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# Non-uniform Flows

in Open Channel
Faculty of Engineering & Technology
INTI University College
Open Channel Flows

 Steady flow – velocity, pressure and cross-section do not change with time
 Unsteady flow – velocity, pressure and cross-section change with time

##  Uniform flow – velocity or depth is same at every section

 Non-uniform flow – velocity or depth is not same at every section
Open Channel Flows

Steady uniform flow will occur in long channels (of constant cross-section and
slope) over that portion (which is far enough from entry or exit) for the flow to
have reached its terminal velocity.
Under these conditions, the depth is constant and known as the normal depth.

At entry and exit where the depth is varying and wherever the cross-section is
changing as would be the case in most rivers and natural channels, steady non-
uniform flow will occur if conditions do not change with time.
This is also referred to as varied flow.
Uniform flows in open channels
Chezy’s formula

## where v = mean velocity (m/s)

C = Chezy's coefficient (L1/2T-1)
m = hydraulic radius = Area/Wetted perimeter = A/P
i = slope of energy line

 For steady uniform flow, the slope of the energy line, i is equal to the bed slope, S
v  C RS (m/s)

## where C = Chezy's coefficient (L1/2T-1)

R = hydraulic radius = Area/Wetted perimeter = A/P
S = bed slope

##  Discharge Q = ACmi (m3 /s)

Manning’s formula
1 2/ 3 1/ 2
 Manning’s formula: v  m i (m/s)
n
where v = mean velocity (m/s)
n = Manning’s roughness coefficient (L-1/3T)
m = hydraulic radius = Area/Wetted perimeter
i = slope of energy line

 For steady uniform flow, the slope of the energy line, I is equal to the bed slope, S
1 (m/s)
v  R 2 / 3S1 / 2
n
where n = Manning’s roughness coefficient (L-1/3T)
R = hydraulic radius = Area/Wetted perimeter
S = bed slope

1
 Discharge Q  AR 2 / 3S1 / 2 (m3 /s)
n
Table 15.2: Values of n in Manning’s formula

## Surface of channel Roughness n

Neat cement 0.010 to 0.013
Cement mortar 0.011 to 0.015
Concrete, in situ 0.012 to 0.018
Concrete, precast 0.011 to 0.013
Brick with cement mortar 0.012 to 0.017
Canals, earth, straight and uniform 0.017 to 0.025
Natural streams, clean, smooth and straight 0.025 to 0.035
Natural streams, rough 0.045 to 0.060
Uniform flow formulae

 Continuity equation: Q = AV

 Chezy equation: v  C RS

Q  AC RS

1 23 12
 Manning’s equation: v  R S
n

1 2 1
Q  AR S 2
3
n
Geometry of Channel Cross-Sections
Geometry of Channel Cross-Sections

B + 2zD

1 1 1
D
Z Z Z

## Hydraulic radius R = A/P

Channel Geometric Properties
 Depth of water = D
 Wetted Parameter = P
T (or) Bs
 Cross-sectional area = A

##  Hydraulic radius R = A/P Area = A

D
 Top width (or) Surface width = T (or Bs)

##  Hydraulic Mean depth = Dm = A/T

or Dm = A/Bs
Example 1

 A rectangular open channel has a width of 4.5 m and a slope of 1 vertical to 400
horizontal. Find the mean velocity of flow v and the discharge Q when the depth D
of water is 1.2 m, if C in the Chezy formula is 49 in SI units.

## A = BD = 4.5 x 1.2 = 5.4

P = B + 2D = 4.5 + 2 x 1.2 = 6.9 D
R = A/P = 0.784
B
Chezy formula: v  C RS

## Mean velocity V = 49 x (0.784 x 1/400) = 2.164 m/s

Discharge Q = AV = 5.4 x 2.164 = 11.718 m3/s
Example 2

 A trapezoidal canal has a bottom width B of 3 m and sides with a slope of 1 vertical
to 2 horizontal. The slope of the bed is 1 in 5000 and the depth of water D is 1.2 m.
Using the Manning formula with n = 0.025, calculate the rate of discharge in m3/s.

## P = B + 2D (1 + Z2) = 3 + 2 x 1.2 x (1 + 22) = 8.37 m

R = A/P = 0.775 1 D
2
1 2 1
Manning’s formula: v  R 3S 2 B
n

## Mean velocity V = 1/0.025 x (0.775)2/3 (1/5000)1/2 = 0.476 m/s

Discharge Q = AV = 6.48 x 0.476 = 3.09 m3/s
Example 3

 A rectangular channel has a width B of 2.4 m and a slope i of 1 in 400. What will be
the depth of water D if the rate of flow Q is 8.5 m3/s and the coefficient C in the
Chezy formula is 51 in SI units?

A = BD = 2.4 x D
P = B + 2D = 2.4 + 2D
R = A/P D
Chezy formula: v  C RS or Q  AC RS
B
8.5 = 2.4 D x 51 x (2.4D/(2.4 + 2D) x (1/400))
1.388 = (2.4 D/(2.4 + 2D))1/2D
• By trial and error,
D =1 R.H.S. = 0.7385 R.H.S  L.H.S
D=2 = 1.732
D = 1.65 = 1.325
D = 1.66 = 1.385 R.H.S = L.H.S D = 1.66 m
Example 15.1
Example 15.1
Non-uniform flows in open channels
Specific Energy
 Specific energy is defined as the energy per unit weight of water at a cross section
measured above bed level at that point. If D is the depth and v is the velocity,

E = D + V2/2g (1)

## Consider a rectangular channel, width B, cross-sectional area A, through which

there is a volume rate of flow Q,

D
V = Q/A = Q/BD
B

## D3 – ED2 + q2/2g = 0 (3)

 This equation has three roots of which two are positive and real and the other is
negative and unreal.
Alternative depths of flow
 For a constant value of E, there are 2 alternative depths for a given value of q
 For a constant value of q, there are 2 alternative depths for a given value of E
 The larger depths correspond to deep slow flow (or) subcritical flow
 The smaller depths correspond to shallow fast flow (or) supercritical flow
Alternative depths of flow
 There is a critical depth Dc at which the 2 roots coincide, when the
discharge q for a given specific energy E is maximum (qmax) and the
energy E required for a given discharge q is a minimum (Emin) .
Alternative depths of flow
Critical depth Dc in Rectangular Channels
 Assume q is constant:
E = D + V2/2g
E = D + q2/2gD2
D
dE/dD = 1 – 2q2/2gD3 = 0
q2 = gD3 B

q2
Dc  3 (or) Dc= (Q2/gB2)(1/3)
g

v2/2g
E = Dc + gDc3/2gDc2 at critical flow
D v
E = Dc + Dc/2 = 3/2Dc
Emin= (3/2)Dc
2
Dc  E
3
Thus, critical depth of flow Dc in a rectangular channel will be 2/3 E
Critical depth Dc in Rectangular Channels
 Assume E is constant:
E = D + q2/2gD2
D3 – ED2 + q2/2g = 0 D
q2/2g = ED2 - D3
q = [2g(ED2 - D3)]½ = D[2g(E - D)]½ = (2g) [(E – D) ½ D] B

## dq/dD = 2g[(E - D)½ + D(E - D)-½ (½)(-1)]

For maximum discharge, when D = Dc , dq/dD = 0
(E – D)½ = ½D/(E – D)½
(E – Dc) = ½Dc
Emin = 3/2 Dc
2
Dc  E
3

##  The same result have been obtained.

Maximum discharge qmax at critical depth Dc

 E = D + V2/2g
E = D + q2/2gD2 D
q2 = 2gD2(E - D)
q = D[2g(E - D)]½ B

## At critical flow, E = (3/2) D

q = D[2g(3/2D – D)]½
= D[2g(½D)]½ = [gD3]½ = g1/2 D3/2

q max  gD3c
Critical velocity Vc in Rectangular channels

##  Velocity of flow corresponding to critical depth Dc is known as critical velocity Vc

E = D + V2/2g
3/2Dc = Dc + Vc2/2g
Vc2/2g = Dc/2 D

Vc  gDc B

 Froude No: Fr  V
gD

## At critical flow, Vc /gDc = 1 = Fr

 when Fr = 1 Vc = gDc critical flow
 when Fr < 1 V < gD subcritical flow
 when Fr > 1 V > gD supercritical flow
Example on rectangular channel
 A rectangular channel 3.6 m wide carries 2.5 m3/s. What will be the critical
depth, critical velocity and critical slope? Use Manning’s n = 0.02

## Q = 2.5 m3/s, B = 3.6 m, q = Q/B = 2.5/3.6 = 0.694m3/s/m (or) 0.694m2/s

q2
Dc  3 = (0.6942/9.81)1/3 = 0.366 m
g
D
Vc  gDc = (9.81x0.3661/2 = 1.896 m/s
B
1 2 3 12
Mannings eqn. v  R S
n
R = A/P = BD/(B+2D) = 3.6x0.366/(3.6+2x0.366) = 0.304 m

1.896 = (1/0.02)(0.304)2/3S1/2
S1/2 = 0.0838
Sc = 0.007
Channel Geometric Properties
 Depth of water = D
 Wetted Parameter = P
T (or) Bs
 Cross-sectional area = A

##  Hydraulic radius R = A/P Area = A

D
 Top width (or) Surface width = T (or Bs)

##  Hydraulic Mean depth = Dm = A/T

or Dm = A/Bs
Critical flow in Non-rectangular Channels
 E = D + V2/2g = D + Q2/2gA2 Bs
For critical flow, dE/dD = 0 for a given value of Q
dD dA
2 3 2
1
2Q A dA
0
Q dA
1 D
dE/dD = 2g dD (or) gA 3 dD

## From figure, dA = Bs dD (or) dA/dD = Bs

Q 2Bs gA 3
1 (or) Q
A 3g Bs

where Bs and A are the surface breadth and area of the flow at critical flow.

 Critical velocity
Vc = Q/A = (g A3 /Bs)½ (1/A) = (gA/Bs)½

Vc  gDmc
where Dmc = A/Bs = Area/Surface width (at critical flow).
Dmc = mean depth at critical flow
Critical depth Dc in Non-rectangular Channels

##  Critical velocity Vc  gDmc

where Dmc = mean depth at critical flow
Dmc = Ac/Bs = Area/Surface width (at critical flow)
Ac = function of critical depth (Dc)

V
 Froude No: Fr  where Dm = mean depth
gDm

##  when Fr = 1 v = gDm critical flow

 when Fr < 1 v < gDm subcritical flow
 when Fr > 1 v > gDm supercritical flow
Example on trapezoidal channel
 A channel of trapezoidal cross-section, with a base width of 0.6 m and side
slopes 45 carries 0.34 m3/s. Determine the critical depth.

z

## Q = A V = AcVc = = Ac(gAc /Bs) where Bs is the surface width or top width

Q2 = Ac2g Ac/Bs = Ac3g/Bs

## Ac = (B + zDc)Dc = BDc + zDc2 and Bs = B + 2zDc

Q2 = Ac3g/Bs
Q2Bs = Ac3g
Q2(B + 2zDc) = (BDc + zDc2)3g
Example on trapezoidal channel
Q2(B + 2zDc) = (BDc + zDc2)3 g
(0.34)2(0.6 + 2Dc) = (0.6Dc+ Dc2 )3x 9.81

## 0.6  2 Dc 9.81 = 84.8616 i.e., f(Dc) = 84.8616

(0.6 Dc  Dc2 )3 (0.34)2
By trial & error,
If Dc = 0.3, f(Dc) = 60.966
= 0.2 = 244.14
= 0.26 = 100.18
= 0.27 = 87.95
= 0.273 = 84.65

## critical depth Dc = 0.273 m

Problem: Non-uniform flows in a channel

##  Water flows down a rectangular channel 4.0 m wide at a depth of 1.8 m.

The discharge is 18.0 m3/s.
• (i) Determine whether the flow is subcritical or supercritical.
• (ii) Calculate the alternative depth of flow that could occur in the channel
at the same discharge.
• (iii) Determine the critical slope of the channel assuming that it is lined
with concrete with a Manning n of 0.012 s/m1/3.
Problem: Non-uniform flows in a channel
Rect. channel: B = 4.0 m, D = 1.8 m, Q = 18 m3/s, n = 0.012; q = Q/B = 18/4 = 4.5 m2/s
(i) To find whether the flow is subcritical or supercritical
Dc = (q2/g)1/3 = (4.52/9.81)1/3 = 1.273 m i.e. D > Dc  subcritical flow

v
(or) Fr  = 2.5/(9.81x1.8) = 0.59 < 1 i.e. Fr < 1  subcritical flow
gD

## (ii) To find the alternative depth of flow: E1 = E2 = E = constant

2 2
V1 V2
E  D1  = D2  energy line
2g 2g
2
q q2
1.8 + = D2 +
2gD1 2
2gD22
4.5 2 4.5 2
1.8 + = D2 +
2 x9.81x1.8 2 2 x9.81xD2
2

1.0321
1.8 + 0.3186 = D2 + 2
D2
Problem: Non-uniform flows in a channel

2.1186 = D2 + 1.0321
2
D2
By trial and error,
D2 = 1 m, RHS = 2.0321
= 0.9 m, = 2.174
= 0.95 m, = 2.0936
= 0.94 m, = 2.108 Alternative depth (second depth) = 0.94 m

## (iii) Critical slope Sc

1 2 / 3 1/ 2
Q AR S
n
nQ
S 1/ 2
c 
AR 2 / 3
Problem: Non-uniform flows in a channel

nQ
S 1/ 2
c 
AR 2 / 3
Ac = BDc = 4x1.273 = 5.092 m2,
P = B + 2Dc = 4 + 2x1.273 = 6.546 m
R =A/P = 5.092/6.546 = 0.778 m

0.012 x18
S c1 / 2  2/3
= 0.0502
5.092 x(0.778)
Sc = 0.0025 (or) Bed slope = 1 in 400
Occurrence of Critical Flow Conditions

 Since at the critical depth, the discharge is a maximum for a given specific
energy, cross-sections at which the flow passes through the critical depth
are known as control sections.

 Such sections are a limiting factor in the design of a channel and can be
expected to occur under the following circumstances.

##  Transition from subcritical to supercritical flow (Channel Transitions)

 Entrance to a steep-slope channel from a reservoir
 Free outfall from a channel with a mild-slope
 Change of bed level or channel width
Occurrence of Critical Flow Conditions
1. Transition from subcritical to supercritical flow (Channel Transitions)

 This may occur where there is a change of bed slope S. Upstream, the slope is
mild and S < Sc. Downstream, the slope is steep and S > Sc.
 The depth will change smoothly from D1 to D2 and at the break in the slope, the
water depth will pass through the critical depth forming a control section which
regulates the depth upstream.

##  The reverse transition from supercritical to subcritical flow occurs abruptly by

means of a hydraulic jump.
Occurrence of Critical Flow Conditions
2. Entrance to a steep-slope channel from a reservoir

Reservoir

 If the depth of flow in the channel is less than the critical depth for the
channel, the water surface must pass through the critical depth in the
vicinity of the entrance, since conditions in the reservoir correspond to
subcritical flow.
Occurrence of Critical Flow Conditions

## 3. Free outfall from a channel with a mild-slope

 If the channel bed slope S < Sc , the upstream flow will be subcritical.
 At the outfall, there is no resistance to flow, so that, theoretically, it will be a
maximum and the depth should be critical.
 In practice, the critical depth occurs at a distance of 3Dc to 10Dc from the brink.

 If the channel bed slope S > Sc , the upstream flow will be supercritical and the
depth will everywhere be less than the critical depth.
Occurrence of Critical Flow Conditions

##  Under certain circumstances, flow will occur at critical depth if a hump is

formed in the bed of the channel or if the width of the channel is reduced.

## For a rectangular channel,

q2 Q2
Dc  3 = 3
g gB 2

Q2  B2 gDc
3

Q  B( gDc )1 / 2
3
2
 Also Dc  E
3
2
Q  B[ g ( E ) 3 ]1 / 2
3
Q = 1.705BE3/2 where E = H + V2/2g

 If the depth upstream is large compared to the depth over the weir, V2/2g is
negligible and the above equation can be written as,

## Q = 1.705BH3/2 where H = head above the crest level.

 If the level of the flow downstream is raised, the surface level will draw down
over the hump, but the depth may not fall to the critical depth. 
[See Case (b)]

##  Case (b): Water level do not fall to the critical depth

Rate of flow (Q) can be calculated by applying energy equation and the continuity
equation and will depend upon the difference in surface level upstream and over
the weir.

##  Applying energy equation between 1 and 2, assuming no losses,

2 2
V1 V2
D1   z  D2 
2g 2g
2 2
V V
D1  z  D2  h  2  1
2 g 2g
 Continuity equation, BD1V1= BD2V2
D2
V1  ( ) V2
D1
2 2 2 2 2
V V V D V D V
h  2  1  2  ( 2 )2 2  [1  ( 2 )2 ] 2
2g 2g 2g D1 2g D1 2g
2
V2 h

2g 1  ( D 2 ) 2
D1
2gh
V2 
D
1  ( 2 )2
D1
2gh
Discharge Q  BD2
D
1  ( 2 )2
D1
where h = difference in surface level at upstream and over the weir.
Problem: Flow over a Broad-crested Weir

##  Water flows across a broad-crested weir in a rectangular channel 400 mm

wide. The depth of the water just upstream of the weir is 70 mm and the
crest of weir is 40 mm above the channel bed.

Considering the velocity of approach, calculate the fall of the surface level
and the corresponding discharge.
Broad crested weir: Rect. Channel 0.4 m wide
u/s depth = 0.07 m; crest height, z = 0.04 m. Find h and Q

## Assume a free fall over the weir

h
0.07 m yC
Z= 0.04
1 2
Energy at section 1 = Energy at section 2
V12 Vc 2
y1   z  yc 
2g 2g
Vc2 y c
Vc  gyc , V  gyc ,
c
2

2g 2
2
V 3
y1  1  z  y c
2g 2
Assume V1 = 0 for the 1st trial
0.07 + 0 = 0.04 + 3/2 yc => yc = 0.02 m
q2
yc  3
g

q2
0.02  3
9.81
2
q = 0.00007848 q = 0.00885 m3/s/m
Q = q B = 0.00885x0.4 = 0.00354 m3/s

2
V 3
y1  1  z  y c
2g 2

## 0.07+ (0.126)2/(2x9.81) = 0.04 + 3/2 yc

0.07 + 0.0008 = 0.04 + 3/2 yc
yc = 0.0205 m

q2
yc  3
g
2
q
0.0205  3
9.81

q2 = 0.000085 or q = 0.00922

## Fall in water surface, h = 0.07 – (0.04 + 0.0205) = 0.0095 m = 9.5 mm

Flow over a Broad-crested weir (using formula)

V12/2g
E h
h1 yc
y1 = 0.07
Z = 0.04

## Assume a free fall over the weir:

Q = 1.705 BE3/2 where E = h1 + v12/2g
h1 = y1 – z = 0.07 – 0.04 = 0.03 m

## Assume V1 = 0 for 1st trial:

Q = 1.705 Bh13/2 = 1.705(0.4)(0.03) 3/2 = 0.00354 m3/s
v1 = Q/A = 0.00354/(0.07x0.4) = 0.126 m/s

## Assume V1 = 0.126 m/s for 2nd trial

E = h1 + v12/2g = 0.03 + 0.00082 = 0.03082 m
Q = 1.705 BE3/2 = 1.705(0.4)(0.03082) 3/2 = 0.00368 m3/s
Flow over a Broad-crested weir (using formula)

V12/2g
E h
h1 yc
y1 = 0.07
Z = 0.04

## Q = 1.705 BE3/2 = 1.705(0.4)(0.03082) 3/2 = 0.00368 m3/s

q2 Q2
yc  3 =3 = (0.003682 /9.81x0.42) 1/3 = 0.0205 m
g gB 2
h = y1 – z – yc = 0.07 – 0.04 – 0.0205 = 0.0095 m = 9.5 mm
Effect of lateral contraction of a channel
 When the width of a channel is reduced while the bed remains flat, the
discharge/width , “q” increases.

 If losses are neglected, the specific energy “E” remains constant and therefore,
 for subcritical flow, the depth will decrease, while
 for supercritical flow, the depth will increase as the channel narrows.

1 2

q1 q2
B1,D1 B2 ,D2
Plan view of channel
Venturi Flume
Venturi Flume
Venturi Flume

##  A lateral contraction followed by an expansion can be used for flow

measurement as an alternative to the broad-created weir.

a) If the conditions are such that the free surface does not pass through
the critical depth, the arrangement forms a venturi flume.
Venturi Flume

b) If the degree of contraction and the flow conditions are such that the
upstream flow is subcritical, then the free surface passes through the
critical depth in the throat.

The supercritical flow beyond the throat will then revert to subcritical flow
downstream by means of an hydraulic jump or a standing wave.
A venturi flume operating in this mode is known as a standing wave flume.
Venturi Flume
Venturi Flume
 Figure (a) Venturi Flume
For continuity of flow, B1D1v1 = B2D2v2. (1)

Applying energy equation to the upstream and throat sections and ignoring losses,

## Substituting for v1 from equation (1),

v22 B22 D22
(1  2 2 )  D1  D2  h
2g B1 D1

2 gh
v2  ( )
(1  ( B2 D2 B1 D1 ) 2

2gh
Discharge, Q = B2D2V2 = B2D2 ( (1  (B D B D )2 )
2 2 1 1
Venturi Flume

2gh
Discharge, Q = B2 D 2 ( )
(1  (B2 D2 B1D1 ) 2

2gh
Actual discharge, Q  Cd B 2 D2 [ ]
(1  (B 2 D2 B1D1 ) 2

Venturi Flume

##  Figure (b) Standing wave Flume

If the degree of contraction and the flow conditions are such that the upstream flow
is subcritical, then the free surface passes through the critical depth in the throat.

##  Discharge, Q = B2Dcvc = B2Dc[2g(E-Dc)]

where E is the specific energy measured above the bed level at the throat

2
 Critical depth, Dc  E
3

 Discharge, Q = B2 x (2/3)E(2gx(1/3)E)

Q = 1.705BE3/2
Venturi Flume
 Assuming if the upstream velocity head is negligible,

Q = 1.705BH3/2

where H is the height of the upstream face above the bed level at the throat.
Venturi Flume with a hump
 In some cases, in addition to the lateral contraction, a hump is formed in the bed
(as shown in the figure below), in which case H = D1 - Z.

## Discharge Q = 1.705BH3/2 where H = D1 – Z

Ex 16.2: Venturi flume
 A venture flume is formed in a horizontal channel of rectangular cross-section 1.4 m
wide by constricting the width to 0.9 m and raising the floor level in the constricted
section by 0.25 m above that of the channel.
If the difference in levels of the free surface between the throat and upstream is 30
mm and both the upstream and downstream depths are 0.6 m, calculate the volume
rate of flow.
 If the downstream conditions are changed so that a standing wave forms clear of the
constriction, what will be the volume rate of flow if the upstream depth is maintained
at 0.6 m?
Ex 16.2: Venturi flume
 Venturi flume:
2gh
Discharge Q  B 2 D2 [ ]
(1  (B 2 D2 B1D1 ) 2
2x9.81x0.03
Q  0.9x0.32 [ ] = 0.2352 m3/s
(1  (0.9x0.32 1.4x0.6) 2

##  Standing wave flume:

Discharge Q = 1.705BE3/2

## If it is assumed that E = H = D1 –Z = 0.35 m, then

Q = 1.705x0.9x0.353/2 = 0.3177 m3/s

## Effect of neglecting upstream velocity V1 :

V1 = Q /B1D1 = 0.3177/(1.4x0.6) = 0.3782 m/s V12 /2g = 0.0073 m
E = H + V12 /2g = 0.35 + 0.0073 = 0.3573
Q = 1.705x0.9x0.35733/2 = 0.3277 m3/s

Crump Weir
Crump Weir

Energy line

yc
v h
Crump Weir
Energy line

## v2 /2g Vc2 /2g

h yc
v
P

v2 v c2 q2
h  yc  yc  3
2g 2g g
h
v2 3
 yc q 2  gy 3c
2g 2
q  g1 / 2 y 3c / 2
2 v2
yc  ( h  )
v2 3/ 2
3 2g Q  bg ( h  )
1/ 2

2g
Q  bg1 / 2 H 3 / 2
Q  C g bH 3 / 2
Crump Weir
Sluice gates

##  Use to control the flow in rivers and man-made channels

 Sometimes referred to as underflow gates
 Also use to measure the discharge

v12/2g

H1

Hydraulic jump

Y H2 Dc Dn

H2 = C c Y
Sluice gates
Problem: Broad-crested weir and Venturi flume

##  Uniform flow occurs at a depth of 1.5 m in a long rectangular channel

3 m wide and laid to a slope of 0.0009.
If Manning’s n = 0.015, calculate
(i) maximum height of hump on the floor to produce critical depth
(ii) the width of contraction which will produce critical depth without
increasing the upstream depth of flow.
Long rect. channel: uniform flow Dn = 1.5 m , B= 3 m, S = 0.0009, n = 0.015

DC
D1 z

## D1 + V12/2g = Z + Dc + Vc2/2g (1)

1
Q AR 2 / 3 S 1 / 2
n
A = BD = 3x1.5 = 4.5 m2, P = B + 2D = 3 + 2x 1.5 = 6 m, R = A/P = 4.5/6 = 0.75 m

1
Q 4.5(0.75) 2 / 3 (0.0009)1 / 2 = 7.429 m3/s q = Q/B = 2.476 m2/s
0.015

## 1.5 + 1.652/(2x9.81) = Z + 0.855 + 2.8962/(2x9.81)

Z = 1.5 + 0.139 – 0.855 – 0.427 = 0.357 m

## Max. height of hump = 0.357 m

(ii) Width of contraction to produce critical depth

B1 BC

D1 DC

## D1 + V12/2g = Dc + Vc2/2g (2)

1.5 + 1.652/(2x9.81) = Dc + Vc2/2g = Dc + Dc/2
1.638 = 3/2 Dc
Dc = 1.092 m

1
Q 4.5(0.75) 2 / 3 (0.0009)1 / 2 = 7.429 m3/s
0.015

Q = BcDcVc
Dc = (q2/g)⅓ , q2 = gDc3 = 9.81x1.0923 =12.77, q = 3.574 m2/s

The end