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# EMW GROUP ASSINMENT

MEMBERS ID№
Guesh Berhe 82377/07
Fitsum Haftu 82265/07
Miliyon Gebre 82850/07
Mahder Alemayoh 82702/07
Mahlet Kidu 82714/07
Eden Aregawi 82094/07
H/mariam Tsegay 82457/07
Feven Meaza 82221/07
Mahlet Yimer 82716 /07
1). For the cascaded lossless lines 𝑍𝑜1 =20Ω, 𝑍02 = 50Ω, 𝑍𝑜3 = 40Ω, 𝑍𝐿 = 30Ω, 𝑙2 =25cm ,
𝑙3 =0.5cm, 𝑉2 =2.5*108 m/s, 𝑉3 =2*108 m/s
• Find the reflection and transmission coefficient at the junction between line 1 and 2,
for a 2
Solution

ZL−Zo
since the question is b/n line 1 and line 2: Γ =
ZL+Zo
𝑍𝑜 is the impedance of line 1 and 𝑍𝑙 is the lode of line 1 or the input impedance of line
2 or at point A ,𝑍𝑜 is given = 20Ω and it expected to calculate 𝑍𝑙 = 𝑍𝑖𝑛 →in line 2

𝒛𝒐(𝒛𝑳 +𝑗𝑧𝑜tanhβℓ)
Zin =
𝒛𝒐 +𝒋𝑧𝐿tanhβℓ)

## For line 2 since it is lossless

In order to find the input impedance of point A first find the load of line 2 or 𝑍𝑖𝑛 of line
three
The input impedance of line 3 = the load of line 2

ω 2π∗20∗𝟏𝟎𝟖
β3 = = = 20π rad/sec
𝒗 2∗𝟏𝟎𝟖

ℓ3 = 0.5 cm = 0.005 m
Zo3 = 40Ω
𝒛𝒐(𝒛𝑳 +𝑗𝑧𝑜tan(βℓ))
• Zin =
𝒛𝒐 +𝒋𝑧𝐿tan(βℓ))

𝒛𝒐𝟑(𝒛𝑳 +𝑗𝑧𝑜tan(βℓ))
Z3in =
𝒛𝒐 +𝒋𝑧𝐿tan(βℓ))

## 40Ω (20Ω +𝑗40Ω tan(200π∗𝟎.𝟎𝟎𝟓))

Z3in =
40Ω +𝑗30Ωtan(200π∗𝟎.𝟎𝟎𝟓))
Z3in = 40.6 + j2.995
This is the input impedance of line 3 or the load of line two at point B
• And find at point A
ω 2π∗20∗𝟏𝟎𝟖
β2 = = = 16π
𝒗 2.5∗𝟏𝟎𝟖
ℓ2 = 25 cm = 0.25 m
Zo2 = 50Ω
Z2L = Z3in = 40.6 + j2.995
𝒛𝟐𝒐(𝒛𝟐𝑳 +𝑗𝑧2𝑜tan(βℓ))
Z2in =
𝒛𝟐𝒐 +𝒋𝑧2𝐿tan(βℓ))
50Ω (40.6Ω +j2.995Ω+j50Ωtan(16π∗𝟎.𝟐𝟓))
Z2in =
50Ω +j40.6Ω+j2.995Ωtan(16π∗𝟎.𝟐𝟓))
Z2in = Z1L = 25.95 + j18.03
Zo1=20 Ω
• Γ =ZL−Zo
ZL+Zo

## ZL1−Zo1 25.95 + j18.03 −20

Γ =ZL1+Zo1 = = 0.245 – j0.295
5.95 + j18.03 +20
τ= 1+ Γ = 0.245 – j0.295 + 1

τ= 1.245-j0.295
2). A uniform plane wave in air is normally incident on an infinite
lossless dielectric material having ε=3εο and μ=μο and if the incident
wave is Ei=10cos(ωt-z)ay V/m. find:
a. λ and ω of the wave in air and the transmitted wave in the dielectric medium
b. The incident Hi and Er field
c. г and τ
d. The total electric field, the time average power in both regions and the mobility of
fields
Solution
a. α1 = 0 , β1 =1 , λ1 =2π/β1 = 6.283m since the first medium is free space.
β1 = ω/c , ω= β1 *c =3*𝟏𝟎𝟖 ∗ 𝟏 = 3*𝟏𝟎𝟖 rad/sec
For medium 2
α2 = 0 since medium 2 is lossless
β2 =ω√(3εο*μο) = 1.732 rad/sec
λ2 = 2π/ β2 = 3.6276 m
b. Ho =Eo/ηo , but ηo = 120π then Ho = 10/ 120π = 0.0265
aH = aK* aE = aZ * aY = -aX
then Hi = -Ho*cos(wt-z)aX A/m , = 0.0265cos(3*𝟏𝟎𝟖 t-z)ax A/m
Ero = ΓEio but η2 = 120π/ √3 = 217.65
η2−η1
Γ =η2 +η1
= - 0.268 , τ= 1+ Γ =1 - 0.268 = 0.732
Ero= ΓEio = -0.268*10 = -2.68
Er = Ero* cos(3*𝟏𝟎𝟖 𝒕 + 𝒛)ay V/m = - 2.68cos(3*𝟏𝟎𝟖 𝒕 − 𝒛)ay V/m.
η2−η1
c. Γ= = - 0.268 , τ= 1+ Γ =1 - 0.268 = 0.732
η2 +η1
d. Ero = ΓEio = -2.68 , Eto = τEio = 0.732*10 = 7.32
E1 = Er + Ei = -2.68cos(3*𝟏𝟎𝟖 t − z)ay V/m +10cos(3*𝟏𝟎𝟖 𝒕 − 𝒛)ay V/m.
E2 = Et = 7.32*cos(3*𝟏𝟎𝟖 t-z)ayV/m
( 𝑬𝒊𝒐𝟐 − 𝑬𝒓𝒐𝟐 )
Ρav1 =
2ηo
az w/𝒎𝟐 = 0.1231 az w/𝒎𝟐

(Eto𝟐)
Ρav2 = az w/𝒎𝟐 = 0.1231 az w/𝒎𝟐
𝟐 η2
3. Determine Zin = 𝑽𝒔(𝒛)
𝑰𝒔(𝒛)
at any point on Γℓ , SWR and power.

Solution
First consider the figure below:
Let Γℓ extend from z =0 at the generator to z = ℓ at the load.
First we need V and I waves : ... (1)
... (2)

## From this , Vo = V(z=0) and Io = I(z=0).

w/c means , Vo = 𝑽𝒐+ + 𝑽𝒐− …(3) and
𝑽𝒐+ 𝑽𝒐−
Io = zo − zo …(4)

## Now multiply eq (4) by zo then add Vo and Io, we get:

𝑽𝒐+ = ½(Vo + Iozo)…(6)
Next subtract eg (3) from eg (4) and we get:
𝑽𝒐− = ½(Vo - Iozo)…(7).
use the voltage divider
𝑉𝑔∗𝑍𝑖𝑛 𝑉𝑔
Vo = and Io=
𝑍𝑔+𝑍𝑖𝑛 𝑍𝑔+𝑍𝑖𝑛

On the other hand if we are given at any point V(z =ℓ) = Vℓ , and Iℓ= I(z= ℓ).
Consider from equation (6) and (7) , then we can obtain :
𝐕𝐨+ = ½(Vℓ + Iℓzo)*𝐞𝛄ℓ …(8)
𝐕𝐨− = ½(Vℓ - Iℓzo)*𝐞−𝛄ℓ …(9)

## Vs(z) 𝐕𝐨+ +𝐕𝐨− 𝑧𝑜(𝐕𝐨+ +𝐕𝐨− )

Then finally zin = = 𝐕𝐨+ 𝐕𝐨−
= …(10)
Is(z) − 𝐕𝐨+ −𝐕𝐨−
z0 z0

## Substitute eg (8) and eq(9) in to eq(10)

𝒆𝜸ℓ + 𝒆−𝜸ℓ 𝒆γℓ − 𝒆−γℓ
zo(Vℓ (
𝟐
) + zoIℓ 2
)
• zin =
𝒆γℓ − 𝒆−γℓ 𝒆γℓ + 𝒆−γℓ
Vℓ ( 2
) + zoIℓ 2

• but
𝒆γℓ − 𝒆−γℓ
= sinhγℓ
2

𝒆γℓ + 𝒆−γℓ
= coshγℓ
2
𝒆γℓ − 𝒆−γℓ
γℓ −γℓ
= tanhγℓ
𝒆 + 𝒆
𝑧𝑜(𝑉ℓcoshγℓ +𝑍𝑜𝐼ℓsinhγℓ)
Then Zin = ) next divide all variables by IℓCoshγℓ
𝑉ℓ sinhγℓ +𝑍𝑜𝐼ℓ(coshγℓ)
𝒛𝒐(𝒁ℓ +𝑍𝑜tanhγℓ)
and we get Zin = )…..(lossy)
(𝒁𝒐 +𝑍ℓtanhγℓ)
In order to determine the Γ and τ let’s consider lossless dielectric material with α= 0, γ=α+jβ = jβ+
0.

𝒛𝒐(𝒛ℓ +𝑗𝑧𝑜tanhβℓ)
Now Zin =
𝒛𝒐 +𝒋𝑧ℓtanhβℓ)
• Voltage reflection coefficient at load : Vo = 𝑽𝒐+ 𝒆−γℓ + 𝑽𝒐− 𝒆γℓ

𝑽𝒐− 𝒆γℓ
then Γℓ = by substituting 𝑽𝒐+ from equation (8) and 𝑽𝒐− from equation (9)
𝑽𝒐+ 𝒆−γℓ
𝒛ℓ−𝒛𝒐
we get the reflection coefficient at load : Γℓ = 𝒛ℓ+𝒛𝒐 ….(11)

𝑽𝒐− 𝒆γ𝒛 𝑽𝒐− 𝟐γ𝒛
Γ(z) = = 𝒆
𝑽𝒐+ 𝒆−γ𝒛 𝑽𝒐+

## 𝑽𝒐− 𝒆γ𝒛 𝑽𝒐− 𝟐γℓ −𝟐γℓ‘

But z = ℓ - ℓ‘ → Γ(z) = = 𝒆 𝒆 = Γ(z) 𝒆−𝟐γℓ
𝑽𝒐+ 𝒆−γ𝒛 𝑽𝒐+
Current reflection coefficient at any point on the line is given by:

𝑰𝒐− 𝒆γℓ
-Γℓ =
𝑰𝒐+ 𝒆−γℓ
𝑽𝒎𝒂𝒙 𝑰𝒎𝒂𝒙
• SWR can be calculated as → S = = = 𝟏+|𝜞ℓ| .
𝑽𝒎𝒊𝒏 𝑰𝒎𝒊𝒏 𝟏−|𝜞ℓ|

𝑽𝒎𝒂𝒙 𝑽𝒎𝒊𝒏
𝑰𝒎𝒂𝒙 = & 𝑰𝒎𝒊𝒏 = .
𝒁𝒐 𝒁𝒐
𝑽𝒎𝒊𝒏 𝒁𝒐
then |Z𝒊𝒏|min = =
𝑰𝒎𝒂𝒙 𝑺

Ρave. = 12 Re[Vs(ℓ)Is∗(R)] 1
= . → 𝑖𝑠 𝑛𝑒𝑒𝑑𝑒𝑑 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑤𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑒 𝑑𝑒𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑒𝑎𝑘 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒𝑠
2
𝑖𝑛𝑠tead of the rms values.

Ρave. = 1 +
−𝒋βℓ 𝑽𝒐
Re[𝑽𝒐+ (𝒆𝒋βℓ + 𝜞𝒆 ) (𝒆−𝒋βℓ − 𝜞𝒆𝒋βℓ )]
2 𝒁𝒐

1 𝑽𝒐+𝟐
= Re[ 𝒁𝒐 (𝟏 − |𝜞|𝟐 + 𝜞𝒆−𝒋2βℓ − 𝜞𝒆𝒋𝟐βℓ )] Hence Pave. is pure imaginary
2

Ρave. = 𝑽𝒐+𝟐
𝟐𝒁𝒐
𝟏 − 𝜞|𝟐 …
END SLIDE