Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 24




• Preparing for parenthood begins with the decision to become pregnant, or

the discovery of pregnancy in an unplanned circumstance.

• Fifty years ago, unreliable or unavailable contraceptive methods resulted

in parenthood for couples regardless of readiness.

• In addition, couples suffering from infertility or repeated miscarriages had

few options and generally accepted their inability to become pregnant,
ultimately seeking other parenting options, such as adoption.

• In recent decades, the availability of effective and reliable contraception

and sterilization techniques has given many the opportunity to chose the
timing of parenthood.

• Advanced reproductive technologies now enable many couples with

infertility problems to achieve a desired pregnancy.
• For some couples, the decision to become
pregnant is carefully weighed against the impact
that pregnancy and birth will have on their
careers, lifestyles, financial status, and marital
• Despite a recent decline in the rate of unintended
pregnancy among adolescents, college graduates,
and wealthy women .
• The number of unintended pregnancies increased
among less educated, poor, and minority women.
• Because obstetric care has become more diverse
and specialized, women can choose their type of
care according to their particular needs and risks.
• Women can choose an obstetrician, family
physician, or nurse-midwife for their prenatal
care and delivery.
• The routine or traditional management of the
birth process, including the use of technologies
such as continuous fetal monitoring, epidural
anesthesia, intravenous infusion, and episiotomy,
are issues that a woman may consider when
choosing her provider.

The preparation for pregnancy and

parenthood is becoming more consumer-
oriented, and women are selecting their
provider based on their personal philosophy
and desires for their birth experience.
• Childbearing women and their partners are almost
universally encouraged to participate in childbirth
education classes, prenatal classes, Lamaze, Bradley,
HypnoBirthing and other methods differ in their
philosophy and techniques.
• Various other classes are also available, including ones
that focus on breastfeeding, cesarean birth, prenatal
exercise, newborn care, sibling preparation, child care,
and more.
• This aspect of preparation for parenthood is largely
left to personal experience.

• The heath-care provider is generally in close

communication with a woman throughout her
pregnancy and immediate postpartum period.
• Once the event of birth has occurred, however, new
parents are left to rely on intuition, family advice, past
experiences, child-care books, or telephone help lines.
Few classes focus exclusively on teaching parenting
strategies, skills, and expectations.
• Advice is provided from family, friends, health-care
professionals, and complete strangers. This advice is
often conflicting and confusing.
• The parent–child relationship is central to a
child's moral development, social behavior,
and ultimate attainment of adult
• The fact that the mother and father are the
most important people in the growing child's
life in the family. The care of young children is
considered the responsibility of the parents.
• In the 19th and early 20th centuries,
grandparents played an instrumental role in
religious training, education, and child care.
However, the migration of families from rural
to urban settings and economic changes
diminished role for grandparents.
• Traditionally, the mother was considered the
childrearer and the father the breadwinner.
• The women's movement, however, brought
about a social change in the family roles of men
and women, resulting in more shared
• Employed mothers feel guilt and doubt about
their child-care competence, whereas women
who stay at home report a loss of social or
professional standing.
• The involvement of fathers in parenting has changed dramatically in
recent years.
• Part of this is due to an increase in the number of working mothers
and changes in family demographics (such as divorce), necessitating
a more active and shared role in parenting responsibilities by the
• positive impact of the father's role on child well-being has also
contributed to increased involvement.
• Fathers are attending childbirth classes, providing support during
labor and birth, and learning basic infant-care skills to prepare for
their new role.
• However Father participation has become expected rather than
optional, an attitude nearly exclusive to the middle class.
• Today's fathers are much more involved in the care and
nurturing of their children.
• This new role has contributed to the stress of the transition
to parenthood, as the father is viewed as financier,
stabilizer, companion, and caretaker.
• Learning how to be an effective parent is a challenging task
discovered mostly through trial and error.
• Health-care providers must acknowledge the pressure that
is placed on today's fathers to perform efficiently in various
• Further, this recognition must be coupled with
understanding, compassion, and support for their transition
into parenthood.
The problems arise are,
• Participation may not be appropriate for all fathers.

• More research is needed to determine the association

between father participation and father–infant bonding, the
marital relationship, and confidence in infant-care skills.

• Single-parent families are becoming more common.

• The growing number of unmarried women of childbearing age are postponing

marriage, and an increasing number of marriages are ending in divorce.

• 75% of single-parent families maintained by the mother. These families are

characterized by a high rate of poverty and minority representation, low
educational levels, and high mobility.

• The economic and social needs of this group are enormous.

• Single-parent families can be divided into three types:

• (1) single parenting as a result of divorce or death
• (2) unplanned single parenting;
• (3) “elective” single parenting.

• The divorce became a common problem among

• IN AMERICA THERE IS A decline is attributed to
an increase in the number of couples who live
together and a falling rate of marriage.
• The number of couples who live together without
marrying has increased tenfold since 1960; the
marriage rate has dropped by nearly 30% in past
25 years; and Americans are waiting about 5
years longer to marry than they did in 1970.
• It is estimated that nearly half of children will
experience the breakup of their parents'
marriage before the age of 18 years, and
nearly one-third of children will live in a
single-parent home .
• The effect of divorce on parents and children
will vary for different members of the family
and generally involves an extended
adjustment period.
• The stresses and difficulties in coping that are experience
ed by families in which the parents are divorced can lead to
disturbances in personal and social adjustment of the child.
• This fact is countered, however, by the knowledge that
divorce may be a positive solution to destructive family
• The long-term effects of divorce are still controversial
although evidence suggests that children of divorced
parents eventually were functioning as well as non-divorce
• Effective social support systems must be identified and
developed that will help the family adjust to the parental
changes associated with divorce.
Unplanned Parenting

• The number of unplanned pregnancies continues to

escalate despite the availability of effective contraceptive
• Parenthood at an early age, not only affects the
educational and social prospects for the adolescent mother,
but also infants born to teenage mothers are at risk for
poor birth outcomes such as low birthweight and preterm
• Research results have found that adolescent parents have
high levels of stress, inadequate social support, poor
knowledge of child development, and inappropriate
childrearing attitudes.
• P.t.o
• While most teen pregnancies can
be established as unplanned, unplanned
parenting among other age groups is more
difficult to differentiate.
Elective Single Parenting
• Elective single parenting has become more acceptable and popular in the
past decade.
• Women who choose to become a parent without the involvement of a
partner typically come from two groups: those who have become
discouraged toward men in general; and those whose advancing age
necessitates their becoming pregnant while they are still biologically able.
• Personal attitudes regarding the upholding of a traditional family
structure interfere with willingness to make modern reproductive options,
such as artificial insemination, available to these women.
• There is some concern about the financial stability of elective single
mothers and the lack of male role models for their children, believing that
these factors may stunt the child's social and cognitive development.
• However, studies indicate that children raised by their mothers alone have
no adverse effect on mothers' parenting ability or the psychological
adjustment of the child.

• Changes in attitudes among lesbian women and gay men during the
past few decades have allowed many to consider the possibility of
• Although some consider adoption, there is an increasing number of
lesbian women seeking artificial insemination and gay men seeking
women to carry their child.
• Several concerns have been addressed. The biased view of lesbian
women and gay men that focuses on their sexuality cannot be good
parents, or that their children will not have appropriate sexual role
• But Research indicates, gay and lesbian parents have been shown
to provide effective parenting for their children and the children
different in terms of gender identity, personality problems,
or psychological development than children of heterosexual
• There is a growing number of women with disabilities who
are interested in pregnancy and becoming mothers.
• Technological advances in specialized adaptive equipment
and an increase in social services offer greater opportunity
for women with physical challenges to CONSIDER pregnancy,
labor, birth and childrearing.
• Evidence suggests that women with disabilities are more
likely to deliver preterm and low birthweight infants and
have more hospital admissions during pregnancy, cesarean
deliveries, and readmissions within 3 months of delivery.
• Recent journal articles have helped to increase awareness
of health care providers in the specific issues.
• Efforts have been made to provide public access, and technological
advances have provided the opportunity for many women to
function independently at work and at home.
• Women who are disabled must consider the same financial and
emotional factors of parenthood as nondisabled women that will
impact their lives.
• In order for parenthood to be a realistic option for these women,
adjustments in living arrangements may be necessary, and a greater
range of supportive services is often required.
• Thus, the financial cost of parenthood may be greater, the
preparatory effort more involved, and the physical requirements
more challenging among these women than among women
without disabilities.