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TEACHING STRATEGY IN HEALTH

EDUCATION

FE B. ESTAMPA, RN MN
DEFINITION OF TERMS:

HEALTH--- is a word that was derived from the


old English word for heal which is HAEL. It
means whole because health concerns the
whole person and his/her integrity, soundness
or well being.
Health is holistic (total health).
THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO,
1946) defines health as a “state of complete
physical, mental and social well-being and not
merely the absence of disease and infirmity”.
Key Words: Goodstadt, et al (1987) as cited by
Cottrell (2001)

1. PHYSICAL HEALTH is refers to the state of one’s


body like its fitness and not being ill.
2. MENTAL HEALTH (or psychological health and
emotional health) referring to the positive sense
of purpose and underlying belief in one’s own
worth (self-esteem) like feeling good and feeling
able to cope. Refers to intellectual capabilities.
3. SOCIAL HEALTH is the ability to interact effectively
with other people and the social environment;
development and sustenance of satisfying
interpersonal relationships; and effective and efficient
role fulfillment

4. SPIRITUAL HEALTH or PERSONAL HEALTH is concerned


with one’s belief in a transcending, unifying force
(whether its basis is in nature, scientific law, or a
godlike source. It has also been associated with the
concept of SELF ACTUALIZATION and concern for
issues which affect one’s value system.
• OREM defined health as a “state
characterized by soundness and wholeness of
human structures, bodily and mental
functions.

• THE MODERN CONCEPT OF HEALTH refers to


the “optimum level of functioning” (OLOF) of
individuals, families and communities which is
affected by several factors in the ecosystem.
• FACTORS IN THE ECOSYSTEM WHICH AFFECT
THE OPTIMUM LEVEL OF FUNCTIONING
(OLOF)

1. POLITICAL FACTORS involve power and


authority to regulate the environment or
social climate. Examples of this includes
safety, oppression, people empowerment.
2. BEHAVIORAL refers to a person’s level of functioning
and is affected by certain habits, their lifestyle, health
care and child rearing practices which are determined
by one’s culture and ethnic heritage. Ex: culture habits,
mores and ethnic customs.
3. HEALTH CARE DELIVERY SYSTEM. Primary Health Care
is a partnership approach to the effective provision of
essential health services that are community based,
accessible, sustainable and affordable. The focus of
healthcare is in the promotive, preventive, curative and
rehabilitative aspects of care.
5. ENVIONMENTAL INFLUENCES. The menace
of pollution, communicable diseases due to
poor sanitation, poor garbage collection,
smoking, utilization of pesticides, lack or
absence of proper and adequate waste and
sewerage disposal system and management,
urban/rural milieu, noise, radiation, air and
water pollution.
6. SOCIO-ECONOMIC INFLUENCE. Families in
lower income group are the ones mostly
served. Examples include employment,
education, and housing.
HEALTH AS A BASIC HUMAN RIGHTS:

1. UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS, Art.


25, Section 1 states that: “ Everyone has the right to a
standard of living adequate for the health and well-
being of himself and of his family, including food,
clothing, housing and medical care and necessary
social services and the right to security in the event of
unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old
age, or lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his
control”.
2. PHILIPPINE CONSTITUTION of 1987, Art XIII, Sec
11, states that “The state shall adopt an
integrated and comprehensive approach to
health development which shall endeavor to
make essential goods, health and other social
services available to all the people at affordable
cost. There shall be priority for the needs of the
underprivileged sick, elderly, disabled, women,
and children. The state shall endeavor to provide
free medical services to paupers”.
3. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (1995)
believes that “governments have a
responsibility for the health of their people
which can be fulfilled only by the provision of
adequate health and social measures. It
emphasizes three basic positive concepts of
health which are:
a. Reflecting concern for the individual as a
total person;
b. Placing health in the context of the
environment
c. Equating health with productive and creative
living.
• CAN ONE BE WELL IN SPITE OF BEING ILL?
• A shining example of high level wellness is CARMELA who is sick
with terminal cancer but is still able to interact, communicate and
relate productivity and significantly with the members of her family
and community. Every week, she actively participates in the soup
kitchen that her co-parishioners have organized by talking to the
poorest of the poor, the street children and even psychotic vagrants
(taong-grasa) who partake of the food and refreshments. She
inspires them with her smiles coupled with inspirational stories and
quotes from the bible. These people never knew that Carmela was
dying until that day when she failed to show up and they were all
invited to attend her wake and to partake of the food which was
served in her own backyard as her “final soup kitchen’. This was her
dying wish . In life as in death, she has maintained a high state of
wellness.
• HEALTH EDUCATION is a process concerned with
designing, implementing and evaluating
educational programs that enable families,
groups, organizations and communities to play
active roles in achieving, protecting and
sustaining health.
• It is also defined as “any combination of learning
experiences designed to facilitate voluntary
adaptations of behavior conducive to health
(Green et al, 1980)
• PRINCIPLES OF HEALTH EDUCATION
(Hubley, 1983)
1. Good health practices (sanitation, clean drinking
water, good hygiene, breast feeding, infant
weaning and oral rehydration).
2. The use of preventive services like
immunization, screening ante natal and child
health clinics.
3. The correct use of medications and the pursuit
of rehabilitation regimens ( for tuberculosis and
leprosy, respectively).
4. The recognition of early symptoms of disease
and promoting early referral.
5. Community support for primary health care
and government control measures.
CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE HEALTH
EDUCATION (Hubey, 1983)
1. It is directed at people who have influence in the
community who are also the opinion makers.
2. The lessons are repeated and reinforced
overtime using different methods.
3. The lessons are adaptable and use existing
channels of communication like songs, drama
and story telling.
4. It is entertaining and attracts the
community’s attention.
5. Uses clear, simple language with local
expressions.
6. It emphasizes short term benefits of action.
7. It provides opportunities for dialogue,
discussion, and learner participation and
feedback.
8. It uses demonstrations to show the benefits
of adopting the practices.
• CATEGORIES OF EFFECTIVE TEACHING
(Jacobson, 1966)
1. PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE
2. INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS WITH
STUDENTS
> emphatic listening
> acceptance
> honest communication
3. PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS
4. TEACHING PRACTICES
5. EVALUATION PRACTICES
6. AVAILABILITY TO STUDENTS
• THE PRIMARY ROLE OF AN EDUCATOR is not to
teach or educate but to provide the
opportunities for the learner to be actively
involved in the learning process and to create
an environment that will inspire or motivate
the learner to apply the knowledge and skills
to assess, criticize, and select the best
possible solution to situations or problems.
• NURSING CORE COMPETENCIES:
The core competency standards will gauge the
minimum knowledge, skills and attitudes that a
graduate possesses to be able to provide efficient
and quality care in her level as practitioner.
This will also guide curriculum planners regarding
the training curriculum that should be formulated
as well as the related learning experiences that
will develop the required competencies.
6. Personal and professional development
7. Quality improvement
8. Research
9. Records management
10. Communication
11. Collaboration and teamwork
• THE NURSING CORE COMPETENCY
STANDARDS:

1. Safe Quality Nursing Care


2. Management of Resources and environment
3. Health Education
4. Legal responsibility
5. Ethico-moral responsibility
• ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF HEALTH
EDUCATORS:

The “RESPONSIBILITIES and COMPETENCIES for


ENTRY-LEVEL HEALTH EDUCATORS” are
embodied in a Competency-Based Framework
for Professional Development of Certified
Health Education Specialists, NCHEC,New
York,1996 (Cottrell, Girvan, Mickenzie,2001)
• Among the RESPONSIBILITIES of a health
educator are:
1. Assessing individual and community needs
for health education.
2. Planning effective health education
programs.
3. Implementing health education programs.
4. Evaluating effectiveness of health education
programs.
5. Coordinating provisions of health education
services.
6. Acting as a resource person in health
education.
7. Communicating health and health education
needs, concerns and resources.
• PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING AND LEARNING
AND THEIR APPLICATION TO HEALTH
EDUCATION

• “The chief aim of education is NOT to fill


people’s heads with facts but to teach them
how to use the facts”.
A.E. Wiggam
• HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS FOR THE
EDUCATOR/TEACHING ROLE

• Florence Nightingale who has earned the title


of “Mother of Modern Nursing”, was the
epitome of the true nurse educator as she
advocated the important function of teaching
to promote health and recovery through a
clean, pleasant and inhabitable environment.
• She also founded the Florence Nightingale
School of Nursing at St. Tomas Hospital in
London on June 15, 1860 which trained and
taught nurses, physicians and health officials
on the importance of manipulating the
environment so that nature can act on the
patient in his recovery and healing process.
Her ideas were published in two books which
are “Notes on Nursing” and “Notes on
Hospitals”.
• In 1918, the National League of Nursing
Education (NLNE), now known as the National
League for Nursing(NLN), recognized the
importance of health teaching as a
responsibility of the nurse for the promotion
of health and prevention of illness in different
settings like schools, hospitals, industries and
homes.
• In 1938, the NLNE declared “that a nurse was
fundamentally a teacher and an agent of health
regardless of the setting in which the practice
occurred” (NLNE, 1937).
• In 1950, NLNE specified the course content
dealing with teaching skills, developmental &
educational psychology and principles of
teaching and learning as part of the nursing
curriculum of all nursing schools.
• The International Council of Nurses (ICN) has
endorsed health education as an essential
requisite for the delivery of nursing care.

• Today, Nurse Practice Acts (NPAs) in the


United States “universally include teaching
within the scope of nursing practice
responsibilities.
• They are expected to assist clients to maintain
health, prevent disease, manage illness, and
render supportive care to family members
through health teachings/education as a
means to providing cost-effective, safe and
high quality care. Teaching effectiveness has
been incorporated as a measure of excellence
in practice in the nursing career ladders as a
parameter for promotion (Rifas,et al, 1994).
• In 1993, the Joint Commission on
Accreditation of Healthcare Organization
(JCAHO), delineated nursing standards or
mandates for patient education which are
based on positive outcomes of patient care.
The teachings must be patient and family-
oriented.
• In 1998, the Pew Health Professions
Commission released a follow-up on health
professional practice and more than half of
the recommendations were on the
importance of patient and staff education and
the role of the nurse as educator (as cited by
Bastable, 2003):
• 1. Provide clinically competent and coordinated care to
the public.
• 2. Involve patients and their families in the decision-
making process regarding health interventions.
• 3. Provide clients with education and counseling on
ethical issues.
• 4. Expand public access to effective care.
• 5. Ensure cost-effective and appropriate care for the
consumer.
• 6. Provide for prevention of illness and promotion of
healthy lifestyles.
• THE EDUCATION PROCESS:

• Key Words: (Bastable,2003)

1. TEACHING- is a deliberate intervention


involving the planning and implementation of
instructional activities and experiences to
meet the intended learner outcomes based on
the teaching plan.
2. INSTRUCTION – is just one aspect of teaching
which involves communicating of information
about a specific skill (cognitive, affective or
psychomotor). It sometimes used
interchangeably with the word teaching.
3. LEARNING- a change in behavior (knowledge,
skills and attitudes) that can occur at any time
or in any place as a result of exposure to
environmental stimuli.
It is also an action by which knowledge,
skills and attitudes are consciously or
unconsciously acquired and behavior is
altered which can be seen or observed.
4. PATIENT EDUCATION- a process of assisting
people to learn health- related behaviors
(knowledge, skills, attitudes, values) which can
be incorporated into their everyday lives.
• THE THREE PILLARS OF THE TEACHING-
LEARNING PROCESS:

• Teacher
• Learner
• Subject
• The Effective Teacher ( de Young,2003)
1. Is looked up to as a role model who is worthy
of imitation and emulation.
2. Exhibits professional competence by showing
thorough knowledge of the subject matter
and demonstration of the proper skills in
teaching.
3. Shows willingness to learn new roles and
teaching methods.
4. Possesses the ability to reflect on or assess
her performance.
5. Has the desire to improve oneself and
succeed
• EFFECTIVE TEACHERS (Flowers, 2000):

1. COMMITTED- that is, they don’t watch the


clock, they go the extra mile and work long
hours.
2. CREATIVE- meaning, they stimulate
intellectual inquisitiveness, as well as,
exploratory and critical thinking.
3. INTUITIVE- meaning, the teacher is able to
identify the student’s predominant style of
intelligence and based on this knowledge, the
teacher is able to build on the student’s
strength.
• CHARACTERISTICS OF EXCELLENT PROFESSORS:
(The Carnegie Professors of the Year)

1. A strong desire to be really good through


conscientious and hard work (masipag).
2. The good teacher cares about students, knows
when to set boundaries, knows the student’s
potential and adopts the philosophy of “good
teaching is a form of parenting”.
3. A good teacher is concerned with more than
just what the students know and is also
concerned with the students’ values, beliefs
and relationships. IN SHORT, A GOOD
TEACHER CARES”.
• PRICIPLES OF GOOD PRACTICE TEACHING IN
UNDERGRADUATE
1. INTERACTION BETWEEN THE
TEACHER AND THE LEARNER
2. COOPERATION AMONG THE
STUDENTS
3. ENGAGE IN ACTIVE LEARNING
D. OBSERVATION of health behaviors over a
period of different times may help determine
established patterns of behavior like observing
how a watcher does a procedure more than
once is an excellent way of assessing a
psychomotor need.
4. GIVING PROMPT FEEDBACK
5. EMPHASIZE TIME ON TASK
6. COMMUNICATING HIGHER
EXPECTATIONS
7. RESPECTING THE DIVERSE TALENTS
AND WAYS OF LEARNING
THE DETERMINANTS OF LEARNING:
(Haggard, 1989)
1. Learning needs- what the learner needs
to learn
2. Learning Readiness- when the learner is
receptive to learning
3. Learning style- how the learner best
learns
1. LEARNING NEEDS:
In assessing learning needs, the following are
some important methods which are used
(Bastable, 2003)
A. INFORMAL CONVERSATIONS OR INTERVIEW
between the nurse/midwife and the patient
and/or other members of the health team by
asking open-ended questions where the learner
may reveal information regarding their perceived
learning needs.
B. STRUCTURED INTERVIEW where the nurse
asks the patient some predetermined
questions to gather information regarding
learning needs.
C. WRITTEN PRETESTS can be given to identify
the knowledge level of the potential learner
and to help in evaluating whether learning has
taken place by comparing pre-test with the
post-test scores.
• STEPS IN THE ASSESSMENT OF
LEARNING NEEDS:
1. Identify the learner
2. Choose the right setting
3. Collect data on the learner
4. Include the learner as a source of
information
5. Include members of the health care team
6. Determine availability of educational
resources
7. Assess demands of the organization
8. Consider time-management issues
9. Prioritize needs
2. READINESS TO LEARN
Four types of readiness to learn (PEEK)
(Lichtenthal, 1990) include:
P= PHYSICAL READINESS:
1. measures of ability– adequate strength,
flexibility and endurance is needed to teach a
patient how to walk on crutches
2. Complexity of task- the difficulty level of the
subject or the task to be mastered (psychomotor
skills)
3. Environmental Effects- refers to an environment
that is conducive to learning
4. Health Status- is the patient in a state of good
health or ill health?
5. Gender- studies show that men are less inclined
to seek health consultation or intervention than
women.
E= EMOTIONAL READINESS
1. Anxiety level- may or may not be a hindrance
to learning.
2. Support system- a strong support system
composed of the immediate family and
friends, significant others, the community and
church.
3. Motivation- is strongly associated with emotional
readiness or willingness to learn
4. Risk-taking behavior- are activities that are
undertaken without much thought to what their
negative consequences or effects might be.
5. Frame of mind- depends on what the priorities of
the learner are in terms of his needs which will
determine his readiness to learn.
6. Developmental Stage-determine the peak
time for readiness to learn or “teachable
moment” (Tanner, 1989, Hansen & Fisher,
1998)
• E= EXPERIMENTAL READINESS
1. Level of aspiration- depends on the short-
term and long-term goals that the learner has
set which will influence his motivation to
achieve.
2. Past coping mechanisms- refer to how the
learner was able to cope with or handle
previous problems or situations and how
effective were the strategies used.
3. Cultural background- is important to assess
and know from the patient’s own cultural
perspective in order to determine readiness to
learn.
4. Locus of control- refers to motivation to learn
which may be internal (intrinsic)- within the
individual. Or external (extrinsic)- influence by
others.
5. Orientation- this refers to a person’s point of
view, which maybe parochial- close minded
thinking, conservative in their approach to
new situation, or cosmopolitan- a more
worldly perspective and more receptive to
new or innovative ideas like the current trends
and perspectives in health education.
• K= Knowledge Readiness
1. present knowledge base- also referred to as
stock knowledge or how much one already
knows about the subject matter from previous
actual or vicarious learning.
2. cognitive ability- involves lower level of
learning which includes memorizing, recalling
or recognizing concepts and ideas .
• LEARNING STYLES:

1. GLOBAL (holistic) thinkers and some are


analytic
2. Some learn better from auditory sources than
from visual stimuli
3. Some learn better when with the group
rather than independent or alone.
• THE BENEFITS OF KNOWING THE
LEARNING STYLES OF STUDENTS
INCLUDE:

1. The teacher can intervene once the


learner experiences difficulty by adapting
techniques or strategy that are suited to
the student’s learning style
2. Enhancement of effective learning by
improving on the teaching strategies and the
instructional materials that are used.
• THE BASIC CONCEPTS OF COGNITIVE
STYLES INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING:

1. Holistic vs. analytic thinking


a. holistic (global) thinkers- look at the
global or big picture immediately & are
interested in the “gist” of things, the
essence or the general idea
b. they look at the broad categories first
before going into details; they think
deductively
c. Analytical thinkers- think logically and
objectively, looking at the details first
2. Verbal vs. visual representation
a. people with verbal approach represent
in their minds what they read, see or hear
as in terms of words or verbal associations

b. people with visual approach


experience in their minds what they read,
see or hear as mental pictures or images
• LEARNING STYLE MODELS:

1. Kolb’s Theory of Experiential


Learning
- 4 stage cycle-
a. Concrete Experience (CE)
abilities- Learning from actual
experience
b. Reflective Observation (RO)
abilities- Learning by observing others
c. Abstract Conceptualization (AC)
abilities- Creating theories to explain
what is seen
d. Active Experimentation (AE)
abilities- Using theories to solve
problems
• FOUR LEARNING STYLES according to
KOLB’S THEORY:

1. CONVERGER- learns by AC and AE: good


at decision-making, problem-solving and
prefers dealing with technical world and
prefers dealing with technical work than
interpersonal relationships; uses deductive
reasoning to solve problems; uses facts and
data and has skills for technology and
specialist careers.
• LEARNING METHODS: learns best through
demonstration- return demonstration
methods assisted by handouts, diagrams,
charts, illustrations

2. DIVERGER- stresses CE and RO: people


and feeling-oriented and likes to work in
groups;
• LEARNING METHODS: learns best through
group discussions and brainstorming
sessions; considers different perspectives
and points of view when looking at a
concrete situation.
3. ACCOMODATOR- relies heavily on CE and AE:
impatient with other people; a risk taker, often
using trial-and-error methods of solving
problems; acts more on intuition, instinct or gut
feelings rather than on logic; an achiever.
LEARNING METHODS-enjoys role playing, gaming
and computer simulations. These learners are the
most challenging to educators because they learn
best through new and exciting learning
experiences and are not afraid of taking risks
which may sometimes endanger their safety.
4. ASSIMILATOR- emphasizes AC
and RO: more concerned with
abstract ideas than people; very good
in inductive reasoning, creating
theoretical models, and integrating
ideas and actively applying them;
uses logic thinking.
• LEARNING METHODS: they learn best
through lectures, one-to-one
instruction, and self instruction
methods with ample reading
materials.
• GREGORC COGNITIVE STYLES
MODEL

Gregorc has identified four sets of


dualities (situations that consist of two
parts that are complementary or opposed
to each other). The mind has the
mediation abilities of perception and
ordering of knowledge which affect
how a person learns.
1. PERCEPTION ABILITY- the way one
receives or grasps incoming
information or stimulus in a continuum
ranging from abstractness to
concreteness.
2. ORDERING ABILITY- the way one
arranges and systematizes incoming
stimuli in a continuum or scale ranging
from sequence to randomness.
According to Gregorc, everyone
processes or deals with perception
and ordering of knowledge in all four
dimensions but may have preferences
or choices of doing it which may fall
into 4 mediation channels, namely:
1. CONCRETE SEQUENTIAL (CS)-
learners like highly structured, quiet
learning environments without
interruptions; like concrete learning
materials especially visuals and gives
focus on details; may interpret word
literally.
2. CONCRETE RANDOM (CR)- intuitive,
trial-and-error method of learning, looks
for alternatives.
3. ABSTRACT SEQUENTIAL(AS)-
learners are holistic thinkers and need
consistency in the learning environment;
do not like interruptions; have good
verbal skills, are rational and logical.
4. ABSTRACT RANDOM (AR) – think
holistically, learn a lot from visual
stimuli; prefer busy, unstructured
learning environments; focused on
personal relationships
• PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING:
(Brecon, Harvey and Lancaster,
1998; Moss, 1994 as cited by de
Young, 2003
Among these learning
principles are:
• PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING…
1. Use of Several Senses:
It has been shown that people
retain 10% of what they read,
20% of what they hear, 30%
of what they see or watch,
PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING:
1. USE OF SEVERAL SENSES…
50% of what they see and hear,
70% of what they say, and 90%
of what they say and do.
• PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING…
1. USE OF SEVERAL SENSES…This
is the importance of the RLE
(Related Learning Experience)
which students undergo in the
Nursing Skills Laboratory where:
• PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING…
1. Use of Several Senses…
a. they are made to imitate the
procedures that are
demonstrated by the instructors
(role-modeling)
• PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING…
1. Use of Several Senses…
b. are graded according to the skills
they exhibit and the degree of
comprehension of the rationale
behind the steps in the procedures
as they perform the return
demonstration
• PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING…
1. Use of Several Senses… it is expected
that by so doing, they would be able to
retain 70% of the lesson.
- by applying these skills and knowledge
in the actual care of patients in the
hospital, this would be further
reinforced by additional practice,
• PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING…
1. Use of Several Senses…
and review of the principles and
procedures and the extra care and
caution in their application and
performance. In this case, 90%
retention is expected.
• PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING…
2. Active Learner Involvement
- This is to actively involve the patients or
the clients in the learning process.
- use more interactive methods involving
the participation of the learners like role-
playing, Q&A format, case studies small
group discussion, demonstration and
return demonstration
• PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING…
3. Conducive Learning Environment
- provide an environment conducive to
learning.
- always consider the comfort and
convenience of the learner (room
temperature, the chairs and the seating
arrangement or space, noise level,
adequate acoustics and sound system, and
an environment that is clean, pleasant-
smelling and smoke and dust-free
• PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING…
4. Learning Readiness
- assess the extent to which the learner
is ready to learn
- readiness to learn is affected by
factors like emotional status (anxiety,
fear, & depression) and physical
conditions (pain, visual or auditory
impairment, anesthesia, etc).
• PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING:
5. Relevance of Information
- anything that is perceived by the
learner to be important or useful will
be easier to learn and retain
• PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING:
6. Repeat the Information
- continuous repetition of information
over a period of time enhances learning
- applying the information to a different
situation and asking the learner to apply
the information to another situation or
rewording it and giving practical
applications will help in the learning
process
• PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING:
7. Generalized the Information
- cite applications of the information to
a number of applications
- give examples which will illustrate or
concretize the concept
• PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING:
8. Make Learning a Pleasant
Experience
- give frequent encouragement ,
recognize accomplishments and give
positive feedbacks
• PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING:
9. Be Systematic
- begin with what is known
- move toward the unknown
- a pleasant and encouraging learning
experience if information is presented in
an organized manner and with
information that the learner already
knows or is familiar with
• PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING:
10. Be Steady
- present information at an appropriate
rate-this refers to the pace in which
information is presented to the
learner … are you talking too fast so
that the learner has a difficulty in
catching up with what you are saying
• PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING:
10. Be steady…
- Are you too slow because the learner
is already knowledgeable about the
topic you are discussing?
LEARNING THEORIES
- A learning theory is a coherent
framework and set of integrated
constructs and principles that describe,
explain or predict how people learn,
how learning occurs and what motivates
people to learn and change. (Bigge &
Shermis, 1992;Hilgard and
Bower,1996;Hill,1990).
• LEARNING THEORIES:
1.BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OF
LEARNING (Behaviorist)
-John B. Watson is the proponent of
behaviorist theory which emphasizes
the importance of observable
behavior in the study of human
beings.
• BEHAVIORAL THEORIES (CONT)
-He postulated that behavior results
from a series of conditioned
reflexes and that and all emotions
and thoughts are a product of
behavior learned through
conditioning (de Young, 2003).
• BEHAVIORAL THEORIES (CONT)
• 1. RESPONDENT CONDITIONING
a. Classical or Pavlovian
conditioning- a process which
influences the acquisition of
new responses to environmental
stimuli.
• BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OF LEARNING
(CONT)
b. Systemic desensitization-is another
technique based on respondent
conditioning which is widely used in
psychology and even in medicine to
reduce fear and anxiety in the
patient (Wolpe,1982).
• BEHAVORAL THEORIES OF LEARNING
(CONT)
c. Stimulus Generalization- is the
tendency to apply to other similar
stimuli what was initially learned.
• BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OF LEARNING (CONT)
d. Spontaneous recovery- is usually applied in
relapse prevention programs (rpp) and may
explain why it is quite difficult to completely
eliminate “unhealthy habits and addictive
behaviors (alcoholism, drug abuse,
smoking) which one may claim having
successfully “kicked the habit” or
extinguished it only to find out that it may
recover or reappear any time, even years
later.
• BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OF LEARNING
(CONT)
2. OPERANT CONDITIONING
- Was developed by B.F. Skinner which
focuses on the behavior of the
organism and the reinforcement that
follows after the response (Alberto &
Troutman 1990).
• BEHAVIORAL THEORIES IN LEARNING
(CONT)
3.Reinforcement in learning
a. positive reinforcement-any
consequence of behavior that
leads to an increase in the
probability of its occurence
• POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT (CONT)
b. Timing
c. Consistency
WAYS OF EMPLOYING POSITIVE
REINFORCEMENT.
1. Verbal ways- saying “good”,
“well-done”
• POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT (CONT)
2. Non-verbal way- like nodding,
smiling, looking pleased writing
student’s comments on the board,
and giving the “thumbs up” sign
esp. where group work is
concerned.
• POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT (CONT)
3. Citing in class or publishing on
the bulletin board exceptional
works or outputs.
• CLASSIFICATION OF EDUCATIONAL
REINFORCERS: (Tosti and
Addison,1979)
1. Recognition-includes
a. praise, certification of
accomplishments
• CLASSIFICATION OF EDUCATIONAL
REINFORCERS (CONT)
b. Formal acknowledgements
(awards, letters of
recommendation, testimonials)
c. Informal acknowledgements
(private conversations, “pat” on
the back)
• CLASSIFICATION OF EDUCATIONAL
REINFORCERS (CONT)
2. Tangible rewards- grades, food
(free lunch), prizes
3. Learning activities- opportunity
for desirable enrichment assignment
(membership in “honors” class);
more interesting or more difficult
clinical assignments
• CLASSIFICATION OF EDUCATIONAL
REINFORCERS (CONT)
4. School responsibilities-
acceptance of suggestions for
improving the curriculum
5. Status indicators- appointment
as a peer tutor or having own space
(study corner, desk)
• CLASSIFICATION OF POSITIVE
REINFORCERS (C0NT)
6. Incentive feedback- increased
knowledge of examination scores or
knowledge of individual
contributions (helping others)
7. Personal activities- opportunity
to engage in special projects and
extra time off
• NOTE: Remember that reinforcements
should be appropriate or directly linked to the
learning tasks and student’s accomplishment.
Its indiscriminate use may result to happy
students but not to productive students (Tosti
and Addison, 1979).
• NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT IS
TANTAMOUNT OR SYNONYMOUS TO
PUNISHMENT.
• THEORIES OF LEARNING (CONT)
2. Cognitive Theories of Learning
- Cognition is more than knowledge
acquisition
- It stresses that mental processes or
cognition occur between the stimulus
and response.
• COGNITIVE THEORIES OF LEARNING
(CONT)
- It involves intelligence which is the ability
to solve problems or fashion products
that are valued in more than one setting
- It also deals with perception, memory,
thinking skills and ways of processing
and structuring information
- It stresses the importance of “what goes
on inside the learner”.
• COGNITIVE THEORIES OF LEARNING
(CONT)
- The theory of multiple intelligence by
Gardner states that there are various
types of talent or seven forms of
intelligence which may be fully
developed in a gifted person or child.
TYPES OF DESCRIPTION
INTELLIGENCE
1. LINGUISTIC Deals with written
and spoken words or
language; the use
and meaning of
language(s)

2.LOGICAL/MATHEM Refers to inductive a


ATICAL & deductive
TYPES OF DESCRIPTION
INTELLIGENCE
3. SPATIAL/VISUAL Involves the ability to
visualize an object or
to create internal or
mental images

4.MUSICAL/RHYTHMI Sensitivity to rhythm


C & beat, recognition of
tonal patterns &
TYPES OF DESCRIPTION
INTELLIGECE

5. Bodily kinesthetic Taking in and


processing of
knowledge through
the use of bodily
sensation; use of
body language or
physical movement
TYPES OF DESCRIPTION
INTELLIGENCE
6. Interpersonal Emphasis on
intelligence communication and
interpersonal
relationships

7. Intrapersonal Related to inner thought


intelligence process such as
reflection &
metacognition; spiritual
awareness & self-
• PIAGET’S FOUR MAJOR PERIODS OF
COGNITIVE OR INTELLECTUAL DEV’T
1. Sensorimotor stage: birth to 2 years-
determined basically on actual perception of
the senses and the external or physical
factors
- children think due to coordination of
sensory input and motor responses.
- intelligence is non-verbal or non-
symbolic because the child has not
developed language yet.
• PIAGET’s COGNITIVE DEVT (CONT)
1. Sensorimotor stage…
- How learning takes place depends on what is
experienced in the beginning which can be
learned through visual pursuits.
- This will be later known as “object
permanence” (what & where it is seen for
the first will still exist even though it
disappears. It marks the development of
memory for the nursing object who is usually
the mother).
• PIAGET’s COGNITIVE DEVT (CONT)
2. Abstract thinking: represents reality using
symbols that can be manipulated mentally.
(i.e., symbolism in bible stories; use of X in
algebraic expressions).
3. Logical thinking: is more systematic
-use scientific method
-there is awareness on different views rather
than on one single thought
-it recognizes individual differences and that
“NO TWO INDIVIDUALS ARE ALIKE”.
• PIAGET’s COGNITIVE DEVT (CONT)
4. Assimilation and Accomodation-
characterized by hypothesis testing
- Being “teenagers” at this stage, they have
their own mind.
- Known as “metacognition” (self-
reflection wherein ideas and imaginations
are tried out to be aware of existing
realities (internal dialogue).
LEARNING THEORIES (CONT)
3. Social Learning Theories:
- Emphasize the importance of
environmental or situational determinants
of behavior and their continuing
interaction.
• SOCIAL LEARNING THEORIES (CONT)
• Reciprocal Determination by Albert
Bandura states that “environmental
conditions shape behavior through
learning and the person’s behavior, in
return, shapes the environment”. Bandura
further believes that behavior need not be
performed and reinforced for learning to
occur.
• SOCIAL LEARNING THEORIES (CONT)
• Modeling or observational learning occurs
vicariously, even in infants, where the
individual learns of the consequences of a
behavior by observing another person
undergoing the experience.
• SOCIAL LEARNING THEORIES (CONT)
• There are four operations involved in
modeling:
• 1. Attention Processes-which
determine what a person can do and what
he or she can attend to.
• 2. Retentional Processes-which
determine how experience is encoded or
retained in memory.
• SOCIAL LEARNING THEORIES (CONT)
• =modeling=…
3. Motor reproduction process-
determine what behavior can be
performed.
4. Motivational and reinforcement
process-determine the circumstances
under which learning is translated into
performance
• SOCIAL LEARNING THEORIES(CONT)
• Walker Mischel (1993) dealt with
cognitive variables like:
1. competencies-which refer to various
skills like intellectual abilities, social and
physical skills and other special abilities
2. Encoding strategies and personal
constructs- experiences that are retained
and categorized by the individual.
• SOCIAL LEARNING THEORIES (CONT)
-encoding strategies.. Example: being asked
to sing in a big gathering may be
perceived by a person as a welcome
opportunity to show off his talent in
singing but may be seen by another as a
threat to his or her ego.
• SOCIAL LEARNING THEORIES (CONT)
• Cognitive variables…
• 3. subjective values-what a person
considers as worth having or accomplishing.
• Ex: A student may perform ingratiating
tactics like giving food to the teacher just so
he or she can pass the course. Another
student may also do the same but his/her
purpose is for the teacher to make him/her
number one in class.
• SOCIAL LEARNING THEORIES (CONT)
• -Cognitive variables…
4. self-regulating systems or plans-
people have different standards and rules
for regulating their behavior (including
self-imposed rewards for successful
behavior or punishment for failures)
including their plans for reaching his or
her goals.
• Pedagogy versus Andragogy
• Pedagogy- is the art and science of
helping children learn
• Andragogoy- is the art and science of
helping adults learn.
• It is Knowles’ (1990) theory of adult
learning which states that:
1. Adult learning is more learner-centered
than teacher-centered.
2. The learner becomes an independent
self-directed human being.
3. Previous experiences of the adult serves
as a rich source for learning
• KNOWLES THEORY OF ADULT LEARNING
(CONT)
• 4. Readiness to learn is more oriented to
the developmental tasks of social roles.
5. There is a shift of learning orientation
from being subject-centered to problem-
oriented.