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Leadership vs.

 Bennis and Nanus (1985)- “leaders are people who do
the right thing; managers are people who do things

 Dr. Stephen Covey- “Management is efficiency in

climbing the ladder of success; leadership determines
whether the ladder is leaning against the right wall.
Leadership vs. Managament
 Management is a bottom-line focus: How can I best
accomplish certain things?

 Leadership deals with the top line: What are the things
I want to accomplish?
Leadership is commonly defined as a process of
interaction in which the leader influences others toward
goal achievement (Yukl, 1998)

 Influence is an instrumental part of leadership.

 By inspiring, enlivening, and engaging others to
 Leadership is a reciprocal relationship.
Leadership cont.
Nurses as professionals function as leaders when they
influence others toward goal achievement.

Nurses are leaders.

Nurse must know how to lead.


Leadership cont.
According to Dubrin:

 Leading is one of four managerial functions, along with

planning, organizing and staffing, and controlling.

 Leading involves having a vision and goals for what the

organization can become, and then getting the cooperation
and teamwork from others to achieve those goals.

 Management is more formal and relies on tools such as

planning, budgeting, and controlling.
Formal vs. Informal
 Formal Leadership- when a person is in a position of
authority or in a sanctioned, assigned role within an
organization that connotes influence (Northouse,

 Informal Leadership- when an individual

demonstrates leadership outside the scope of a formal
leadership role, such as a member of a group rather
than the head or leader of the group.
Informal Leadership
 Staff nurses demonstrate informal leadership when
they advocate for patient needs or when they take
action to improve health care.

 Nurses also demonstrate informal leadership when

they speak up to improve quality of care.
Leaders and Followers
 Leaders and followers are both necessary roles.
 Leaders need followers in order to lead.
 Followers need leaders in order to follow.

Nurses are alternately leaders and followers when they

work with other health care team members to achieve
patient care goals, participate in meetings, and so forth.
The most valuable followers:

 Skilled
 Self-directed
 Participates actively setting the group’s direction
 Invest time and energy in the work of the group
 Thinking critically and advocating for new ideas
 Communicate and work well with others
Leadership Characteristics
According to Bennis and Nanus (1985)
 Guiding vision - leaders focus on a professional and
purposeful vision that provides direction toward the
preferred future

 Passion - involves the ability to inspire and align

people toward the promises of life

 Integrity - based on knowledge of self, honesty, and

maturity that is developed through experience and
Leadership Characteristics cont
According to American Association of Critical-Care
Nurses (2004)

*Requires skill in the core competencies of

- self-knowledge
- strategic vision
- risk-taking and creativity
- interpersonal and communication effectiveness
- inspiration
Leadership Characteristics cont
According to Stodgill (1974)

 Intelligence
 Self- confidence
 Determination
 Integrity
 Sociability
Leadership Characteristics cont
According to various authors (McClure & Hinshaw, 2002;
Scott et al., 1999; Kramer, 1990; McClure, Poulin, Sovie,
&Wandelt, 1983; Kramer & Schmalenberg, 2005)
 visionary and enthusiastic
 supportive and knowledgeable
 high standards and expectations
 value education and professional development
 demonstrate power and status
 communicate openly
Leadership Characteristics cont
According to various authors (McClure & Hinshaw, 2002;
Scott et al., 1999; Kramer, 1990; McClure, Poulin, Sovie,
&Wandelt, 1983; Kramer & Schmalenberg, 2005)
 caring
 respectability
 trustworthiness
 flexible
Leadership Characteristics cont
According to Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991)

Leaders are different from nonleaders across six traits:

 Drive
 The desire to lead
 Honesty and integrity
 Self- confidence
 Cognitive ability
 Knowledge of the business