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Fire & Gas Detection Layout

F&G Detection System

Designed to provide early warning of the outbreak of fire and or toxic/flammable gas leak
Allow appropriate mitigation action to be taken before the situation gets out of control
for the safety and protection of personnel, environment and equipment.
 Objective is to detect at an early stage:
 The presence of flammable and toxic gases,
 The presence of a fire or
 The presence of smoke from smoldering or incipient fires

Fire & Gas Detection Layout
Industrial Standards
 NFPA 72 – Fire Alarm & Signaling Code
 OISD – 116/117/235 and other OISD codes specific to facilities
 Company Standards – Shell DEP, SAES standards, KOC Standards etc.

Fire & Gas Detection Layout
Safety & Risk Philosophy

Fire & Gas Detection Layouts
Drawings depicting location of Fire and Gas detectors,
Monitoring, Alarming and Protection system.

Inputs Components
 F&G Detection Philosophy as per  Heat detectors
codes and standards applicable  Smoke detectors
 P&ID/PFD  Flame detectors
 Base Drawings  Gas detectors
 Manual call points
 Horn/beacon/sirens
Fire & Gas Detection Layout
Field F&G Detection Layout Building F&G Detection Layout
 Field Area, Process Areas,  Control Rooms / Substations/
Pump/Compressor Sheds maintenance room/ warehouse building
 Base Drawing
 Base Drawing
 Plot Plan/key site plan
 Architectural Drawing
 Equipment Layout

Fire & Gas Detection Layout
Field F&G Detection Layout
 Point Type Gas Detector  Heat Detector
 Used for localized detection  For Pump/Compressor sheds, Storage
 Placed near the anticipated release
source like flange joints etc.  As per coverage & spacing criteria
 Open Path Gas Detector  Manual Call Points
 For Perimeter detection  Placed at strategic locations
 Placed in periphery of protected area  Placed along the escape routes
 Flame Detector  As per travel distance criteria
 Used for rotating equipment
 As per Cone angle & coverage radius
Fire & Gas Detection Layout
Building F&G Detection Layout
 Smoke Detector  Hydrocarbon Detector
 Placed at ceiling level  Used in HVAC ducts
 Number of detectors as per NFPA 72  Linear Heat Sensing cables
spacing criteria.
 Used in cable trays in cable cellar
 Heat Detector
 Installed all along the cable length
 Used in Battery Rooms, Cafeteria etc.
 Manual Call Points
 Placed at ceiling level
 Placed at strategic locations
 Number of detectors as per NFPA 72
spacing criteria.  Placed along the escape routes

 Hydrogen detector  Placed as per travel distance criteria

 Used for Battery Rooms 7

Fire & Gas Detection Layout
Output Devices
 Output devices
 Visual Alarms – Beacons
 Fire (Red Flashing)
 Combustible Gas (Amber Flashing)
 Toxic Gas (Blue Flashing)
 Audible Alarms - Sounder/Bells

Fire & Gas Detection Layout
Principles of Locating Detectors
Smoke & Heat Detectors
 Spot type Smoke & Heat Detectors shall
be located on the ceiling
 Smooth ceiling smoke detector spacing
(s) shall be 30ft (9.1m). (NFPA-72)

Fire & Gas Detection Layout
Principles of Locating Detectors
Flame Detector
 Line of Sight Devices
 Detectors are positioned such that no
point requiring detection is obstructed
or outside the field of view of at least
one detector
 Location is based on
 Detector Field of View (Cone Angle &
 Distance between fire & detector
 Obstruction if any
Fire & Gas Detection Layout
Principles of Locating Detectors
Gas Detectors Manual Call Point
 Selection and Location based on  At strategic Locations
Engineering Evaluation.
 Along the escape routes
 Point Type Detector
 Installed to meet the minimum travel
 Near most likely sources of leakage distance criteria as per the governing
like flange joints etc. standards.
 Open Path Detector
 Perimeter Detection
 Sensors surround the hazardous area,

Fire & Gas Detector Layout
Selection of detectors for specific area
1. Main control room, Computer room, Combination of -
Electronic cubicle room and control Ionization smoke detector Optical type smoke detector
rooms in outlying areas.
2. Switchgear rooms in main Plant and Ionization type smoke detector.
outlying areas, battery charger room,
record and shift-in-charge engineers
3. Office rooms / storage rooms Ionization type smoke detector

4. Battery rooms and chemically corrosive Corrosion resistant, Rate of rise of temperature heat detector with
areas. fixed temperature setting.

5. Cable gallery/cable cellar Combination of Optical type smoke detectors and Linear heat sensor running
above all HV and LV power cable trays. Unless the vertical distance between
cable tray is less than 500 mm in which case alternate trays (in addition to
the top and bottom trays). The optical smoke detector and LHS detectors
along with necessary number of interface units in the cable gallery will be
cross zoned to actuate the water spray system or CO2/Clean agent system.
Fire & Gas Detector Layout
Selection of detectors for specific area
6. Station building / Plant area Infrared flame detectors (where oil tanks are located), spray tanks rate of rise of
temp. detector with fixed element

7. Coal Conveyors Analogue Linear heat sensor cable, infra red spark / amber detectors and
manual call points. If water spray system is provided the LHS cable and IR
detector will be cross zoned to actuate the same

8. Dusty areas in coal handling plants like Flame proof manual call points
crusher house

9. Junction towers Flame proof heat detectors, flame proof manual call points

10. Conveyor tunnels Flame proof infrared detectors, flame proof MCPs, LHS cables

11. Hazardous plant areas such as fuel oil Flame proof rate of rise of temperature detector with fixed element and flame
/lube oil, DG houses, H2 generating proof MCP
plants and hydrogen storage areas. 13
Fire & Gas Detection Layout
Key Factors in Locating F&G Detectors
 For gases denser than air. e.g. Butane/  Shall be equipped with sufficient
LPG, Xylene etc.- near ground level. protection e.g. wind protection and
weather shields fitted to protect
 For gases lighter than air e.g. Hydrogen, against rain.
methane, ammonia etc.- at higher level
 Power supply and electronic circuits to
 Sensors need to be located downwind be located in non-hazardous area.
and crosswind of prevailing winds.
 Locations requiring the most
 Sensor location should be easily protection in an industrial plant would
accessible for calibration & be around gas boilers, compressors,
maintenance pressurized storage tanks, cylinders or
 Sensors shall not be installed lower pipelines. Most vulnerable are valves ,
than 1m above grade or ground level. gauges, flanges, T-joints, filling or
draining connections etc.
Fire & Gas Detection Layout
Key Factors in Locating F&G Detectors
Do not to try to economize by using minimum sensors . A few
extra sensors could make all the difference if a gas leak occurs!