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Arrangement of atoms in pure metal

▪ Pure metal is soft and not very strong .

▪ Atoms of pure metals have similar :
• Size
• Shape
• Arranged closely
but there still space between the atoms.

Pure metal (Properties)

1. When force is applied to pure ▪ 2. When knocked or

metal , the atoms slide along hammered, metal atoms slide
easily along one another to fill spaces
between the metal atoms .

Pure metal to be ductile (can

be stretched into wire) Pure metal to be malleable
(can be pressed into various

•Alloy is a substances formed from a mixture of metal and other elements

•A foreign atom (impurity atoms) may be:
 atoms of other metals
Or non-metals such as carbon
•Process mixing atoms of impurities with pure metal atoms by melting is called

Properties of alloy

•Harder and stronger than pure metal

•Material that Resistant to corrosion

•More attractive (appearance)

Examples of alloy
Percentage of pure metal and foreign atom
100 Tin




50 Pure metal
Foreign atoms
40 foreign atom

Carbon Copper Antimony
Steel Bronze Brass Pewter

Arrangement of atoms in alloys

•Impurity atoms which are mixed may be larger or smaller than

atoms of pure metal

•Impurity atoms fill the empty spaces between atoms in the pure
metal .
•Impurity atoms can prevent the layers of metal
atoms from sliding along one another easily .

•Due to this , an alloy is harder and stronger than

pure metal.

•For example , steel is harder than iron

Experiment (Refer Chemistry practical
Book p.148)

Aim: To study the hardness and strength of an alloy as compared to a

pure metal
relate the arrangement of atoms in alloys to their strength
and hardness.

presence of other metals atoms

that are of different sizes

disturb the orderly arrangement

of atoms in the metal.

reduces the layer of atoms from


make an alloy is stronger and

harder than its pure metal
State the operational definition for the
hardness of alloy

What to do: 1 kg weight is dropped on steel ball bearing
attached to alloy block
What is observe: the diameter of dent formed is small
Direction: the alloy is harder

When 1 kg weight is dropped on steel ball bearing attached

to bronze block, the diameter of dent formed is small shows
that the bronze is harder.
Short quiz

1. State two properties of alloy

2. Why alloy is more stronger than pure metal?
3. State the operational definition of hardness of alloy