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Failure Criteria

MUSTAFA SHEKHLEE

NILDEM TAYŞI

Gaziantep University
Introduction
• Theories of failure are used to determine the safe dimension of a
component when it is subjected to combined stresses due to various
loads .

• Theories of failure are used in design by establishing a relationship


between stresses induced under combined loading conditions.

• When an engineer is faced with the problem of design using a specific


material, it becomes important to place an upper limit on the state of
stress that defines the material’s failure. If the material is ductile , failure
is usually specified by the initiation of yielding , whereas if the material
is brittle , it is specified by fracture . These modes of failure are readily
defined if the member is subjected to a uniaxial state of stress, as in the
case of simple tension; however, if the member is subjected to biaxial or
triaxial stress, the criterion for failure becomes more difficult to
establish.
Introduction

Material Classifications Traditionally Fall into two Categories :


Brittle and Ductile .

 Brittle Materials : Small Deformations, no warning before failure


(abrupt) . i.e. concrete , ceramic ,glass , ice , rocks , etc.

 Ductile Materials : Large Deformations , warning before failure


(not abrupt) .i.e. Steel , Aluminum , etc.
Introduction

Profile (a) is an example of the material that fractures with no plastic deformation,
i.e., it is a brittle material. Profile (b) is an example of a material that fractures after
very little plastic deformation. These two profiles would be classified as having low
ductility. Profile (c) in contrast is a material that plastically deforms before
fracture. This material has high ductility. The stress-strain curves for the brittle,
profile (a), and the ductile material, profile (c), are shown in the figure below.
Introduction
Introduction

Failure Concept

o Failure occurs to any solid material when :

 sufficiently large stress applied .


 The material does not return to it’s original state after stress relief .

o Mode of failure depends on :

 Stress State
 Type and Geometry of material .

o Fatigue : makes failure to occur below the stress level


Failure Criteria Theories

 Maximum Principle Stress Theory (Rankine's Theory )

 Maximum Shear Stress Theory (Guest and TRESCA’s Theory).

 Mohr– Coulomb Failure Criteria ( Modified Version of TRESCA)

 Maximum Principle Strain Theory (St.Venant’s Theory )

 Maximum Strain Energy Theory (Haigh’s theory)

 Maximum Distortion Energy Theory ( Vonmises and Henky’s


Theory )
1. Maximum Principle Stress Theory (Rankin's Theory )

 This criterion states that yielding begins at a point in a member where the
maximum principal stress reaches a value equal to the tensile (or compressive)
yield stress Yt (or Yc).
 The maximum principal stress criterion can be expressed by the yield function

 The yield surface for the maximum principal stress criterion is defined by the
relations .
1. Maximum Principle Stress Theory (Rankin's Theory )

• Assume that a single nonzero principal stress σ1,acts at a point in the member
(a).According to Rankine's criterion, yielding will occur when σ1, reaches the
value Y.
• In second figure consider the case where principal stresses σ1, and σ2 (│σ1│>
│ σ2 │) both act at the point as shown in Figure (b) .Rankine's criterion again
predicts that yielding will occur when σ1 = Y, regardless of the fact that σ2 also
acts at the point. In other words, the maximum principal stress criterion
ignores the effects of the other principal stresses.
1. Maximum Principle Stress Theory (Rankin's Theory )

• If σ1 = σ2= σ the shear stress τ is equal in magnitude to σ and occurs on


45°diagonal planes ( c) .Such a state of stress occurs in a cylindrical bar
subjected to torsion. Thus, if the maximum principal stress criterion (σ1 = σ
= Y) is to be valid for a particular material under arbitrary loading, the shear
yield stress τ y of the material must be equal to the tensile yield stress Y.

 In fact, the maximum principal stress criterion is often used in conjunction


with other criteria to predict failure of brittle materials such as concrete.
2.Maximum Shear Stress Theory (TRESCA’s Theory)

• This theory can be used to predict the failure stress of a ductile material
subjected to any type of loading. The theory states that yielding of the material
begins when the absolute maximum shear stress in the material reaches the
shear stress that causes the same material to yield when it is subjected only to
axial tension.
• For a multiaxial stress state, the maximum shear stress is [τmax= (σ1-σ2)/2]
where σ1, and σ2 denote the maximum and minimum ordered principal stress
components, respectively. In uniaxial tension the maximum shear stress is
τmax, = σ Y/2. Since yield in uniaxial tension must begin when σ = Y, the shear
stress associated with yielding is predicted to be τ = Y/2 .

• If this equation is satisfied at any position of material then it will be


failed.
2.Maximum Shear Stress Theory (TRESCA’s Theory)

• If any point of the material is subjected to


plane stress, and its in-plane principal
stresses are represented by a coordinate
(σ1,σ2) plotted on the boundary or outside
the shaded hexagonal area shown in this
figure, the material will yield at the point and
failure is said to occur.
 Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criteria

• Mohr’s theory of failure is used for materials that have deferent properties in
tension and compression.

• In this theory both Shear and Normal stresses have a role in Failure Criteria.

• The Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion is a generalization of the Tresca criterion


that accounts for the influence of hydrostatic stress. The yield function is
written in terms of the stress state and two material properties: the cohesion
and angle of internal friction.

𝝉 = 𝒂 − 𝒃. 𝝈
a : represents Cohesion
b : represents Friction

𝑦𝑡 . 𝑦𝑐 𝑦𝑐 − 𝑦𝑡
𝑎= 𝑏=
𝑦𝑡 + 𝑦𝑐 𝑦𝑡 + 𝑦𝑐
 Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criteria

σ1 σ3
− =1
𝑦𝑡 𝑦𝑐

A given state of stress is considered safe if


its Mohr’s circle lies entirely within the
failure envelope, which is the shaded area
.If any part of the circle is tangent to, or
extends beyond the failure envelope, the
theory predicts failure.
 Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criteria

• Failure occurs when the absolute value of either one of the principal stresses
reaches a value equal to or greater than (σult)t or (σ ult)c
3- Maximum Principle Strain Theory (St.Venant’s Theory )

• This Theory assumes that failure occurs when the maximum strain for a
complex state of stress system becomes equals to the strain at yield point in the
tensile test for the three dimensional complex state of stress system.

• For a 3 - dimensional state of stress system the total strain energy Ut per unit
volume in equal to the total work done by the system and given by the equation.
4- Maximum Strain Energy Theory(Haigh’s Theory)

• The theory assumes that the failure occurs when the total strain energy for a
complex state of stress system is equal to that at the yield point a tensile test.

• It may be noted that this theory gives fair by good results for ductile materials.
5- Maximum Distortional Strain Energy Theory
( VON-MISES theory)
• If an applied external loading causes a deformation in a material, causing it to
store energy internally throughout its volume. The energy per unit volume of
material is called the strain-energy density .

• The distortional strain-energy density is that energy associated with a change in


the shape of a body. The total strain-energy density U, can be broken into two
parts: one part that causes volumetric change (hydrostatic Part) and one
that causes distortion which is responsible for shape change (Deviatoric
part).

• For an elastic body subjected to plane stress, the distortion strain energy
density for 2D stress case can be shown to be:-
5- Maximum Distortional Strain Energy Theory
( VON-MISES theory)
• The distortional energy criterion states that yielding is initiated when
𝒚𝒕 𝟐
distortional energy density equals
𝟔𝑮

• The normalized form of this yield criterion is


5- Maximum Distortional Strain Energy Theory
( VON-MISES theory)
• which is the equation of the ellipse shown in Figure below ,A state of stress is
considered safe if its principal stresses are represented by a point within the
ellipse. Points falling on or outside the ellipse represent stress states that will
cause yielding.
• Actual torsion tests, used to develop a condition of pure shear in a ductile
specimen, have shown that the maximum-distortion-energy theory gives more
accurate results for pure-shear failure than the maximum-shear-stress theory
,the maximum distortion- energy theory, is 15% more accurate than that given
by the maximum-shear-stress theory.

a= 2. 𝑦𝑡
a

1 b
𝑏= . 𝑦𝑡
3
5- Maximum Distortional Strain Energy Theory
( VON-MISES theory)

• The maximum distortion Energy theory is the most popular theory for
predicting yielding in ductile materials.
 References

1. ArthurP Boresi Advanced mechanics of solids 6th Ed.

2. Mechanics of Material by R.C. Hibbeler 9th Ed .

3. Andrew Pytel, Jaan Kiusalaas Mechanics of Materials, Second Edition.