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Alloy

Arrangement of atoms in pure metal

▪ Pure metal is soft and not very strong .


▪ Atoms of pure metals have similar :
• Size
• Shape
• Arranged closely
but there still space between the atoms.

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Pure metal (Properties)

1. When force is applied to pure ▪ 2. When knocked or


metal , the atoms slide along hammered, metal atoms slide
easily along one another to fill spaces
between the metal atoms .
Causes
Causes

Pure metal to be ductile (can


be stretched into wire) Pure metal to be malleable
(can be pressed into various
shape)
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Alloy

•Alloy is a substances formed from a mixture of metal and other elements


•A foreign atom (impurity atoms) may be:
 atoms of other metals
Or non-metals such as carbon
•Process mixing atoms of impurities with pure metal atoms by melting is called
alloying

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Properties of alloy

•Harder and stronger than pure metal

•Material that Resistant to corrosion

•More attractive (appearance)

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Examples of alloy
Iron
Percentage of pure metal and foreign atom
100 Tin

Copper
90

80
Copper
70

60

50 Pure metal
Foreign atoms
40 foreign atom
Zinc
30

20
Tin
10
Carbon Copper Antimony
0
Steel Bronze Brass Pewter

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Arrangement of atoms in alloys

•Impurity atoms which are mixed may be larger or smaller than


atoms of pure metal

•Impurity atoms fill the empty spaces between atoms in the pure
metal .
•Impurity atoms can prevent the layers of metal
atoms from sliding along one another easily .

•Due to this , an alloy is harder and stronger than


pure metal.

•For example , steel is harder than iron


Experiment (Refer Chemistry practical
Book p.148)

Aim: To study the hardness and strength of an alloy as compared to a


pure metal
relate the arrangement of atoms in alloys to their strength
and hardness.

presence of other metals atoms


that are of different sizes

disturb the orderly arrangement


of atoms in the metal.

reduces the layer of atoms from


sliding

make an alloy is stronger and


harder than its pure metal
State the operational definition for the
hardness of alloy

.
What to do: 1 kg weight is dropped on steel ball bearing
attached to alloy block
What is observe: the diameter of dent formed is small
Direction: the alloy is harder

When 1 kg weight is dropped on steel ball bearing attached


to bronze block, the diameter of dent formed is small shows
that the bronze is harder.
Short quiz

1. State two properties of alloy


2. Why alloy is more stronger than pure metal?
3. State the operational definition of hardness of alloy