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CHAPTER 4:

FLUIDS
1. Hydrostatic pressure
2. Pascal principle and application
3. Buoyancy, Archimedes principle
4. Fluid in motion, continuity equation
5. Bernoulli’s equation and application
6. Viscosity and Poiseuille’s law, stoke’s
law.
The density:
Is the mass (m) of a substance divided by
its volume (V).

The MASS DENSITY of a liquid or gas is


an important factor that determines its
behavior as a fluid.
SPESIFIC DENSITY / RELATIVE
DENSITY/
SPECIFIC GRAVITY (S.G)

A convenient way to compare densities is to use the concept specific


gravity.

Specific gravity is define as the ratio of the density of the


substance to the density of water at 4oC.

Water at 4°C has a density of 1000 kg/m3.


EXAMPLE 1

The specific gravity of cast iron is 7.2. Find the


density and the mass of 60 cm3 of it. Ans: 7200 kgm-
3, 0.432 kg
Pressure
Pressure:
Pressure is defined as the
force per unit area.

Pressure is a scalar: The


units of pressure: 1 Pa = 1
N/m2
PRESSURE IN FLUIDS
The pressure at a depth, h
below the surface of the
liquid is due to the weight
of the liquid above it.
So, pressure in fluids is:

With
P = pressure
ρ= density
g= gravity
h= height
Atmospheric Pressure and Gauge Pressure
At sea level the atmospheric pressure is about

This is called one atmosphere (atm).


Another unit of pressure is the bar:
Most pressure gauges measure the pressure
above the atmospheric pressure – this is called
the gauge pressure.

The absolute pressure is the sum of the


atmospheric pressure and the gauge
pressure.

With PA = 1 atm
EXAMPLE 2
Find the pressure due to the fluid at a depth of 76 cm in
still water (ρw = 1000 kg/m3) Ans: 7455.6 N/m2
Pascal’s Principle and
application
Pascal’s Principle states that if an external
pressure is applied to a confined fluid, the
pressure at every point within the fluid
increases by that amount.
Mathematically,
An important application of the Pascal’s
principle is the hydraulic press.
A downward force F1 is applied to a small
area of A1. The pressure is transmitted
through a fluid to a larger piston of area A2.
Therefore,
Hydraulic System
EXAMPLE 3
In a hydraulic pressure , the large piston has cross-
sectional area A1 = 200 cm2 and the small piston has
cross sectional area A2 = 5 cm2 . If a force of 250 N is
applied to the small piston, find the force F1 on the large
piston. Ans: 10 kN
Measurement of Pressure
There are a number of different types of
pressure gauges such as:
1. U-tube manometer
2. Open-tube manometer
3. Close-tube manometer
4. Barometer
U- tube manometer

A manometer is a U-
shaped tube that is
partially filled with liquid.

Both ends of the tube are


open to the atmosphere.

𝝆𝑨𝒈𝒉𝑨 = 𝝆𝑩𝒈𝒉𝑩
Open tube manometer
A container of gas is
connected to one end of the
U-tube, The other end is
opened to atmosphere
The pressure at point B is
the pressure of the gas.
Close tube manometer
A container of gas is
connected to one end of the
U-tube, The other end is
closed to atmosphere.

The pressure at point B is


the pressure of the gas.
Barometer
The atmosphere pushes on the container of
mercury which forces mercury up the closed,
inverted tube. The distance, h is called the
barometric pressure.
From the figure,
Example: 4

How high is the level of a mercury barometer on a day


when atmospheric pressure is 98.6 kPa? (Density of
mercury = 13.6 x 103 kg/m3) Ans: 0.74 m
EXAMPLE 5
An open-tube mercury manometer is used to measure the
pressure in an oxygen tank. When the atmospheric
pressure is 1040 mbar, what is the absolute pressure (in
Pa) in the tank if the height of the mercury in the open
tube is 28.0 cm higher than the mercury in the tube
connected to the tank? (1 bar = 1 x105 Pa) Ans: 1.41 x
105𝑁/𝑚2
BUOYANCY &
ARCHIMEDES’ PRINCIPLE
Object submerged in a fluid
appear lighter compare to
the outside of the fluid.
Buoyant force, FB occurs
because the pressure in a
fluid.

FB is ALWAYS directed
UPWARD.
ARCHIMEDES PRINCIPLE

ARCHIMEDES
PRINCIPLE:

“the buoyant force on an object immersed in


a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid
displaced by that object”.
If the object submerged in a fluid. There is a
net force on the object because the pressures
at the top and bottom of it are different
The net force due to the
fluid pressure, FB:

FB   fluid gVsubmerged
BUOYANT FORCE
In general: Volume of the immersed body which is
equal to the volume of the fluid that the
body replaced

FB   fluid gVsubmerged

Density of the fluid Gravitational acceleration


BUOYANT FORCE
BUOYANT FORCE

𝑭𝑩=𝑾𝒂𝒊𝒓−𝑾𝒊𝒎𝒎𝒆𝒓𝒔𝒆𝒅 fluid

𝑭𝑩=(𝒎𝒈)𝒂𝒊𝒓−(𝒎𝒈)𝒊𝒎𝒎𝒆𝒓𝒔𝒆𝒅 fluid

Wair = weight of the object in air

Wimmersed fluid = weight of the object immersed in a fluid


EXAMPLE 6

A floating object displaces 0.6 m3 of water. Calculate the


buoyant force of the object and the mass on the object.
Ans: 5886 N, 600 kg
Example: 7
A solid cube is 7.5 cm on each side. It floats in oil of
density 800 kg/m3 with one third of the block out of the oil.
What is the buoyant force on the cube? Ans: 2.21 N
Example: 8
A metal cube 5.0 cm on each side has a mass of 300 g is
hung with string in air. Calculate the tension of the string
if the object is fully submerged in a liquid that has a
density of 1200 kg/m3. Ans:1.471 N
The flow rates at any two points must be equal,
as long as no fluid is being added or taken away.

This gives us: :


If the density doesn’t change (typical for liquids)
this simplifies to:

𝑨𝟏𝒗𝟏=𝑨𝟐𝒗𝟐

THE EQUATION OF CONTINUITY


Where the cross-sectional area is large, the
velocity is small.
When the area is small, the velocity is large.
Where the pipe is larger, the flow is
slower
The mass flow rate is the mass that passes a
given point per unit time (unit: kg/s).
m
𝑴𝒂𝒔𝒔 𝑭𝒍𝒐𝒘 𝒓𝒂𝒕e,  Av
t
The 𝑨𝒗 represent the volume rate of flow
(volume of fluid passing a given point per
second with unit m3/s).
𝑽𝒐𝒍𝒖𝒎𝒆 𝒇𝒍𝒐𝒘 𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒆,Δ𝑽/Δ𝒕=𝑨𝒗
Example 9
Bernoulli’s Equation and application

BERNOULLI’S PRINCIPLE:
“Where the velocity of a fluid is high, the
pressure is low and where the velocity is
low, the pressure is high”.

1 2
P  v  gy  contstant
2
A fluid can also change its height.

One thing it tells us is that as the speed goes up,


the pressure goes down.
𝑷 = 𝑷𝒓𝒆𝒔𝒔𝒖𝒓𝒆
ρ = density
𝒗 = 𝒗𝒆𝒍𝒐𝒄𝒊𝒕𝒚
g = gravity
y = height

This is Bernoulli’s equation.


Example 10
A hose lying on the ground has water coming out of it at a
speed of 5.4 meters per second. You lift the nozzle of the
hose to a height of 1.3 meters above the ground. At what
speed does the water now come out of the hose? Ans:
1.9 m/s
Example 11
Water at a gauge pressure of 3.8 atm at street level flows in to an
office building at a speed of 0.06 m/s through a pipe 5.0 cm in
diameter. The pipes taper down to 2.6cm in diameter by the top
floor, 20 m above. Calculate the flow velocity and the gauge
pressure in such a pipe on the top floor. Assume no branch pipe and
ignore viscosity. Ans: v2 = 0.22 m/s, P2 = 2.8 x 105 Pa
Example 12
A horizontal pipeline is attached to the wall of reservoir (see fig. 2).
The pipeline has different profiles. The water level in the upper
reservoir is in the height H = 1.5 m above the pipeline axis. From the
lower end of the pipeline water flows out to the open space through a
pipe of diameter D3 = 0.12 m. Calculate discharge Q of the water.
Ans: 0.059 m3/s

Q
What is Viscosity

Viscosity is a measure of a fluid's resistance to flow

Types of Viscosity of fluid

a) Dynamic viscosity
also known as absolute viscosity - symbol (µ)
SI units of N s/m2

b) Kinematic viscosity – symbol (V)


SI units of m2/s


V

Coefficient of Dynamic Viscosity or viscosity – (ɳ)

SI units of Pa.s
VISCOSITY
Real fluids have some internal friction, called
viscosity.
The viscosity can be measured; it is found from
the relation:
A – Area of contact of a
moving plate

where η is the coefficient of viscosity.


Example 13
A piston 10 cm in diameter and 50 cm in length moves coaxially in
a cylinder 10.02 cm in diameter. The space between the piston
and the cylinder is filled with oil of viscosity (ɳ) 9.25 x 10-5 Pa.s.
Assuming a linear variation in velocity, determine the force
required to move the piston at 0.5 m/s. Ans: 0.726 N
POISEUILLE’S LAW
The rate of flow in a fluid in a round tube
depends on the viscosity of the fluid, the
pressure difference, and the dimensions of the
tube.

The volume flow rate is proportional to the


pressure difference, inversely proportional to
the length of the tube and to the pressure
difference, and proportional to the fourth power
of the radius of the tube.
POISEUILLE’S EQUATION : FLOW
IN TUBES Discovered by French physician Jean
Poiseuille (1799-1869)

POISEUILLE’S LAW
A fluid whose viscosity is, flowing through a pipe of radius r
and length L have a volume flow rate, Q given by :

r = inside radius of the tube (m)


Q = volume of flow rate (m3/s)
P2 –P1 = pressure at the ends of tube (Pa)
L = length of tube (m)
ɳ = viscosity (Pa.s)
EXAMPLE: 14
Pressure in car engine oil tube

Engine oil with a viscosity of 2 x 10-1 N.s/m2 passes


through a fine 1.8 mm diameter tube in a prototype
engine. The tube is 5.5 cm long. What pressure
difference is needed to maintain a flow rate of 5.6
mL/min? Ans: 4 x 103 N/m2
Stokes’s Law

One more useful relation in viscous fluid flow is the


expression for the force F exerted on a sphere of radius r
moving with speed v through a fluid with ɳ viscosity.
When the flow is laminar, the relationship is simple:

Equation is called Stokes’s law.


EXAMPLE:15
A sphere with a radius 2 mm is dropped in a tube containing oil with density of
940 kgm-3. if the viscosity of oil at 20oC is 2.42 Pa.s and density of the sphere is
7800 kgm-3, calculate the terminal velocity of the sphere. Ans: 0.025 m/s

Drag FBF
force, FD

W = mg