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# Chapter 1

## Calculating atomic and molecular masses

Percentage composition by mass
Predicting empirical formula from % composition

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Atomic symbols and formulae
• Each element has a unique symbol

• Symbol can be one or two letters, first capital and second lower-case letter

• Examples: Fe and H

## H3PO4 = three hydrogens, one phosphorous and four oxygen

Ca(NO3)2 = one calcium and two nitrate NO3 group (this means NO3 is monovalent and Ca divalent
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Example
How many atoms of each element are present in one formula unit of
each of the following compounds?
a- Al(OH)3 and b- (NH4)2SO4
a- Al(OH)3 there is one Al atom and three OH hydroxyl groups each
contain one oxygen and one hydrogen so total:
One aluminum, three oxygen and three hydrogen atoms
b- (NH4)2SO4 there is two ammonium groups and one sulfate group
So total: two nitrogen, eight hydrogen, one sulfur and four oxygen
atoms

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Compounds relative molecular mass
• relative molecular mass is the sum of relative atomic masses
Example:
relative molecular mass of ethanol C2H6O Mr=
2ArC + 6ArH + ArO = (2X12.0)+(6X1.0)+(1X16.0)= 46.0g

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Mass spectrometry
• Mass spectrometer used to measure
mass and percentage of each
isotope in an element
Each atoms of same element travels at
the same speed the heavier atoms
travel slower and deviate less than
lighter atoms

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How to calculate relative atomic mass from
mass spectrum
Mass spectrum of neon: 20Ne (90.9%) ,
21Ne (0.3%) and 22Ne(8.8%)

Ar of neon =
20𝑥90.9 + 21𝑥0.3 +(22𝑥8.8)
=20.2
100

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Example
From the germanium Ge mass spectrum find:
A- write the isotopic formula for the heaviest isotope of Ge
B- use the % abundance of each to calculate the relative
atomic mass of germanium

A- 76Ge
70𝑥20.6 + 72𝑥27.4 + 73𝑥7.7 + 74𝑥36.7 +(76𝑥7.6)
B- Ar of Ge = =
100

72.7

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No. of moles of compound
𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑𝑠 (𝑔)
Moles of compounds (mol)= 𝑔
𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑢𝑎𝑙𝑟 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑 ( )
𝑚𝑜𝑙

## Example: How many moles are there in 60g of glucose C6H12O6?

Relative molecular mass of glucose= (6X12) + (12X1) + (6X16)= 72+12+96=
180
𝑚
N=
𝑀
1𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑔𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑒
Number of moles of glucose = 60gX = 0.36moles
180𝑔 𝑔𝑙𝑢𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑒 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑢𝑎𝑙𝑟 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠

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Example:
Calculate the relative formula mass of calcium hydrogen carbonate
Ca(HCO3)2
Relative formula mass = 40.0 + (2x1.0) + (2X12.0) + (3X2X16) = 162

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Example
• How many moles of substance are there in each of 100g of sodium
dichromate (VI) Na2Cr2O7?
Solution:
Molecular mass of sodium dichromate= (2X23)+ (2X52)+(7X16)= 262g
Grams of sodium dichromate → moles of sodium dichromate
Moles of sodium dichromate =
1𝑚𝑜𝑙 𝑆𝑜𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑚 𝑑𝑖𝑐ℎ𝑟𝑜𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒
100g sodium dichromate X = 0.38mol
262𝑔 𝑠𝑜𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑚 𝑑𝑖𝑐ℎ𝑟𝑜𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑒

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Relative formula mass
• Relative formula mass is mass of compound that forms ions
• Example:
Calculate relative formula mass of magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2
Relative formula mass of Mg(OH)2 = (1xAr Mg )+ (2X(ArO + ArH)
= (1X24.3)+(2X(16+1))= 58.3

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Example:
• Calculate the relative formula masses of magnesium nitrate-6-water,
Mg(NO3)2.6H2O
Relative formula masses = (1XArMg) + 2(ArN + 3ArO) + 6X( 2ArH +1ArO)
=(1x24.3)+2(14+(3X16))+6((1x2)+(1X16))
= 256.3

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Reacting masses
• The stoichiometry of equation let us know the ratio of reacting and
products.
Example: Fe2O3 + 3CO → 2Fe + 3CO2
Ratio is 1:3:2:3
From the equation we see that:
One mole of iron (III) oxide reacts with three moles of carbon monoxide to
produce two moles of iron and three moles of carbon dioxide
And from:
𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑢𝑏𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚𝑠
number of moles (mol) = 𝑔
𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 ( )
𝑚𝑜𝑙

## So mass of substance in grams = number of moles (mol) X molar mass (g/mol)

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Example
• Magnesium burns in oxygen to give magnesium oxide
Mg + O2 → MgO how much magnesium is used in this reaction
Solution:
1- balance chemical equation by multiplying Mg and MgO by 2
2Mg + O2 → 2MgO
2- multiply each formula mass by its stoichiometric number
2x24.3g + 1X 32.0 → 2X (24.3g+16.0g)
From that we can say:
48.6g of magnesium react with 32.0g of oxygen to give 80.6g
magnesium oxide

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Example
• Calculate the mass of sodium peroxide formed when 4.80g of sodium
is burnt in excess oxygen Na + O2 → Na2O2
Solution:
1- balance equation by multiplying Na by 2
2Na + O2 → Na2O2
2- multiply each formula mass by its stoichiometric number
Grams of Na = 2X 23.0 = 46g
Grams of Oxygen = 2X16= 32g
Grams of Na2O2 = 2X23.0 + 2X16 = 78.0

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The stoichiometry of a reaction
• If we know number of grams reacted we can deduce no of mole and
the stoichiometry of the reaction

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• Example:
• 56.2g of silicon Si reacts exactly with 284.0g of chlorine Cl2 to from 340.2g of silicon (IV) chloride
SiCl4 use this information to calculate the stoichiometry of the reaction (Ar values Cl=35.5 and
Si=28.1)
Solution:
1- write chemical equation Si + Cl2 → SiCl4
2- molar mass of Cl2= 35.5x2= 70
Molar mass of SiCl4 = 28.1 +(4x35.5)=170.1
1𝑚𝑜𝑙
3- No of Si moles= 56.2g x = 2moles
28.1
1𝑚𝑜𝑙
No. of Cl2 moles= 284.0gX =4moles
2𝑥35.5
1𝑚𝑜𝑙
No. of SiCl4 moles = 340.2gX =2
170.1
So ratio 2:4:2
And equation is
2Si + 4Cl2→ 2SiCl4

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Percentage composition by mass
• The formula of a compound and relative atomic masses can be used to
calculate the percentage
𝑛𝑋 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡
• % composition by mass = x100
𝑚𝑎𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑
Example:
• Calculate the percentage by mass of carbon in ethanol, C2H5OH.
(Ar values: C = 12.0, H = 1.0, O = 16.0)
2𝑋12
% mass of iron = 𝑋100 = 52.2%
2𝑋12 + 6𝑋1 +(16𝑋1)

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Empirical formula
• is the simplest whole number ratio of the elements present in one
molecule or formula unit of the compound.
• molecular formula of a compound shows the total number of atoms
of each element present in a molecule
• Formula of ionic compound is the same as the empirical compound
• Percent composition enables to determine empirical formula of
compound thus identify compounds experimentally

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Predicting empirical formula from % composition

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Examples

## Compound Type of Empirical formula Molecular formula

compound
calcium Ionic CaCl2 CaCl2
chloride
Water Non ionic H2O H2O

## Carbon Inorganic CO2 CO2

dioxide
Butane organic C2H5 C4H10
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Example
• The composition by mass of a hydrocarbon is 10% hydrogen and 90%
carbon. Deduce the empirical formula of this hydrocarbon.
• (Ar values: C = 12.0, H = 1.0)
Soluiton:
C H
% for each 90 10
divide by Ar 90/12=7.5 10/1=10
Divide by lowest figure 7.5/7.5=1 10/7.5= 1.3
Multiply by 3 3 4
Empirical formula C3H4 (Propyne)

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Example
• When 1.55 g of phosphorus is completely combusted 3.55 g of an oxide of
phosphorus is produced. Deduce the empirical formula of this oxide of
phosphorus. (Ar values: O = 16.0, P = 31.0)
Solution:
P O
• Step 1 the mass of each 1.55 g 3.55 – 1.55 = 2.00 g
• Step 2 divide by atomic mass 1.55/31.0gmol-1 2/16.0gmol-1
=0.05 mol =0.125mol
• Step 3 divide by lowest figure 0.05/0.05=1 0.125/0.05= 2.5
• Multiply by 4 to get whole no. 4 10
• Simplify no. 4/2=2 10/2=5
• Empirical formula P2O5
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Molecular formulae
• The molecular formula shows the actual number of each of the different
atoms present in a molecule.
• We can detect molecular formula from the empirical formula
• Example:
• A compound has the empirical formula CH2Br. Its relative molecular mass
is 187.8. Deduce the molecular formula of this compound.
• (Ar values: Br = 79.9, C = 12.0, H = 1.0)
• Step 1 find the empirical formula mass: 12.0 + (2 × 1.0) + 79.9 = 93.94
• Step 2 divide the relative molecular mass by the empirical formula mass:
187.8
• =2
93.94
• Step 3 multiply the number of atoms in the empirical formula by the
number in step 2: 2 × CH2Br, so molecular formula is C2H4Br2.
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Compound Empirical Mr
formula
Example A C3H5 82
B CCl3 273
C CH2 112
• The empirical formulae and molar masses of three compounds, A, B and C, are
shown in the table below. Calculate the molecular formula of each of these
compounds. (Ar values: C = 12.0, Cl = 35.5, H = 1.0)
A- empirical formula mass= 3X12 + 5X1 = 41
The ratio between Molecular and empirical formulae mass= 82/41= 2
The molecular formula = 2X C3H5 = C6H10
B- empirical formula mass= 1X12 + 3X35.5 = 118.5
The ratio between Molecular and empirical formulae mass= 273/118.5= 2.3 ~ 2
The molecular formula = 2X CCl3= C2Cl6
C- empirical formula mass= 1X12 + 2X1 = 14
The ratio between Molecular and empirical formulae mass= 112/14= 8
The molecular formula = 8X CH2 =C8H16
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Chemical formulae and chemical equations
• Chemical formula of ionic compounds can be deduced from known
charge on each ion

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Formula of compound ions
• Compound ions are those ionic compounds with more than two ions
• The formula of compound ions can be obtained by balancing the
charges of ions
• Example:
Ammoinum: NH4+
Carbonate: CO32-
Hydrogencarbonate: HCO3-
Hydroxide: OH-
Nitrate: NO3-
Phosphate : PO43-
Sulfate: SO42-
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Example
• Write down the formula of each of the following compounds:
a- magnesium nitrate: ions: Mg2+ and NO3-
For electrical neutrality one Mg2+ and two NO3- are needed
Magnesium nitrate = (1X2+) + (2X-1)= 0
Mg(NO3)2
B- sodium sulfide: ions Na+ and S2-
for electrical neutrality: two Na+ and one S2- are needed
Sodium sulfide= (2X1+) + (1X2-)= 0
Na2S

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Naming ionic compounds
• Ionic compounds changing the name of non- metal element to ide
Example: NaCl sodium chloride
If metal more carries more than one charge we add Latin numbers
indicating no. of charges
Example: CaCl2 = calcium (II) chloride
• Compound containing oxygen we add end ate
Example: NaNO3 = sodium nitrate
• if we have more than one metal atom we add prefix di , tri, …
Example: Na2SO4 = di sodium sulfate

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Example
• Name each of the following compounds:
A- Na3PO4 = Tri Sodium phosphate
B- (NH4)2SO4 = di ammonium sulfate
C- AlCl3= aluminum (III) chloride
D- Ca(NO3)2= calcium (II) nitrate

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