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Presenting by

Anand soni
Senior Engineer
BLA Power Pvt. Ltd
• Define Vibration.
• Component of vibration.
• Types of vibration.
• Types of vibration measurement.
• How can measure vibration.
• Vibration proximitor/seismic module.
• Key phasor module.
• Position module.
• Power supply module.
• 4-channel relay module.
• Communication gateway module.
• Scale factor.
• Calibration check of vibration probe.
• Why we use -10vdc in proximitor seismic module.
• Why we use -24vdc power supply proximitor seismic module.
• How can Caculate the gap from vibration probe to bearing of turbine.
Vibration is static and dynamic imbalance of equipment. Also Vibration is the
oscillation, or moving back and forth of an object.

The principle characteristics of the vibration signal that we measure are


The measuring unit for the amplitude of shaft vibrationin μm. The permissible relative
vibration amplitude for the shaft vibration are define as per ISO 7919.
The evalution of absolute peak-to-peak vibration can be made according to the per ISO 7919.
There are four main components of 3500 vibration monitoring system.

• Transducers
• Monitor racks
• Software (Rack configuration & data acquisition display.)
• Computer with windows compatible operating system.
Relative vibration:-
relative vibration are the difference between two moving component.

Absolute vibration:-

Absolute vibration referred to absolute fixed point.

We measure one of the 3 characteristics of vibration.

• Displacement (how far something is moving)

• Velocity (how fast the displacement is changing)

• Acceleration (how fast the velocity is changing

It is a signal conditioning device which send a Radio Frequency signal to an eddy
current proximity probe , demodulates the probe output, & provides signal
proportional to probe gap distance. Also called an oscillator –demodulator

it needs a –17.5 to –26Vdc supply voltage connected between VT and COM terminals.
. The RF signal frequency will be within a range from 500Khz to 2 Mhz.
The RF signal is transmitted from the probe coil which creates an RF field around
the probe tip. The RF field extends to a distance greater than 0.1” (100 mils),
although only 0.8” (80 mils has to be linear).

When conductive material is present in the RF field Eddy Currents flow in the
surface of that material. The penetration depth of this signal depends on the
material conductivity and permeability (prefer material ss4140).
The amplitude is at a minimum when distance (Gap) between probe and material
(Target) is at a minimum. Maximum eddy current flow occurs.

Amplitude is a Maximum when Distance (Gap) between probe and material

(Target) is at a Maximum. Minimum Eddy current flow occurs.

A proximity system have many uses in monitoring the behavior of a machines shaft
(target). The two most common being Vibration(radial movement) and Thrust
(axial movement).

Another common use is the Once per revolution marker on a machine shaft. Bently
neveda uses Key phasor. It is achieved by mounting the probe in such a way that it
sees a notch or projection on the shaft and produces a voltage change in pulsed form.

The keyphasor is a very useful tool when diagnosing machinery problems. The generated pulse at a
minimum can be used to measure machine speed.
The proximitor is designed to give known output voltage changes equal to known
gap changes. This is called a Scale Factor 1.27mm output voltage is -10vdc.

If the scale factor changes beyond this limit it may be

• The supply to proximitor is not –17.5 to –26V dc.
• Probe, extension cable and proximitor is mismatched in electrical length.
• The proximitor is calibrated for a different target material than the one used.
Speed measurement :-
As these probes produces a pulse for each revolution this probe can be used to
measure speed. But at low speed multiple pulses produced by observing a gear or
toothed wheel should be used rather than the key phasor.

Phase measurement

Absolute phase is measured from the key phasor pulse to the next positive peak in the
vibration signal and is always expressed as a lagging angle between 0o and 360o. this
may sometimes written as –ve angle.
The key phasor can be used t trigger the signal in the oscilloscope o produce a stable
Axial displacement (Axial Thrust position)

This is a measurement of the rotor within the thrust bearing clearance. The

measurement is usually made using two proximity probe mounted in the thrust

bearing observing the thrust collar

Radial Position
Radial position of the shaft within the bearing clearance can be measured using the
Dc signal installed from the proximity probe
The DC signal is measured when the machine is at rest with the shaft sitting at the
bottom of the bearing and again when the machine is running.

the change in DC voltage measured can be used to calculate the new position of the
shaft center line. This can be a very important measurement to determine the
condition of the shaft alignment and also to indicate any bearing wear which might
be occurring. The signal needed to make these measurement are available at the
front panel of the monitors.
How to calibration check of vibration Probe, extension cable and
vibration monitor:
• Physical check of vibration probe and extension cable for any damages, if it is please
replaced with same one.

• Check resistance of vibration probe and continuity of extension cable it should be 5

to 9Ω and 5 to 20 Ω

• Use below equation and get reading for calibration of vibration probe.
High voltage AC input module (HVAC PIM)

Power requirement are: 100-250vac , 50/60hz , single phase, 2.3A maximum.

Power surge at start-up 20A PK for one cycle.
Output = 24vdc

High voltage DC input module (HVDC PIM)

Power requirement 88-140 VDC ,2.5A max.

To minimize ground loop noise problems. A single point earth ground to system
common connection is recommended. When two supplies are used in the same
system both connection are considered a single point.
There are 4 channel in one proximitor module & 4 recorded out put to DCS

Signal flow chart ( field to VMS panel)

Extension Safety Prox/seismic
probes cable with proximitors
barrier IO module

Wiring rquired:-
• I/O module to & barrier to proximitor 16AWG to 18 AWG stranded 3-wire shielded
with insulating cable.
• Minimum cable length I/O module & proximitor must not exceeds 305 mtr.
• Independent connection to system earth.

Barrier :- these device are used to restrict the amount of energy that can flow into the a
hazardous area.
Monitor status of proximitor I/O module.

Monitor status:-
It is ok this indicates if the monitor is functionality correctly & not ok status is
returned under any of the following conditions.
• Module hardware failure
• Node voltage failure
• Configuration failure
• Transducer failure
• slot ID failure channel not ok

Channel status:- There are two types of channel ok.

• Transducers input voltage.

• Transducers supply voltage.
4-channel relay module 3500/32
This relay output id fully programmable using AND & OR gate. The alarms drive logic
for each relay channel can use alarming input (alerts & danger) from any monitor
channel in the rack. This alarms drive logic is programmed using the Rack
configuration software.

Three types of alarms drive logic .

• Bussed relay

• Individual relay

• Independent relay.
Communication gateway module 3500/32

The comm. Gateway module provides serial communication between the 3500 monitor
system i.e DCS &PLC . The communication gateway module collects static data from the
modules in rack over a high speed internet network & send this data to the information
sytem upon request. It is a commuincate via ethernet with up to 6 host.

Host can be modbus protocol based or computer with 3500 rack configuration &
DAS.only one gateway module rack can be configured to accept rack configuration or
DAS hosts.
Eddy current

the Eddy Current Principle. Eddy current is the electric current which circulate with in
a mass of conductor when placed in a varying magnetic field. The conducting material
may be considered as consisting of a large number of closed conducting path which
behaves like short circuited winding of a transformer of which the varying magnetic
field is the working flux. Eddy EMF if induced in this elemental path giving rise to the
eddy current.

The probe is supplied with a high frequency RF signal from the proximitor. This radiates
from the Probe tip. This sets up an electric signal which induces eddy currents into any
conductive surface with which the field comes into contact. The output voltage
produced by the proximitor is directly proportional to the gap distance measured
between the probe face and the observed face.
• How can Calculate the gap from vibration probe to bearing
of turbine.

Presently we have set the vibration probe of -10vdc.now we have calculate the gap
distance from rotor & vibration probe.

1miles = 200mvdc
(10 vdc = 10000mvdc)
10000mvdc / 200mvdc = 50miles
Than, 50 miles X 0.0254mm = 1.27mm
(1 miles = 0.0254mm)
200mvdc / 0.0254mm = 0.000127mm

1mvdc = 0.000127mm
(200mvdc = 0.0254mm)
10vdc = 0.000127mm X 10000mvdc
10vdc = 1.27mm
• How can Calculate the gap from vibration probe to bearing
of turbine.
Presently we have set the vibration probe of -10vdc.now we have calculate the gap
distance from rotor & vibration probe.

1miles = 200mvdc
(10 vdc = 10000mvdc)
10000mvdc / 200mvdc = 50miles
Than, 50 miles X 0.0254mm = 1.27mm
(1 miles = 0.0254mm)
200mvdc / 0.0254mm = 0.000127mm

1mvdc = 0.000127mm
(200mvdc = 0.0254mm)
10vdc = 0.000127mm X 10000mvdc
10vdc = 1.27mm


Thrust Extension Discription Value
Monitor cable Turbine FS Vib. High High > 107
Turbine RS Vibration High High > 107
Gearbox HS DE Shaft Vib. High High >91
GB HS NDE Shaft Vib. High High >91
GB LS NDE Shaft Vib. High High >137
GB LS DE Shaft Vib. High High >137
Alternator FS Vib. High High >341
Alternator RS Vib. High High >341
Axial Displacement 1&2 High High ±0.6
Axial Displacement High 1&2 High ±0.4
Turbine/Gearbox HS VibHigh >61
GB Low Speed/Alternator Vib.High >232
Why we use -10vdc in proximitor seismic module.

Since the RF signal generated by Proximotior causing the magnetic

field to penetrate maximum upto 100 miles for SS4140 shaft
material, the probe is position at 50miles to measure maximum plus
& minus amplitude of vibration.
Why we use -24vdc in proximitor seismic module.

While designing vibration system by mr.don bently in 1930 cost of

NPN transistor is quite expensive in compare to PNP transistor. So
he use PNP transistor in our vibration system.
Turbine rotor axial displavement :-
question & feedback

• One axial displacement sheet add ( turbine protocol sheet). Submitted by M/s
OEM engineer.
• Termination detail, power supply drawing to be add.