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Projects, teamwork and ethics

 Work breakdown structure

 Scope of work

 Budget

 Schedule

 Elements of a team

 Stages of development

 Teamwork

 Team rules

 Professional responsibility

 State laws

 Code of Ethics
How do we solve a design problem?

Design problem –FUNCTION

(customer & company requirements)

Make a project plan

then execute the plan
(decision making processes)

Solution - FORM
(manufacturing specifications)
Why should we plan a project?

To plan a project we make decisions which answer the

following questions
WHAT ? ……...scope of work tasks
WHEN ? ……...schedule
HOW MUCH?..budget
WHO?………...organization chart,
responsibilities table

Without a roadmap…..
how will you know where you are headed?
What is a project

Project – Unique sequence of activities (work tasks)

undertaken ONCE to achieve a specific set of
cost work time

Changing the length of any leg of the project triangle

affects the other legs!
Work breakdown structure Quick,
1 page graphic

Problem Formulation Concept Design Configuration Design Parametric Design Detail Design

site visit Generate alternative concepts Develop architecture Parametric problem formulation Detail drawings
QFD/HoQ Analyze alternatives Generate configurations Generate alternatives Assembly drawings
Eng. Characteristics Evaluate alternative Analyze Analyze alternatives Illustrations
Constraints Refine Project Report
Saisfaction curves Design review meeting Prototype test reports
Select strategy DFA FMEA Oral presentations
Develop plan DFM Fault trees Design review meeting
Design review meeting Evaluate Fishbone diagrams
Refine Evaluate alternatives
Desin review meeting Optimization
Multi-attribute opt.
Design review meeting
Scope of work (partial)

1.0 Design Problem Formulation

1.1 Visit Site,
Meet with customers, determine desired attributes and parameters
1.2 Complete QFD/HOQ
Determine requirements, engineering characteristics
1.3 Satisfaction Curves,
Determine the satisfaction curves for each engineering characteristic.
1.4 Create EDS/PDS
List in-use purposes for the product
List product performance requirements
1.5 Conduct Benchmarking
Research existing products that are currently available
Contact manufacturers and request brochures
Analyze the competition for functionality and performance
Responsibilities table assist

Project Name Date

Task Smith Johnson Tully Hughs Person n Hours

1.1 6 R 1 1 2 2 12
1.2 3 3 R 2 3 3 14
1.3 1 2 3 6 6 R 18
1.4 2 1 2 R 2 4 11
1.5 4 1 1 3 R 5 14
1.6 3 2 2 R 2 2 11
1.7 2 1 2 5 R 3 13

m-th task

Total hours 21 11 13 23 25 93
R - Resposible engineer, in-charge
Project schedule

Gantt Chart: Trow el Transporter

Week 5&6 Week 7&8 Week 9 Week 10 Week 11 Week12&13 Week 14 Week 3 Wee
Task 6/10-25/10 28/10-8/1111/11-18/1118/11-25/11 2/12-9/12 9/12-23/1223/12-30/12
Design Problem Formulation
1.1 Site Visit
1.5 Benchmarking
1.6 Contact Customers
1.7 Determine PDP/DV/SEP
1.10 Outline Work Scope
1.8 Determine Schedule
1.9 Calculate Budget
1.4 Create EDS
1.3 Satisfaction Curves
1.2 Complete QFD/HOQ
1.11Report 1
Conceptual Design u
2.1,2,5,6,9 Generate Concepts
2.7 Determine Physical Principles
2.8 Conceptual Draw ings
2.3,4 Evaluate Concepts
2.10 Report 2
Configuration Design u
Project Budget
Project notebook
Identification Sheet
Project name, Team member name,
Telephone/email addresses
Design problem formulation
Engineering Design Specifications, customer notes,
QFD, HoQ, Prior art (library research, web) /benchmarks
Alternative generation, analyses & evaluation
Analysis Plan, computations, experiments
Citations for equations, data, spreadsheets, sketches, figures,
Schematics, drawings, Evaluations
References / Bibliography
Project Engineering
Scope of work, Project schedule & updates
Budget, Earned Value Analyses, Risk Assessments
Time sheet - Log of work/team mtg hours
Punch lists of things to be done
Vendor Information
Telephone numbers, addresses
Phone conversations notes
Web site printouts
Product/vendor literature
Organization chart for a design project


John Smith

Sales Mfg.
Industrial Mechanical Electrical Civil
Marketing & Industrial
Design Engineering Engineering Engineering Purchasing
Johnson Stan Tully Sara Hughs Jim Parsons Dave Hart Jack Driggs
Sue Grant
Project Teams

 Definition of a “team”
 Elements that describe a “team”
 How teams change during the project
 How to have effective team meetings
 Setting “Team Rules”
What defines a “team”

A team - is a group of people that:

• have complementary skills and
• work together toward common goals
• hold each other mutually accountable.
Elements of a “team”

Communication – Listening, speaking, writing, drawing, etc

Seek first to understand before being understood

Group Decision making

Handoff to management
Voting majority versus minority, unanimous
Consensus thorough discussion, some minor
compromises, command decision

Collaboration – committed, cooperate, participate, assist

Team is more important than individual desires

Self-management – (starts with a project plan, however)

Advantages of Teaming

 Varied expertise.
 More ideas.
 More time and effort.
 Minimized mistakes.
 Pleasant and rewarding.
 More confidence in results.
Disadvantages of Teaming

 Interpersonal problems
 One person dominating the project.

 Some members feel left out.

 Improper resolution of conflicts.

 Lack of professional conduct.

 Lack of motivation.
Disadvantages of teaming

 Coordination and planning

 Lack of planning.

 Poorly defined tasks.

 Poorly structured meetings.

 Lack of leadership and continuity.

 Working together on same tasks.

Task Assignment Checklist

 Specify main purpose

 Stress the results needed (be specific)
 Identify the process and scope
 Assign “Help” members
 Provide all the information needed to carry out the
Checklist for a productive team


I enjoy performing my team activities

I care for the team to be successful

I feel accepted as a member of my team

I feel I receive good praise and recognition when I

do a good job
There are things about working on this team that
encourage me to work harder.
I believe the work activities of my team is well
Ground rules

 Examples
 Listen carefully to another team member.
 Ask for clarification.
 It is OK to disagree.
 Facilitate consensus by offering alternatives.
 Criticize ideas not people.
 Arrive on time for meetings.
 Complete assigned tasks.
Stages of Team Development

project initiation
wild enthusiasm
search for the guilty
punishment of the innocent
promotion of the non-participants, and
definition of the project requirements (Lewis, 2002).

Team interaction is dynamic not static!

Effective Teams

 The four stages of team development (Tuckman)

 Forming,
 Storming,
 Norming,
 Performing.
Effective team meetings

Effective execution
Start on time
Practice effective listening skills
Facilitate the facilitator
Come prepared
Discuss fact not fiction
Take action
Take minutes
Draft next agenda
Turn-off cell phones
Common Problems

 One team member is not contributing

 Causes may be:

 Tasks not clearly defined

 Language barriers
 Resentful member
 Remedy
 Define tasks more clearly

 Open discussion on issues

 Assign “Helper Member” (jump start things)

Common Problems

 One team member is dominating the others

 Causes:
 Experienced person frustrated.
 Deferral of control by less experienced members.
 Remedy:
 Nothing - if the team is happy.
 Help others contribute and be more patient.
 Team members cannot agree on major
 Team members can not work together.
Team Roles

 Team Sponsor
 Team leader and facilitator
 Team recorder
 Team time keeper
 Team member
 Team Project Planner
Conflict Resolution

 Helpful Guidelines
 Make a pledge to abide by the team’s decisions
when idea conflicts arise.
 Support the team decisions 100%
 Spend effort on major decisions only.
 Yield on small disagreements - Avoid conflicts not
worth the effort.
Resolving conflicts

 Helpful Guidelines
 Don’t hold back when you disagree.

 State your own ideas without excessive emotion.

 Communicate well, avoid misunderstanding

 When interrupted ask people to allow you finish.

Conflict Resolution

 Once you have been heard, avoid showing

inflexibility, let the idea stand on its own
 Don’t get personally attached to an idea.
 Don’t take it personally if the team takes a
different approach. Support the team
decision 100% and move on.
 Don’t criticize without offering help.
Conflict Resolution Strategies

 Avoidance
 Giving in
 Compromise
 Co-operative Compromise
 Arbitration
Conflict Resolution Strategies

 Avoidance:
 Ignore the Conflict

 Why

 Issue is not very important

 The issue will resolve itself in the future

 Decision has to be made. There is no time left

to fight
Conflict Resolution Strategies

 Giving in
 Let the other guy win … for now

 Show you are against it

 Why

 The issue may resolve itself in the future

 You are not prepared to fight for it now

Conflict Resolution Strategies

 Compromise:
 Try to meet the other party half-way

 Works on some issues but not all

 Co-operative Compromise:
 Understand what everyone wants and trying to

find a new solution to meet all needs

 Arbitration
 “Team”, Boss, Expert, Trusted source
Team Rules

 Commit to the goals of team

 Perform assigned tasks completely, accurately, on time.
 Respect the contributions of others
 Assist other team members when needed
 Ask for help before we get into trouble
 Follow guidelines for effective meetings
 Actively participate in team deliberations
 Focus on problems not people or personalities
 Constructively resolve conflicts or differences of opinion
 Comment clearly and constructively
Team Exercise
 Role play some problem patterns causing conflict
 A chronic late arriver.
 A chronic speech interrupter.
 A non-performer.
 A dominating character.
 A member who does not participate.
 A member who complains or criticizes others.
 A member who does not follow team directions.
 A member who insists his/her ideas to be chosen and shows
emotional distress otherwise.
Design Team Membership
 Who designs and develops products
 Marketing

 Identifies product opportunities

 Identifies customer needs

 Sets target prices, warranties, etc

 Plans product promotion and sales

 Designers

 Manufacturing
Design Team Membership
 Service and Maintenance
 Management
 Depending on Product
 Chemist, physicists, theoretical experts

 Procurement

 Legal (regulation and code experts)


What does it mean to be a good team player?

 Completes Individual tasks on time
 Completes Individual tasks thoroughly
 Assists other teammates
 Listens well
 Participates in team deliberations
 Keeps deliberations on track
 Respects individual differences (ethnicity, gender etc.)
 Solves problems openly, authentically
What is Professional Responsibility?

definition of responsibility
1. The social force that binds you to your
obligations and the courses of action
demanded by that force.
definition of profession
1. The body of people in a learned occupation.
2. An occupation requiring special education
(especially in the liberal arts or sciences)

“obligated” …. to follow “courses of action.”

When should we be professionally responsible?

• Conflicts between individual worker and the company

regarding the “public.” Whistle blowing!
1. manufacturing unsafe products
2. illegal hazard waste dumping
3. operating equipment dangerous to public

• Profits versus public safety

• Making decisions requiring evaluating .....

Whose values do we use? Company manager’s? Our
own? Our profession’s?
Rules of Professional Responsibility

(State board of registration for PE’s and P. Land Surveyors)

Four major sections in most state laws:
1. Responsibility to the Public
State law! 2. Competency for Assignments
3. Conflict of Interest
4. Improper Conduct

What obligations do we (engineers) have?

Code of Ethics – Fundamental Principles

Engineers uphold and advance the integrity, honor, and

dignity of the Engineering profession by:
I. Using their knowledge and skill for the enhancement
of human welfare;
II. Being honest and impartial, and serving with fidelity
the public, their employers and clients; and
III. Striving to increase the competence and prestige of
the engineering profession.
Code of Ethics
Fundamental Cannons 1-4

1. Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health and

welfare of the public in the performance of their professional
2. Engineers shall perform services only in areas of their
3. Engineers shall continue their professional development
throughout their careers and shall provide opportunities for
the professional development of those engineers under their
4. Engineers shall act in professional matters for each
employer or client as faithful agents or trustees, and shall
avoid conflicts of interest.
Code of Ethics
Fundamental Cannons 5-8

5. Engineers shall build their professional reputation on the

merit of their services and shall not compete unfairly with
6. Engineers shall associate only with reputable persons or
7. Engineers shall issue public statements only in an objective
and truthful manner.
8. Engineers shall consider environmental impact in the
performance of their professional duties.
Guidelines for facilitating ethical problems

Step 1: Determine the facts in the situation - obtain all of the

unbiased facts possible
Step 2: Define the Stakeholders - those with a vested interest in the
Step 3: Assess the motivations of the Stakeholders - using effective
communication techniques and personality assessment
Step 4: Formulate alternative solutions - based on most complete
information available, using basic ethical core values as
Step 5: Evaluate proposed alternatives - short-list ethical solutions
only; may be a potential choice between/among two or more
totally ethical solutions
Guidelines for facilitating ethical problems

Step 6: Seek additional assistance, as appropriate - engineering

codes of ethics, previous cases, peers, reliance on personal
experience, prayer
Step 7: Select the best course of action - that which satisfies the
highest core ethical values
Step 8: Implement the selected solution - take action as warranted
Step 9: Monitor and assess the outcome - note how to improve
the next time

 Design Project – decisions, teamwork, coordination

 Project plan – scope of work, schedule, budget
 “Teamwork” requires: communication, group decision making,
collaboration, self–management
 Teams are dynamic… expect changes
 Hold “effective meetings”
 Set team rules… early in project
 Ethics
We are professionally responsibile
Observe state laws
Memorize the Code of Ethics