the difference between a chromatid and
chromosome?
4. How are cells, DNA, Genes and Chromosomes linked?
Produce a visual to complement your description.

FRAGILE
DNA

BiologyGuy©
RESEARCH

1. What is the structure


of a cell? Draw and
describe the key
features of an animal
cell

2. What are the functions of the


organelles, that are found inside a
cell?
BiologyGuy©
3. The Structure of DNA?
DNA is constructed of
4 nucleotide bases,
Adenine, thymine,
cytosine, guanine

These bases are held


together by the sugar
phosphate backbone,
which is twisted.

The structure forms a


double helix twisted
ladder.

BiologyGuy©
The Structure of DNA?

Adenine Thymine

Cytosine Guanine

Thymine Adenine

Guanine Cytosine

Each DNA base pairs with its complimentary base. A-T, and
G-C BiologyGuy©
The Structure of DNA?

p D A

p D Adenine Thymine
G

p D T
Cytosine Guanine
p D C
Thymine Adenine
P= Phosphate group
D= Deoxyribose Guanine Cytosine
A= Adenine
G= Guanine
T =Thymine
C= Cytosine
BiologyGuy©
DNA REVIEW:

1. What are the 4 nucleotide bases that make up DNA?


2. Describe the basic structure of DNA.
3. Put the following in order of size. DNA, Chromosome,
cell, nucleus
4. Copy and Complete the complementary pairing of this
half DNA strand:

Adenine ---- _______


Thymine ----_______
Adenine ----________
Guanine ----________
_______ --- Guanine
Adenine -----_______
_______----- Adenine
BiologyGuy©
4.
“DNA STRUCTURE” ACTIVITY:
Science and Engineering practices
Develop and use a model to describe phenomena.
(MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2)

1. Produce a model to describe the structure of DNA.


2. Explain how Chromosomes, genes and DNA are linked.

BiologyGuy©
5
DNA Replication

BiologyGuy©
5 How is DNA replicated during growth?
When an organism grows its cells divide by MITOSIS. During this process the
DNA needs to be copied and transferred to the new daughter cell. The
process of DNA replication can be broken down into 3 steps.

Parent
DNA
DNA for
daughter
cells

BiologyGuy©
How is DNA replicated? STEP 1
In order for DNA to replicate itself it needs to make a copy of its
DNA. The 1st step in DNA replication is the unwinding of the
DNA strand.

As the DNA
unwinds it
exposes the
base pairs:
- Adenine
- Thymine
- Cytosine

DNA unwinds or - Guanine


DNA unzips
BiologyGuy©
How is DNA replicated? STEP 2

In the 2nd step the DNA that is unzipped then creates a


complimentary DNA strands using the existing DNA as a
template. DNA polymerase creates the new strand by adding
complimentary nucleotide bases to the the template strand.

TEMPLATE:
Template STRAND GACTGACTGAC

DNA polymerase

C
Complimentary STRAND T G

Complimentary bases BiologyGuy©


How is DNA replicated? STEP 3
In the 3rd step the DNA Polymerase has successfully created the
new strands, that match the bases in the original strand. The
DNA then zips itself up. The cell now has a copy of its DNA and
is ready to divide to produce a new cell.

Original Template strand


TEMPLATE STRAND
GACTGACTGAC
CTGACTGACTG
NEW STRAND
DNA zips up This DNA is identical to the
New strand original parent DNA.

The cell now has a copy of its DNA and is ready to divide by mitosis to
produce a new cell.
BiologyGuy©
Summary of How DNA is replicated for growth:
Step 1. The DNA is unzipped

Step 2: DNA polymerase is used to


Parent DNA
create a complimentary strand to the
original strand.

Step 3: The complementary strand 1


and original strand zip together,
forming DNA that is identical to the
parent DNA 2

The daughter DNA contains one new strand Daughter


(complementary strand) and one old strand DNA
which came from the parent 3
BiologyGuy©
Summary of How DNA is replicated for growth:

PARENT CELL
Once the cell
has a copy of
the DNA it is
ready to divide
and produce a
new daughter
cell. This is
called
MITOSIS.

DAUGHTER CELLS
BiologyGuy©
DNA REPLICATION REVIEW:
1. What is DNA replication?
2. What role does DNA Polymerase play in DNA replication?
3. Produce a 3 step summary for DNA replication.
4. Create 3 questions that relate to DNA replication.

BiologyGuy©
6 How are Proteins Made?
Proteins are found throughout cells and cause most of the
differences that you can see among organisms.
Proteins help determine what color you can see, what color your
eyes are and whether your hair is curly or straight.
Proteins are made by following a genetic code, the code is
found in the genes.
Our genes determine our characteristics such as; will we have
curly or straight hair? This genetic information is expressed by
PROTEINS which are made using the DNA sequence that
codes for that particular gene.

DNA GENES Characteristic is


PROTEIN
expressed.
EX. Curly/Straight
BiologyGuy©
How are Proteins Made?
1. The chromosome
contains DNA
2. A section of DNA
bases codes for a Gene 1
Gene. (curly or (curly)
straight)
3. The gene has the
genetic information to
make proteins which
express the trait of Gene 2
curly or straight hair. (straight)
4. The protein is made
with the help of amino
acids directly from the
genes
BiologyGuy©
How are Proteins Made?

1.

Nuclear Membrane
3.

4.
The mRNA leaves the
nucleus
2.

Cell Membrane
BiologyGuy©
How are Proteins Made?
1. A copy is made of one side of the DNA where a gene is
found. The mirror like copy of DNA is called Messenger RNA
(mRNA). The copy is made in a similar way to how DNA
replicates. The difference being that Thymine becomes Uracil
and that the copy of DNA will not stay in the nucleus

DNA

DNA
nucleus copied

mRNA
BiologyGuy©
How are Proteins Made?
2. The mRNA, leaves the Nucleus and enters the cytoplasm.
The mRNA like DNA has nucleotide bases. Every 3 bases in
sequence will code for an amino acid. This will happen in the
ribosome. RNA

The mRNA leaves the


nucleus

mRNA
Nucleotide
ribosome bases
BiologyGuy©
How are Proteins Made?
3. The mRNA is fed through a ribosome, as this happens transfer
RNA (tRNA), brings amino acids from the cytoplasm to the
ribosome. The genetic order of the mRNA determines which
amino acids are bought to the ribosome. This produces an amino
acid chain
Amino Acid
Amino acid
chain
tRNA

ribosome BiologyGuy©
How are Proteins Made?
4.The amino acid chains will grow until they form a protein.
Usually one protein is produced for each gene. This protein will
then express a certain characteristic, such as hair or eye color.

Amino Acid
Amino acid
chain
tRNA

ribosome BiologyGuy©
How are Proteins Made? REVIEW

1. How many steps are there in the process of Protein


Synthesis?
2. What is Messenger RNA?
3. What is Transfer RNA?
4. Where does protein synthesis take place?
5. What is the relationship between Amino Acids and Proteins?
6. What is the link between Amino Acids and mRNA?
7. Complete a summary to describe the steps of Protein
Synthesis. Use the printout from the next slide. Describe what
is happening at each of the 4 points.

BiologyGuy©
1.

3.

4.

2.

BiologyGuy©
7 WHAT ARE MUTATIONS?
How did Peter Parker’s
DNA change to give him
spider ability?
Can you guess
who I am? The spider that bit him
changed/mutated his
DNA. The DNA then
coded for different
proteins, this made him
have super powers
Super
protein
Mutation= change in DNA base
Spider mutation
BiologyGuy©
MUTATIONS
Can you guess
who I am?

Who is this? What are


his special
Imagine if youpowers?
had super powers and could shoot fire from
your eyes. That would be an eXtreme mutation.
BiologyGuy©
Mutations
Why do super heroes have super powers?

Normal vision
T- T - T-C-C-G- G -G -C
Cyclops Vision ( With burst of light)
T- T- T- C- C- C -G- G- C
A Combination of mutations that occur in DNA sequences
will alter a gene. This altered gene will result in the
production of different proteins which could give special
abilities. BiologyGuy©
Mutations
1. What mutation occurred in the DNA? What is the correct base
pair of Thymine?

2. Will the normal DNA, produce the same Amino Acid and protein
As the mutated DNA?
BiologyGuy©
Human Mutations
This is a picture of Fedor Jeftichew, from
Russia. He lived 1868 - January 31, 1904. He
was a sideshow performer.

He was diagnosed with Hypertrichosis.

Hypertrichosis is also called “werewolf


syndrome” or Ambras syndrome, and it affects
as few as one in a billion people; and in fact,
only 50 cases have been documented since
the Middle Ages.

People with hypertrichosis have excessive hair


on the shoulders, face, and ears. Studies have
implicated it to a rearrangement of
chromosome 8.

BiologyGuy©
Human Mutations

People with
hypertrichosis have
excessive hair on
their shoulders,
face, and ears.
Studies have
implicated it to a
rearrangement of
chromosome 8.

Chromosome 8

BiologyGuy©
Human Mutations
Chromosome 8 can be
seen in a human
Karyotype, along with
the other 22 pairs of
chromosomes. In
Hypertrichosis the DNA
bases in chromosome 8
become rearranged.

Karyotype: an
organized profile of an
organisms’
chromosomes.

BiologyGuy©
How Do Mutations Happen?
U.V Light from
the sun. Radiation (nuclear)
Alpha, Beta, Gamma,
X-Rays.

Chemicals
like those found
in cigarettes and
in the home.

Mistakes that
occur when a cell
copies itself.
BiologyGuy©
Do Mutations matter?
In the case of super heroes Mutations can
be a good thing. They may even result in
the survival of one species over another.

But they can be harmful, they can result


in Cancers, or the expression of harmful
traits. For example, a mutation that
makes an animal a brighter color can
make the animal easier for predators to
find.

Sometimes the body’s cells produce


proteins which repair mutations. But not
all mutations are repaired. If it occurs in a
sex cell these mutations could then be
passed on to other generations.
BiologyGuy©
Mutations Review
1. What is a mutation, where does it take place?
2. Who is Peter Parker?
3. What is hypertrichosis?
4. Which chromosome is effected in hypertrichosis?
5. What is a Karyotype? Draw a human Karyotype.
6. Produce a small poster to Explain what causes mutations
7. What evidence is there to support the fact that mutations
are bad?

BiologyGuy©
8 “Mutations” Activity:
Engineering Standard:Develop and use a model to
describe phenomena. (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2).

1. Using your knowledge of Karyotypes, chromosomes,


genes, DNA and protein synthesis create a super hero.
2. Explain how your super hero got its mutation.
3. Explain and illustrate what powers your super hero has.

BiologyGuy©
BENDY ARMED MAN!!

SUPER POWERS:

He can stretch out


his arms up to 50
times their length,
How did he get his powers?
As a developing fetus, his mother His head can
Worked in a rubber factory. The change shape
chemicals in the rubber changed His hands can
the DNA of the developing fetus. change shape
Giving him super powers!! Show
example of his DNA. Which
chromosome was effected?
BiologyGuy©
Where to Next?
Suggestions:
1. The Cell Cycle -Mitosis
2. The Structure and Function of a Cell
3. Inheritance of Genes
4. Sexual and Asexual Reproduction
5. Growth and development in humans
6. Heredity
Check out these resources from BiologyGuy:

1 http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/DNA-FUN-LAB-379543

1.

BiologyGuy©