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LESSON 1

WHAT IS
PHILOSOPHY?
Philosophy
•Two Greek Words:
–Philos- love
–Sophia- wisdom
•“Love of wisdom”
• discipline that uses human reason to
investigate the ultimate causes, reasons, and
principles which govern all things.
Philosophers
•People who engaged in philosophy
•“lovers of wisdom”
•In ancient Greece, philosophers
became pioneers in various fields of
knowledge and they were considered
as experts
4 major philosophical
questions
•What is real? Are we able to perceive and understand
reality and everything in it?
•How do we know what we know? Are the things that we
know true?
•What is the ultimate cause of all things? What is our
purpose in this world?
•To what extent are the choices and actions considered
“free”?
BRANCHES
OF
PHILOSOPHY
Ethics
Questions:
How should we live?
What is good and evil?
What is the best way to
live?
What is Justice?
Is right and wrong the
same everywhere or
different everywhere?
Epistemology
Knowledge Science
Explores the nature
and limitations of
knowledge
Definition of knowledge
Investigates how knowledge
is obtained
Explores the relationship
between belief, truth and
knowledge
Epistemology
Questions:
What is knowledge?
How is knowledge
acquired?
How do we know what
we know?
Metaphysics
Knowledge Science
Explores the
fundamental nature of
reality and being
Ontology
Existence
Objects
Properties
Space and Time
Cause and Effect
Metaphysics

Questions:
What is real?
What is reality?
What is reality like?
Aesthetics
Sensori-Emotional
Values
Explores the nature of
beauty, art, and taste
with the creation and
appreciation of beauty
Aesthetics
Questions
What is beauty?
What is art?
What is the value of beauty and
art?
Who should judge what is
beautiful or artistic?
How should art and beauty be
judged?
Logic
Rules for Thinking
The systematic
principles (or rules) for
thinking rationally.
Inferences are made by
construction of Arguments
Rules of Logic determine
which arguments are VALID and
which are FALACIES
Ancient
Greek
Philosopher
s
PHYTAGORAS OF SAMOS
570 BCE to 495 BCE
PHYTAGORAS OF SAMOS
•Mathematician and scientist
•Pythagorean Theorem
•Established community of learners
who were devoted to the study of
religion and philosophy
HERACLITUS
535 BCE to 475 BCE
HERACLITUS
•He proposed that everything that exists is based
on a higher order or plan which he called logos
•Change is permanent aspect of the human
condition
•“No man ever stops in the same river twice”
DEMOCRITUS
460 BCE to 370 BCE
DEMOCRITUS
•Study of the causes of natural
phenomena
•Among the first to propose that
matter is composed of tiny particles
called atoms
DIOGENES OF SINOPE
412 BCE to 323 BCE
DIOGENES OF SINOPE
•Advocate of living a simple and virtuous life
•“One should not only talk of virtue but should
show in words and actions”
•He was said to have lived like a beggar
•He was known as a vocal critic of well-known
philosophers
EPICURUS
341 BCE to 270 BCE
EPICURUS
•He believed that philosophy could enable
man to live a life of happiness
•Epicureanism- believes that wisdom and
simple living will result in a life free of fear
and pain
SOCRATES
470 BCE to 399 BCE
SOCRATES
•Considered as foremost philosopher of ancient times
•Made great contributions in the field ethics
•He believe that philosophy could enable a man to live a
life of virtue
•Socratic Method- means of examining a topic by
devising a series of questions that let the learner
examine and analyze the knowledge and views
regarding the topic
PLATO
427 BCE to 347 BCE
PLATO
•Student of Socrates
•His teachings and writings were considered the
foundation of Western philosophy
•Theory of Forms- proposes that everything that exist is
based on an idea or template that can only be
perceived in the mind; these nonphysical ideas are
eternal and unchanging
PLATO
•He also focuses his studies on the ideal society and
proposed an ideal model of government and society
which is ruled by wisdom and reason.
•He is also known for his dialectic- a method of inquiry
where two opposing ideas are discussed in an attempt
to arrive at a new knowledge
•His lasting contribution was the founding of the
ACADEMY, an institution of higher learning which was
the first of its kind in the Western world
ARISTOTLE
384 BCE to 322 BCE
ARISTOTLE
•Attended the Academy and a prominent student of
Plato
•However, he disagreed with Plato’s theory of form
•For him, ideas and views are based on perception and
our reality is based on what we can sense and
perceived
•He is involved in variety of disciplines such as zoology,
psychology, ethics and politics
ARISTOTLE
•He also proposed a system for the classification of
plants and animals
•His studies in logic led to the formulation of formal
process of analyzing reasoning which gave rise to
deductive reasoning- the process by which specific
statements are analyzed to reach a conclusion or
generalization