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FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENTS

BUILDING SERVICES V

SUBJECT INCHARGE : SUBMITTED BY :


GURPREET SINGH (168009)
AR.RAMNEET KAUR
NANCY (168021)
SIMRAN KAUR (168027)
 
WHAT IS FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT?

 Fire fighting equipment is


equipment designed to extinguish
fires or protect the user from fire.

 It may be used by trained fire


fighters, untrained users at the
scene of a fire, or built into a
building's infrastructure.

 Fire fighting equipment includes


not only fire hoses and fire
extinguishers but also fire-resistant
protective clothing, fire-resistant
gloves, respirators, and
communication equipment.
 
HOW FIRE COULD BE
TREATED?
A CATEGORIZED LIST OF SUCH EQUIPMENT MIGHT LOOK LIKE THIS:

 Extinguishers – using water, dry chemical


powder, foam, carbon dioxide, or other
substances

 Fire fighter’s gear – fire resistant outer


suit, inner lining suit, inner and outer gloves,
woolen socks, fire resistant shoes, helmet
(with or without headlight), communication
system, and breathing apparatus
 Installed fire fighting system –
main water supply network, hydrant,
sprinkler (automatic or manual),
emergency fuel and electric cut off
system, portable generators, and
portable pumps

 Communication equipment – walkie-


talkie, radio, broadcasts, landline
telephone, sound powered telephone,
cell or mobile phone, and voice pipe
 Fire detection and alarm
systems – smoke, frame, spark
detectors, local, centralized
automatic, semi-automatic, and
manual fire alarm systems

 Other accessories – water and


sand bucket, shovel, hammer,
fire axe, cutters, hooks, fire
blanket, emergency lifesaving
apparatus, and emergency lights
TYPES OF FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENTS

 FIRE EXTINGUISHER
 FIRE ALARM
 FIRE BLANKET
 FIRE HOSE
 FIRE HYDRANT
 FIRE SUIT
 HEAT DETECTOR
 SMOKE DETECTOR
 FIRE SPRINKLER
FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

 A fire extinguisher is an active fire protection device used to


extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency
situations.

FIRE EXTINGUISHER CABINET


HOW TO USE A FIRE EXTINGUISHER
WATER BASED FIRE EXTINGUISHER

1 PULL THE PIN AND PRESS HANDLE.

2 CYLINDER CONTAINING HIGH PRESSURE GAS

3 EXTINGUISHER FILLED WITH WATER.

4 A TUBE RUNS UPTO NOSSLE.

5 NOSSLE FOR PUMPING OUT

Water fire extinguishers extinguish the fire by taking away 
the heat element.

Class A – Paper, textiles, wood, most plastics & rubber


Do not use water fire extinguishers for: Sizes of water fire extinguisher available:
• Electrical fires – this would be highly dangerous
and could result in electrocution • 3 litre
• 6 litre
• Fires involving flammable liquids, such as petrol • 9 litre
and paint (‘class B’ fires)
IDENTIFICATION
• Fires involving flammable gases, such as
methane and butane (‘class C’ fires)

• Cooking fires involving oil and grease, such as


chip pan fires (‘class F’ fires)
CARBON DIOXIDE FIRE EXTINGUISHER

CO2 fire extinguisher uses:


• Fires involving equipment such as computers, or
generators (‘electrical’ fires)

• Fires involving some flammable liquids, such as


petrol, diesel, and paint (‘class B’ fires)
CO2s will frequently be found in laboratories, mechanical 
rooms, kitchens, and flammable liquid storage areas.
Do not use CO2 fire extinguishers for:

• Cooking fires involving oil and grease, such as


chip pan fires (‘class F’ fires)

Co2s Are Designed


For Class B And C  (Flammable Liquid And Electrical) Fires Only.


How to identify a CO2 fire extinguisher:

• BLACK coloured label stating ‘CO2’

• The nozzle ends in a distinctive black ‘horn’

Pros and Cons of CO2 fire extinguishers: Sizes of CO2 fire extinguisher available:

Pros: extremely effective on electrical fires. • 2 litre


• 5 litre
• do not leave any residue behind when they are used.

Cons: risk of cold burns if the user holds the extinguisher by the horn.

• less environmentally friendly than other types of extinguisher.

• they replace the oxygen in the air with CO2 so risk of asphyxiation if used in confined
spaces.
DRY POWDER FIRE EXTINGUISHER

ABC fire
extinguishers

Dry powder fire extinguisher uses:


Fires involving flammable solids, such as paper, wood, and textiles (‘class A’
fires)

• Fires involving flammable liquids, such as petrol, diesel, and paint (‘class
B’ fires)

• Fires involving flammable gases, such as butane and methane (‘class C’


IDENTIFICATION CAPACITY

• 1 kg
• 2 kg
• 3 kg
• 6 kg
• 9 kg

Dry powder fire extinguishers smother fires by forming a barrier


between the fuel and the source of oxygen.
Remember – don’t use dry powder extinguishers in enclosed areas.

Pros and Cons of DRY POWDER fire extinguishers:

Pros: work on most types of fire; they suppress fires very quickly; specialist dry
powder extinguishers are the only extinguishers that work on flammable metals.

Cons: slight danger of the fire re-igniting; when discharged, the powder can spread
over a large area leaving a residue; can obscure vision when discharged and can be
inhaled if used in enclosed areas.
FOAM FIRE EXTINGUISHER

pray foam fire extinguishers

Uses of FOAM BASED fire extinguishers:

• Fires involving flammable solids, such as paper, wood, and textiles (‘class A’ fires)

• Fires involving some flammable liquids, such as petrol, diesel, and paint (‘class B’
fires)

• Fires involving electrical appliances IF the extinguisher has passed the 35kv
conductivity test.
IDENTIFICATION CAPACITY

• 2 litre
• CREAM coloured label stating
• 3 litre
‘Foam’ • 6 litre (most commonly used)
• Should be identified by an • 9 litre
extinguisher ID sign fixed
nearby – ‘Foam Extinguisher’
WORKING:
Firstly, they are mainly water-based and so have the same cooling effect as water
extinguishers, putting the fire out by lowering the temperature.

Secondly, they contain ‘Aqueous Film Forming Foam’ (this is why they are also known as
AFFF foam extinguishers).

Pros and Cons of DRY POWDER fire extinguishers:

Pros: non-toxic, non-damaging to most materials, designed to prevent the re-


ignition fires, lighter in weight than the equivalent water extinguisher.

Cons: damaging to electrical appliances. Dangerous if used on cooking fires or


flammable gas fires.
FIRE SPRINKLER OR SPRINKLER HEAD

 A Fire sprinkler or sprinkler head is the component of a fire


sprinkler system that discharges water when the effects of a fire
have been detected, such as when a predetermined temperature
has been exceeded.
 Fire sprinklers are extensively used worldwide, with over 40
million sprinkler heads fitted each year.
 In buildings protected by properly designed and maintained fire
sprinklers, over 99% of fires were controlled by fire sprinklers
alone
 Fire sprinkle system is the best to have protection in
commercial buildings in case of fire or smoke.
 Installing a sprinkler system is a good preventative measure to
take.
 There are various types of fire sprinklers and below are
descriptions of these so you know which one is best suited for
your commercial building.
TYPES OF
SPRINKLES
Pre-action
Pre-action fire sprinkler systems are filled with air
and water is allowed to pass through when the
smoke alarm or detector goes off. This type of
system requires two triggers to start water flow. It
helps greatly that the pre-action fire sprinkler can
be set to prevent water from spouting in case of a
false alarm or a mechanical failure. The pre-action
system is good for use in places where the
sprinklers are only necessary when there is an
actual fire so other items in the building do not get
water damage from an accidental sprinkling. Such
buildings include libraries and data centers. These
places contain items of high value like electronics
and goods damageable by water such as books
Dry Pipe
 Dry pipe sprinklers are similar to pre-
action systems as they use
pressurized air in the pipe which exits
before water escapes. This causes a
minute delay in water discharge but
is ideal for buildings with low
temperatures so the pipes do not
freeze. These fire sprinkler systems
have a fast opening tool to get rid of
the air and speed up the flow of
water. Warehouses located in the
north are a good example of what
buildings should use dry pipe
sprinklers.
Wet Pipe
 Wet pipe fire sprinklers constantly have water in them. This
allows for a quick reaction to a fire and is the most common type
of sprinkler installed in buildings. A type of building that uses the
wet pipe system is a high-rise or office building with a few floors.
This fire sprinkler system is cost efficient and low maintenance.
DELUGE
 These types of fire sprinkler
systems also need a smoke or heat
detector like the pre-action system.
 A deluge system has open nozzles
that can be used when a hazard is
present.
 When flammable liquids are spread
across a floor, deluge fire sprinklers
are good to have.
 In that case, buildings such as
industrial parks and buildings with
many tanks have deluge fire
sprinkler systems installed
FIRE ALARM
 A fire alarm system has a number of devices working together
to detect and warn people .... smoke detector, radiant energy;
flame detector, combustion gasses; fire gas detector, and
release of extinguishing agents; water-flow detector.
FIRE BLANKET
 A fire blanket is a safety device designed to extinguish
incipient (starting) fires. It consists of a sheet of a fire retardant
material which is placed over a fire in order to smother
it. ... Fire blankets, along with fire extinguishers,
are fire safety items that can be useful in case of a fire
FIRE HOSE

 A fire hose (or firehose) is a high-pressure hose that


carries water or other fire retardant (such as foam) to a fire to
extinguish it. Outdoors, it attaches either to a fire engine or a fire
hydrant. Indoors, it can permanently attach to a
building’s standpipe or plumbing system.
 The usual working pressure of a firehose can vary between 8 and
20 bar (800 and 2,000 kPa; 116 and 290 psi) while per the NFPA
1961 Fire Hose Standard, its bursting pressure is in excess of 110
bar
FIRE HYDRANT
 A fire hydrant, also called a fireplug, fire pump, johnny
pump, or simply pump, is a connection point by
which firefighters can tap into a water supply. It is a component
of active fire protection.
 A fire proximity suit (also, silvers, silver bunker suit, or asbestos suit) is
a suit designed to protect a firefighter from high temperatures, especially
near fires of extreme temperature such as aircraft fires
HEAT DETECTOR
 Heat detector is a fire alarm device designed to respond when
the convected thermal energy of a fire increases the temperature
of a heat sensitive element.
 The thermal mass and conductivity of the element regulate the
rate flow of heat into the element. All heat detectors have
this thermal lag. Heat detectors have two main classifications of
operation, "rate-of-rise" and "fixed temperature". The heat
detector is used to help in the reduction of damaged property. It is
triggered when temperature increases.
SMOKE DETECTOR
 A smoke detector is a device that senses smoke, typically as
an indicator of fire. Commercial security devices issue a signal to
a fire alarm control panel as part of a fire alarm system, while
household smoke detectors, also known as smoke alarms,
generally issue a local audible or visual alarm from the detector
itself.
THANKS!