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Post-Lab Discussion II

Roots, Stems and Leaves


ROOTS
Origin of Root

 Hypocotyl
 The portion of the embryo axis located below the cotyledonary node
that give rise at its tip to the radicle.

 Radicle
 The lowermost portion of the embryonic axis of a seed, responsible
for the production of the primary root.
Origin of Root

 Primary Root
 Root from the main trunk or from the hypocotyl.

 Secondary Roots
 Roots from arise from the primary root.
Origin of Root

 Adventitious Roots
 Roots arise from stems, leaves and other parts of plants.
 Roots developed from structure other than the hypocotyl or primary
root.
Types of Root System

 Taproot System
 Characteristic of dicotyledonous plants.
 The primary root continuous to grow and send out lateral smaller
roots.
Types of Root System

 Fibrous or Diffuse Root System


 Characteristic of monocotyledonous plants.
 The primary root stops growing and numerous adventitious roots
grow and develop from the base of the stem and take the place of
the primary root.
Functions of Roots

 Anchorage
 To locate water and minerals, root seep into the soil.

 Absorption
 Absorb large amounts of water and dissolved minerals from
the soil.
Functions of Roots

 Storage
 Roots store large amounts of energy reserves for vegetative
growth and reproduction.

 Conduction
 Roots transport water and dissolved nutrients to and from the
shoot.
Structure of Roots

 Root Tip
 Roots Cap
 Composed of elongated columella cells that later developed into
peripheral cells.
 Protects the growing root tip and its meristem.
 Senses light and pressure exerted by soil particles.
 Secretes slimy substance, mucigel, that aid in protection,
lubrication, water and nutrients absorption of the roots.
Structure of Roots

 Root Tip
 Quiescent Center
 Located just behind the root cap.
 Composed of 500-1000 inactive cells arrested in G1 phase of the
cell cycle.
 Divides only once every 15-20 days.
 Unaffected by radiation and other extreme environmental
conditions.
 Functions as a reservoir to replace damaged cells of the
meristem.
 Re-organizes the patterns of primary growth in roots.
Structure of Roots

 Sub-apical Region
 Zone of the cellular division
 Dome-shaped apical meristem surrounding the quiescent center
 Located 0.5 - 1.5 mm behind the root tip
 Composed of densely undifferentiated cytoplasmic cells.
 Divides every 12-36 hours
 Produces almost 20,000 new cells per day.
Structure of Roots

 Sub-apical Region
 Zone of cellular elongation
 Located 4-15 mm behind the root tip.
 Composed of long, vacuolated cells.
 Process of differentiation starts.
Structure of Roots

 Sub-apical Region
 Zone of cellular maturation
 Process of differentiation completed
 Located 10-50 mm behind the root tip.
 Composed of non-elongated, matured cells
 Presence of many ephemeral root hairs.
Structure of Roots

 Mature Region
 Epidermis
 Covers all the root except the root cap
 Usually one cell thick; lack stomata
 Lacks a cuticle or have a thin layer cuticle
Structure of Roots

 Mature Region
 Cortex
 Located interior to the epidermis
 Usually occupies the largest cross-sectional area of the root
 Consists of 3 concentric layers:
 Hypodermis protects the roots
 Storage parenchyma tissue stores energy reserves for the
subsequent use.
 Endodermis is lined with Casparian strip, whish diverts water and
dissolved minerals into the cytoplasm of endodermal cells.
Structure of Roots

 Mature Region
 Stele
 Includes all of the tissues inside the cortex:
 Pericycle produces branch roots
 Vascular tissues (xylem and phloem) form in alternating strands interior to
the pericycle.
 Most dicots have a solid core of xylem.
 Most monocots have a parenchymatous pith.
STEMS
Origin of Stems

 Epicotyl
 Portion of the embryo axis in the seed.
 Short, cylindrical structure bearing a small mass of
meristematic tissue and frequently a pair or more of tiny
leaves at its tip.
 The immature shoot that later becomes the stem.
Kinds of Stem

 As to Location
 Aerial or Epiterranean stem – grow above the soil surface.
Kinds of Stem

 As to Location
 Underground or Subterranean stem – grow beneath the
soil.
 Rhizome – grows in horizontal direction bearing most of the
features of a typical stem
Kinds of Stem

 As to Location
 Underground or Subterranean stem – grow beneath the
soil.
 Tuber – arises from the end of each branch of the underground
stem.
Kinds of Stem

 As to Location
 Underground or Subterranean stem – grow beneath the
soil.
 Corm – arises from the base of an aerial shoot covered with dry
leaves.
Kinds of Stem

 As to Location
 Underground or Subterranean stem – grow beneath the
soil.
 Bulb – the stem of the bulb is in the form of reduced, flattened
disc
Kinds of Stem

 As to Texture
 Herbaceous – contain very little woody tissue, chiefly annual and die after
flowering and producing seeds, composed only of primary tissues.
Kinds of Stem

 As to Texture
 Woody – have well-developed woody tissue, chiefly perennial; composed
of primary and secondary tissues, covered with corky bark.
Kinds of Stem

 As to Direction of Growth
 Erect – grow perpendicularly from the ground.
 Ascending – grow obliquely from the ground.
 Decumbent – recline on the ground near the base.
 Prostate – lie flat on the ground.
 Creeping – grow closely on the ground.
 Climbing – grow over other plants or objects by means of tendril climbers,
twiner, root climbers, hooks and scramblers.
Kinds of Stem

 As to Increase in Diameter
 Exogenous stem
 Characteristic of dicot, capable of unlimited increase in diameter due to
secondary tissues.

 Endogenous stem
 Characteristic of monocot, not capable of unlimited increase in diameter due to
absence of secondary tissues.
Special Types of Stems

 Culm
 Stems of grasses with distinct nodes and internodes, usually hollow and herbaceous.
 Sucker
 Branch or shoot originating below the ground from the root or lower part of the main
stem.
 Stolon
 Slender branch or shoot arising from or near the base of the parent plant.
Special Types of Stems

 Trees
 Columnar – cylindrical, unbranched, bears one set of leaves at its summit.
 Excurrent – the trunk tapers from the base to summit, the lowest branches are the
longest and oldest and the uppermost, the shortest and youngest, giving the whole
plant a conical crown shape.
 Delisquescent – the trunk rises for some distance above the ground and divides into
several branches which in turn branch again.
Functions of Stem

 Store materials
 Parenchyma cells in stem store large amount of starch and water.
 Support leaves
 Turgor pressure in stems provides a hydrostatic skeleton that supports the young
plant.
 The internal skeleton of collenchyma and sclerenchyma also supports leaves.
 Transport water and solutes between roots and leaves
 The vascular system of stems maintains an aquatic environment in leaves and
transport sugar and other solutes between leaves and roots
 Produce carbohydrates
 Some stems are green and with chlorophyll and are able to perform photosynthesis
External Structure of Stem

 Node
 Slightly enlarged portion where leaves.
 Internode
 Region between two successive nodes.
 Lenticel
 Tiny raised pores on the surface of matured dicot stem for gas exchange.
 Scar
 Mark left on the stem such as leaf scar, bundle scar, bud scar, fruit scar, flower scar
and twig scar.
 Bud
 Undeveloped shoot, largely meristematic tissue, protected by modified scale leaves.
Internal Structure of Stem

 Epidermal Tissue
 Transparent cells surrounding the stem.
 Usually one cell thick that often bears trichomes.
 In dicot trees, modified into bark as the plant grows older.
Internal Structure of Stem

 Vascular Tissue
 Embedded in the ground tissue.
 Composed of xylem and phloem occurred in vascular bundles.
 Phloem for the transport of food from the leaves down to the roots and other parts of the
plant.
 Xylem fro the transport of water from the roots up to the leaves.

 Vascular bundles are arranged differently in different group of plants.


 Monocots – embedded throughout the ground tissue; phloem is oriented outward and xylem
inward.
 Dicots – single ring of vascular bundles embedded in the ground tissues.
Internal Structure of Stem

 Ground Tissue
 Dicots – the parenchymatous ground tissue is composed of cortex and pith.
 Monocots – do not have cortex and pith.
LEAVES
Origin of Leaves

 Leaf Primordia
 Outgrowths of the apical meristem in terminal and lateral buds.
 Give rise to mature leaves.
 Its position in the bud determines the relative position of leaves on the stem.
 The first pair of leaves (primary leaves) are produced during the development of the
seedling.
Leaf Morphology

 Petiole
 The stalk of the leaf that connects the leaf blade to the node of the stem.

 Blade
 The broad, flat, photosynthetic portion of a leaf divided into:
 Veins – vascular tissues within a leaf located on both sides of the midrib.
 Midrib – narrow, thickened structure which is continuation of the petiole and extends
through the center of the blade to the opposite end; the major vein in a leaf that
divides the blade into two halves.
Leaf Morphology

 Stipule
 Small paired leaf-like structures at the base of the leaf stalk found on certain plants.

 Leaf Sheath
 The base of the leaf blade that completely encircles the portion of the intermodal
segment of the stem, present among grasses.
Type of Leaves

 As to Composition
 Simple leaves – with one blade per petiole.
 Compound leaves – with two or more blades on a common petiole; the stalk of each
leaflet is called petiolule and the extension of the petiole is called rachis.
Type of Leaves

 As to the Number of Leaflets


 Unifoliate – with only one leaflet.
 Bifoliate – with two leaftlets
 Trifoliate – with three leaflets
 Quadrifoliate – with four leaflets
Type of Leaves

 As to Venation
 Parallel Venation - When the veins run parallel to each other.
 Parallel to the midrib
 Parallel at acute angle or radial to the midrib
 Parallel at right angle or perpendicular to the midrib
Type of Leaves

 As to Venation
 Netted Venation – When the veins form a network over the blade.
 Pinnately netted – when there is one main vein forming a networks over the blade.
 Palmately netted – when there are several main veins extending from the base of the leaf.
 Radiately netted – when there are several main veins radiating from the tip of the petiole.
Type of Leaves

 As to Attachment
 Pinnately Compound leaves – with rachis where the leaflets are attached.
 Simple pinnate leaves – with one primary rachis
 Odd simple pinnate leaves – terminates with an odd end leaflets.

 Even simple pinnate leaves – terminates with an even end leaflets.

 Bipinnate leaves – the primary rachis branched and each of the branches (secondary
rachis) bears two rows of leaflets.
 Tripinnate leaves – the secondary rachis produces branchlets which bears the leaflets.
Type of Leaves

 As to Attachment
 Palmately Compound leaves – the leaflets are attached at a common point at the
tip of the petiole.
Type of Leaves

 As to Phyllotaxy
 Alternate or spiral – only one leaf at each node, the following leaf opposite but on
the other side.
 Opposite – leaves are paired on each side at the same node.
 Whorled or verticillate – three or more leaves arising around the same node.
 Fascicled – leaves are in cluster around a node.
Type of Leaves

 As to Texture
 Fleshy – thick and soft
 Succulent – thick, soft and juicy
 Coriaceous – tough, leather-like
 Chartaceous – paper-like
 Membranous – thin and flexible
Type of Leaves

 As to Leaf Shape or Blade Outline


 Acicular – needle-shaped, very long and narrow
 Awl or Subulate – small, sharp pointed, narrowly triangular
 Deltoid – triangular in shape
 Elliptic – broadest at the middle with the length twice the width
 Linear – narrow leaf with parallel sides and the length usually four times the width
 Oblong – the sides are generally parallel with rounded ends
 Oval – broadest at the middle with rounded ends, the width over ½ the length
 Falcate – curved sideways and tapering upward, asymmetrical
 Flabellate – fan-shaped
Type of Leaves

 As to Leaf Shape or Blade Outline


 Hastate – arrowhead-shaped with the basal lobes flared outward
 Sagitate – arrowhead-shaped with the basal lobes flared inward
 Lanceolate – long tapering leaf, widest towards the base
 Oblanceolate – lanceolate with the petiole attached at the narrow tapering end
 Cordate – heart-shaped with the petiole attached at the broad end
 Obcordate – heart-shaped with the petiole attached at the narrow tapering end
 Ovate – egg-shaped with the petiole attached at the broad end
 Obovate – egg-shaped with the petiole attached at the narrow end
 Peltate – umbrella-shaped with the petiole attached to the lower surface of the blade
away from the margin
 Orbicular – flat, circular in shape
Type of Leaves

 As to Leaf Margin
 Entire – smooth margin lacking any teeth or indentation
 Crenate – low, broad, rounded teeth
 Crenulate – very small crenate
 Dentate – sharp marginal teeth projecting at right angle to the margin
 Denticulate – very small dentate
 Serrate – sharp teeth directed upward toward the apex
 Serrulate – very small serrate
 Doubly serrate – larger sharp marginal teeth with small serrations
 Cleft – sharp and not cut over ½ to the midrib
Type of Leaves

 As to Leaf Margin
 Undulate – a slightly wavy margin
 Lobed – round segments and sinuses cut not over ½ to the midrib
 Incised – sharp, irregularly cut segments and sinuses cut not more than 1/3 to the
midrib.
 Parted – sharp or rounded, irregularly cut segments and sinuses cut not ½ to ¾ to
the midrib.
 Dissected – cut into many fine segments
 Divided – margin segments cut to the base or midrib
 Revolute – margin rolling under toward the leaf underside
 Sinuate – a pronounced wavy margin
Type of Leaves

 As to Leaf Margin
 Undulate – a slightly wavy margin
 Lobed – round segments and sinuses cut not over ½ to the midrib
 Incised – sharp, irregularly cut segments and sinuses cut not more than 1/3 to the
midrib.
 Parted – sharp or rounded, irregularly cut segments and sinuses cut not ½ to ¾ to
the midrib.
 Dissected – cut into many fine segments
 Divided – margin segments cut to the base or midrib
 Revolute – margin rolling under toward the leaf underside
 Sinuate – a pronounced wavy margin
Type of Leaves

 As to Leaf Apex
 Acunimate – gradually tapering to a prolonged point, with the two margins pinched
slightly before reaching the tip.
 Acute – tapering to a straight point, with two margins straight and not pinched and
the angle less than 90°
 Apiculate – ending with a slender, not stiff tip
 Aristate – ending with a stiff bristle tip
 Cuspidate – with an abrupt, short, sharp rigid tip
 Emarginate or retuse – with a shallow notch at a broad apex
 Mucronate – with an abrupt, short soft tip
 Obtuse – with non-pointed and rounded tip
 Rounded – with broadly rounded tip
 Truncate – tip straight across the apex
Type of Leaves
 As to Leaf Bases
 Acute – tapering to a point with two straight sides and with an angle less than 90°
 Auriculate – ear-like lobed appendages from the base of the blade
 Cordate – heart-shaped
 Decurrent – leaves prolonged on the stem beneath their insertion
 Hastate – with lobes flaring outward
 Sagittate – with lobes flaring inward
 Truncate – base cut off squarely
 Oblique – unequal and asymmetrical, one may be rounded and the other maybe
acute
 Obtuse – blunt, the sides forming an angle more than 90°
 Peltate – shield-shaped; petiole is attached to the lower side
 Perfoliate – the lobes meet around the stem
 Rounded – the sides of the blade are rounded into the petiole
 Sheating – wrapped around the stem
Type of Leaves
 As to Longevity or Duration of Life
 Evergreen – leaves that live for more than one growing season; with leaves
at all times
 Deciduous – leaves that live only for a single growing season, then they
fall off
 Persistent – leaves that remain for all time along the plant ; usually big in
size
 Fugacious – leaves that fall off immediately after maturity; commonly
called dirty trees
Type of Leaves
 As to Presence or Absence of Petiole
 Petiolate – has petiole
 Sessile – has no petiole

 As to Presence of Absence of Stipule


 Stipulate – has stipule
 Exastipulate – has no stipule

 As to Presence or Absence of Stipel


 Stipellate – has a stipel
 Exastipellate – has no stipel
Type of Leaves
 As to Special Form
 Equitant – each vertical leaf overlapping the next beneath as if they were
folded together
 Cylindrical – leaf is not differentiated into blade and petiole; cylindrical in
shape
 Acicular or filiform – needle-like, very slender and sharp
Leaf Anatomy

 Upper and Lower Epidermis


 Transparent, not pigmented
 Coated with waxy material, cuticle
 Cells are modified in the form of hairs and glandular cells
 Presence of chloroplast-containing guard cells
Leaf Anatomy

 Mesophyll
 Located between the 2 epidermal layers
 Made up of parenchymatous, photosynthetic tissue
 Consist of 2 distinct types
 Pallisade layer – vertically elongated columnar cells arranged below
the upper epidermis
 Spongy layer – irregular parenchymatous cells with many intercellular
spaces (stomatal chamber), arranged above the lower epidermis
Leaf Anatomy

 Vascular Bundles
 Located midway between the upper and lower epidermis
 Consist of primary xylem and primary phloem surrounded by a bundle sheath
 Also contain sclerenchymatous fibers or collenchyma cells
 No vascular cambium
 Xylem – composed of vessel elements located toward the upper epidermis
 Phloem – composed of sieve tubes members and companion cells toward the lower
epidermis