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METHODS OF DATA

COLLECTION
Kersey Geuel A. Ricalde RN
OBJECTIVES:

 At the end of 30 minutes lecture the learners will be able to:


1. Identify the appropriate process of data collection for the study.
2. Enumerate the elements to be considered in data collection
3. Differentiate the basic research instrumentations
4. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using the different research
instrumentation.
5. Identify the criteria for evaluating the instruments.
THE PROCESS OF DATA COLLECTION

 Steps in data collection:


 1. Explain what test and other measures will be used.
 2. Explain how the task will be performed.
 3. Explain how the instruments will be administered.
 4. Describe how the method of data collection such as interview
and observation will carry out.
MAJOR DECISIONS OF DATA COLLECTION
PHASE
 1. The target population must be defined

 2. The method of selecting individual from the target population


must be determined.
 3. The method of collecting data must be specified such as the
use of already existing data, the use of an observer and self-
recording data, and
 4. The way in which data are to be processed should be
explained, such as the use of manual processing or by means of
computer.
ELEMENTS TO BE CONSIDERED IN DATA
COLLECTION
 1. The nature of the research problem
 2. The design of the study, whether experimental or non
experimental
 3. The variables, its definition and measurement
 4. Sampling units to be included such as type, number and
location.
 5. Amount of time available within which to complete the study
and
 6. Adequacy of resources available to pursue the study.
METHODS OF COLLECTING DATA
 1. Use of already existing or available data
 These are pertinent records, reports and documents of an institution.
 2. Self-report data
 Direct report of information by the person being studied.

 2 types of self report techniques


 Unstructured –includes a free wiiling interview, where the interview is not guided by a
structured question and specific choices
 Stuctured – guided by a prepared interview guide with specific questions and options
where the respondents can select from.
METHODS OF COLLECTING DATA

 3. Biophysiologic Data
 Requires a specialized technical instruments and equipment that
measure physiological and physical variables
 Types of Biophysiologic Measures
 In Vivo: Heart Rate, BP, Temp
 In vitro: chemical measurements, microbiological, cytological
ADVANTAGES

 Objectivity
 Accuarcy, precision, sensitivity
 Valid measurements of variables
 Patients unlikely to distort measurements
 Inexpensive
METHODS OF COLLECTING DATA

 4. Use of observer’s data


 Data gathered through actual observation and recording of events.

Types of Observers
1. Non-participant Observer – the observer does not share mileu with the subjects and is not a
member of the group/subjects of the study.
• Types of Non Participant Observer
• Overt non participant observer
• Covert non participant Observer
2. Participant Observer
• Types of Non Participant Observer
• Overt non participant observer
• Covert non participant Observer
TWO METHODS OF OBSERVATION

 1. Structured Observations
– researcher has prior knowledge of the phenomenon of
interest

 2. Unstructured Observations – resarcher attempts to describe


the events of behavior with no preconceived ideas of what will
be seen or observe.
CATEGORIES OF INFORMATION GATHERED
THROUGH OBSERVATION
 1. Characteristics, attitudes and condition of the subjects
 2. Verbal communication
 3. Non-verbal communication such as facial expression, posture and gestures
 4. Patients’ activities such as eating, sleeping and ambulating among others.
 5. Skill in task performance such as deep breathing exercises and crutch walking
 6. Environmental conditions such as cleanliness, congestion, barriers, set up
and noise level.
ADVANTAGES OF OBSERVATION

 Inexpensive
 Subjects are readily available
 Lends itself to the use of recording data equipment
 Requires simple data collection instrument
 Allows for the observation of a sequence of events
 May be stopped at any time
DISADVANTAGES OF OBSERVATION

 Time and duration of an event cannot be predicted


 Researcher may have to wait for an event to occur
 Presence of observer may influence subject
 Subject to bias
 Difficult to record
 Extensive training is needed by observers
 Some situations are not open to observations
 Data from two or more observers may not be the same
 Observer may become personally involved
 Observer may limit his range of observation
TYPES OF RESEACRH INSTRUMENTS

 1. Questionnaire
 A self- directing instrument structured with questions and indicators for the
respondent to react from. It measures levels, opinions, attitudes, beliefs, ideas,
feelings and perceptions, as well as gathers factual information from the respondent
 It is a paper and pencil approach in which participants area sked to answer a set of
printed questions
 Data are based on demographic profile an perceptual assessment of the respondents
regarding the variables of the study.
TYPES OF RESEACRH INSTRUMENTS

 2. Scanning Questionnaires
 Method of data collection that can be used with questionnaires that have been administered in
face-to-face interviews, mail surveys completed by an interview over the telephone.
 The survey system produces paper questionnaires that can be scanned

3. Interview
 A one-on-one dialogue between the researcher and respondent to elicit data from the latter on
the phenomenon under study.
 Data are accurately recorded with the use of video camera and tape recorder
 A research assistant may help record the questions and answers during the interview
TYPES OF RESEACRH INSTRUMENTS

 4. Anecdotal Records and any other documentary materials


 5. Mechanical Instruments
 a. Diagnostic machines
 b. Treatment devices
GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING RESEARCH
INSTRUMENTS
 1. The instruments must suit the purpose of th study. It must help solve the problems
raised in the study.
 2. Instruments must be able to gather needed data for testing the hypotheses and
answering questions raised in the study.
 3. Indicators in the instrument must be valid, arranged logically and relate to the problems
and hypotheses of the study
 4. Indicators should be also stated that respondents’ perceptions will not be biased.
Questions should not be stated with built-in clues.
GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING RESEARCH
INSTRUMENTS
 5. The instrument should be reliable and can provide comparable data
when used on different subjects under different circumstances
 6. The instrument should be constructed in such a way that cheatinng is
minimized, if not discouraged. Subjects must not be influenced by the
response of other
 7. The instrument shoul be easy to administer. Directions should be specific
and simply stated.
 8. Scale of measurement must be appropriate and reliable
PREPARATION OF QUESTIONNAIRES AND
INTERVIEW
 1. Decide whether data should be collected through interview or a questionnaire, how
the instrument should be structured and what information will be gathered.
 2. Determine which information is being sought then formulate and record the
questions, properly structured and sequenced
 3. Prepare a brief information and cover letter, stating the purpose of the study, the
importance of the respondents’ participation, the assurance of confidentiality of
response and the cut-off date for retrieval of instruments
 4. Determine the general content of the question needed to obtain the
desired information, the desired response, then choose the exact wording
of the question and arrange in proper sequence
 5. Prepare the draft of the instrument
 6. Subject draft to critical review and pre-testing
 7. Administer the revised draft to the actual study respondents
Types of Interview

 Unstructured – The interviewer asks questions at a random but makes sure that
needed data from the respondents will give holistic information on the subject
of the interview.

 Stuctured – A dialogue in which the interviewer is guided by a prepared specific


questions to gather needed data with ease from the respondents
Methods of interviewing
 a. Personal Interview
 b. Telephone survey
 c. Mail survey
 d. Computer direct survey
 e. Email survey
 f. Internet survey
ADVANTAGES OF INTERVIEW

 Response rate tends to be high


 Not everybody can fill out a questionnaire
 Offers protection from confusing questions
 Permits greater control over sample
 Produces additional data through observation
DISADVANTAGES OF INTERVIEW

 1. Time consuming
 2. Costly
 3. Interviewee has no choice as to time and place of interview
 4. Difficult to compare one interviewer’s data with another interviewer’s data
 5. Interviewer may influence the interviewee
 6. Interviewees may have faulty memories
 Types of questions asked
 1. Open-ended – respondents are given enough flexibility to answer
 2. Close-ended –respondents answer a number of alternative responses called
dichotomous items

 Types of Close-ended questions


 Dichotomous items – two-response items such as Yes/No, Married/Not Married
 Multichotomous items – questions with a range of response items ex: multiple choice
test.
 Fixed-alternatives or Multiple choice items – respondents have multiple
response
 Projective questions – this approach uses stimulus ans attempt to project a
person’s attitude from the response. It uses word associations and filll-in-the
blank sentences
 Cafeteria Questions – respondent are asked to respinse according to their viewpoint.
 Rank order questions – respondents are asked to answer from “most” to “least”
importabt, reasonable, frequent or beneficial
 Checklist/ Matrix question – items in this instrument are presented in a two-dimensional
pattern. Questions are writtem horizontally while respondents’ answers are written
vertically.
CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD QUESTIONS

 1. Specifically answer the research problem and focus only on the variables or
phenomenon
 2. Clearly and briefly stated
 3. Objective and detached from the researcher’s own judgment
 4. Responses are easy to interpret and tabulate
 5. Use of language appropriate to respondents’ level of understanding
 6. Neatly printed or typed on clean, quality paper and
 7. Bear the researcher’s signature.
CRITERIA FOR DEVELOPING RESEARCH
INSTRUMENTS
 1. Reliability – it refers to the accuracy or precision of tool.
 2. Sensitivity – means that fine lines of difference among the study subjects can be
determined from the measurements.
 3. Meaningfulness – means that the measurment must have a practical
application.
 3. Appropriate – applicable to the subjects being tested
 4. Objective - free from bias
CRITERIA FOR DEVELOPING RESEARCH
INSTRUMENTS
 5. Ethical – do not violate the human rights of the respondents
 6. Validity – refers to the degree to which an instrument measures what it
intends to measure.
 7. Efficiency – capacity of the instrument to measure items within a given
time frame
 8. Simplicity – clear and simple in order to avoid risk of errors
 9. Reactivity - instrument should not influence the attributes being
measured
REFERENCES:

 Cacanindin, E., 2010 Nursing Research Study Notes and Guides


 Venzon, L., Venzon, R., 2010, 3rd Edition, Introduction to Nursing Research The
Quest for Quallity Nursing through Evidence Based Practice