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Crop Water

Requirements
Estimation of Evapotranspiration
Evapotranspiration
is the process by which liquid water at the
earth atmosphere boundary is converted to
vapor and mixed to the atmosphere. It is a
combination of two processes:
1- Evaporation
is the process by which water passes directly to
the vapor state
2- Transpiration
is the process by which water vapor escape
from the plants to the atmosphere.
potential evapotranspiration
It is defined as the evaporation from an
extended surface of short green crop,
actively growing, completely shading the
ground, of uniform height and not short
of water.
Irrigation Water Duties

1. Practical Water Duty

2.Consumptive Use of Water (Theoretical


Water Duty)
1. Practical Water Duty:
It is the quantity of water used to irrigate the
unit area with the losses of water conveyance
from water source to the root zone.

In Egypt irrigation water duty expressed as


m3/feddan/day.

It is divided into:
i. field water duty and,
ii. canal water duty.
2.Consumptive Use of Water (Theoretical
Water Duty)
It is defined as the total quantity of water
used by plants in transpiration; tissues build
up, evaporation from adjacent or exposed
soil in an area at any specific time.
The factors affect the consumptive use of water:
1. Direct evaporation from soil;
2. Relative humidity of air;
3. Wind velocity ; 4. Temperature;
5. Precipitation ;
6. Sunshine hours of the day;
7. Intensity of sunlight;
8. Soil and topography; 9. Type of crop;
10. Cropping pattern;
11. Method of irrigation;
12. Nature of plant leaves;
13. Cropping reason.
Crop Rotations
The crop rotation is said to be:
a. Two- turn rotation if the crop is cultivated in
the same area once every two years,

b. Three-turn rotation if the crop is cultivated


in the same area once every three years.
The aims of the crop rotation

1. Using the topsoil and subsoil by cultivating


crops of short roots followed by crops of tall
roots.
2. To keep the land rich by keeping the balance
between the nutritive elements.
3. To prevent the growing of grasses and leach
plants.
4. To reclaim some lands for example washing
salts by agriculture rice.
Irrigation Rotations
Irrigation rotation system aims to:
1. Reduce the use of irrigation water and to
prevent the over use.
2. Reduce the ground water level caused by the
over use of water.
3. Reduce the seepage from the distributor canals
to the adjoining areas of low level.
4. Decrease the losses of surface evaporation and
seepage.
5. Ensure enough depth for drainage and to
decrease the drainage water.

6- Maintain and clean the canals during the


closing period.

7- Decrease the silting of canals caused by the


continuous flowing.

8- Allow the water to reach the tail of the


canal.
Types of Irrigation Rotations
1- Two - turn rotation

Turn of group
(A)

Turn of group
(B)

Working
Closing period
period
Length of two turn rotation =
Length of Working period + Length of Closing period
2- Three - turn rotation

Turn of group
(A)

Turn of group
(B)

Turn of group
(C)

Length of three turn rotation = Length of Working


period + Length of two Closing period
Crop Pattern
Crop pattern means determining the cultivated
area for each crop according to the following
factors:
1. Ability of crop to grow in a specified area.
2. Serving the national economy by cultivating cash
crops like cotton.
3. Ability of the soil according to texture and salinity
for the crop.
4. Adequacy of irrigation water to irrigate crops.
5. Food requirements of the country.
6. Adjacency of the cultivated area to the distribution
centers.
Winter Closure Period
Winter closure period is the period of year at
which the consumptive use of crops decreases
to a minimum limit.

So all the irrigation canals closed except the


canals that used for drinking or navigation.

Usually this period is during the second half


of January to the first half of February.
The aims of Winter Closure Period
1- Reducing the ground water level.
2- Reducing the seepage from canals to
the adjacent areas.
3- Cleaning and maintenance canals and
drains.
4- Constructing the irrigation structures
and maintenance the old structures.
Types of Practical Water Duty

1- Field water duty (F.W.D.)


To calculate the field water duty it is required
to know:
- the crop rotation,
- the crop pattern of the area,
- the irrigation rotation,
- the actual water requirements of the crops.
Water requirements
(m3 / feddan /application) Irrigation interval
Crop
(day)
Lower Egypt Upper Egypt

Cotton 350 385 14 – 18


Wheat 350 385 14 – 16
Maize 350 385 14 – 16
Rice 420 462 8 – 10
Sharaki 760 836 completed in 28 – 36
Gardens 350 385 14- 16
Other crops 350 385 14 - 16
2- Distributor canal water duty(D.C.W.D.)
1. Distributor canal water duty (W.D)d.c= field
water duty (W.D)f + the conveyance loss from
the intake of the distributor canal to head of the
field.

2. Branch canal water duty (W.D)b.c = (W.D)d.c +


the conveyance loss from the intake of the
branch canal to the distributor.

3. Main canal water duty (W.D)m.c = (W.D)b.c + the


conveyance loss from the intake of the main
canal to the branch) / (number of turns).
CL  (W .D) b.c
(W .D) m.c 
Number of turns
Where;
(W.D)m.c: main canal water duty;
CL: conveyance losses percentage;
(W.D)b.c: branch canals water duty.

* Conveyance losses is about 10% of field water


duty for distributor canals and is about 20% of
field water duty for branch and main canals.

* Discharge of canal = canal water duty  canal


area served
Irrigation Rotations used in Egypt
1- Crop pattern ( Cotton and Sharaki )
A) In Upper Egypt
Two turn rotation (7 days working period
and 7 days closing period)
7 days on 7 days on 7 days on
7 days off 7 days off
1 0.5 1 0.5 1 1

Cot. Sh. Cot. Sh. Cot. Maize


B) In Lower Egypt

Three turn rotation (6 days working period


and 12 days closing period )
6 days on 12 days off 6 days on 12 days off 6days on
1 0.5 1 0.5 1 1

Cot. Sh. Cot. Sh. Cot. Maize


2- Crop pattern ( Rice, Cotton and Sharaki )

Two turn rotation (4 days working period


and 4 days closing period)
4 on 4 off 4 on 4 off 4 on 4 off 4 on 4 off 4 on

R C S R C S R C S R C S R C M
Problem 1
An area of 12000 feddans is irrigated from a main
canal in two turns A and B. If the area served of
(A) turn is 40% of the total area served by the
main canal. The crop pattern for the whole area is
35% cotton, 30% rice, and 25% sharaki prepared
to be cultivated with maize. It is required to:

1- Calculate the field water duty, distribution canal


water duty, and the main canal water duty.
2- Calculate the discharge of the distribution
canals (A), and (B).
3- Calculate the discharge of the main canal.
Solution
4 on 4 off 4 on 4 off 4 on 4 off 4 on 4 on
4 off

R C S R C S R C S R C S R C M

FWD = (420/4) × 0.3 × 1 + (350/4) × 0.35 × 0.5


+ (760/4) ×0.25 × 0.25 = 58.7 m3 / feddan / day.
Assuming conveyance losses in distributor canal is
10%.
(W.D)d.c = 58.7 × 1.1 = 64.57 m3/feddan/day.

Q canal A = 64.57 × [12000 × 0.4 / (24 × 60 × 60)]


= 3.6 m3/sec.

Q canal B = 64.57 × [12000 × 0.6 / (24 × 60 × 60)]


= 5.38 m3/sec.
Assuming conveyance losses in main canal is
10%.

(W.D)m.c = 64.57 ×1.1 ×1/2 =35.51m3/feddan/day

Q main canal = 35.51 × 2 × [12000 × 0.6 / (24 × 60 ×


60)] = 5.92 m3/sec.
After sharaki
(W.D)f = (420 / 4) × 0.3 × 1 + (350 / 4) × 0.35 ×
0.5 + (350 / 4) × 0.25 × 0.5 = 57.75 m3/feddan/day.

(W.D)d.c = 57.75 × 1.1 = 63.525 m3/feddan/day.

Q canal A = 63.525 × [12000 × 0.4 / (24 × 60 ×


60)] = 3.53 m3/sec.

Q canal B = 63.525 × [12000 × 0.6 / (24 × 60 ×


60)] = 5.29 m3/sec.
(W.D)m.c = 63.525 × 1.1 × 1/2 = 34.94
m3/feddan/day.

Qmain canal = 34.94 × 2 × [12000 × 0.6 / (24 ×


60 × 60)] = 5.82 m3/sec.
Problem 2
An area is irrigated from a main canal in three
turns A, B and C. The area served for each
distribution canal is 2000 feddan. The crop pattern
for the whole area is 40% cotton, 10% public
benefits, and 50% sharaki prepared to be cultivated
with maize. If the canal is in Lower Egypt. It is
required to:
1. Calculate the field water duty, distribution canal
water duty, and the main canal water duty.
2. Calculate the discharge of the distribution canal
and main canal.
Solution

** In Lower Egypt:
Three turn rotation (6 days working period and 12
days closing period)
(W.D)f = (350/6) × 0.4 × 1 + (760/6) × 0.5 × 0.5
= 55 m3/feddan/day.
Assuming conveyance losses in distributor canal
is 10%.

(W.D)d.c = 55 × 1.1 = 60.5 m3/feddan/day.


Q distribution canal = 60.5 × [2000 / (24 × 60 × 60)] =
1.4 m3/sec.

(W.D)m.c = 55 ×1.2 ×1/3 = 22 m3/feddan/day

Q main canal = 22 × 3 × [2000 / (24 × 60 × 60)] =


1.53 m3/sec.
After sharaki
(W.D)f = (350 / 6) × 0.4 × 1 + (350 / 6) × 0.5 × 1
= 52.5 m3/feddan/day.

(W.D)d.c = 52.5 × 1.1 = 57.75 m3/feddan/day.

Q distribution canal = 57.75 × [2000 / (24 × 60 × 60)]


= 1.34 m3/sec.

(W.D)m.c = 52.5 ×1.2 ×1/3 = 21 m3/feddan/day


Qmain canal = 21 × 3 × [2000 / (24 × 60 × 60)] =
1.46 m3/sec.
Problem 3
An area is irrigated from a main canal in two turns
A and B. The area served for each distribution
canal is 2000 feddan. The crop pattern for the
whole area is 40% cotton, 10% public benefits,
and 50% sharaki prepared to be cultivated with
maize. If the canal is in Upper Egypt .It is required
to:
1. Calculate the field water duty, distribution canal
water duty, and the main canal water duty.
2. Calculate the discharge of the distribution canal
and main canal.
Solution

** In Upper Egypt:
Two turn rotation (7 days working period and 7
days closing period)
(W.D)f = (385/7) × 0.4 × 1 + (836/7) × 0.5 × 0.5
= 51.875 m3/feddan/day.
Assuming conveyance losses in distributor canal is
10%.

(W.D)d.c = 51.875 × 1.1 = 57.06 m3/feddan/day.


Q distribution canal = 57.06 × [2000 / (24 × 60 × 60)] =
1.32 m3/sec.
(W.D)m.c = 51.875 ×1.2 ×1/2 = 31.125
m3/feddan/day
Q main canal = 31.125 × 2 × [2000 / (24 × 60 × 60)] =
1.44 m3/sec.
After sharaki
(W.D)f = (385 / 7) × 0.4 × 1 + (385 / 7) × 0.5 × 1
= 49.5 m3/feddan/day.
(W.D)d.c = 49.5 × 1.1 = 54.45 m3/feddan/day.
Q distribution canal = 54.45 × [2000 / (24 × 60 × 60)]
= 1.26 m3/sec.
(W.D)m.c = 54.45 ×1.2 ×1/2 = 32.67
m3/feddan/day
Qmain canal = 32.67 × 2 × [2000 / (24 × 60 × 60)] =
1.51 m3/sec.
Consumptive Use of Water (Theoretical
Water Duty)

It is the depth (quantity) of water required by the


crop to meet its Evapo-transpiration losses and the
water used for metabolic processes.

But the water used for metabolic processes is very


small & accounts only less than 1 % of evapo-
transpiration. Hence, the consumptive use is taken
to be the same as the loss of water through evapo-
transpiration.
Estimation of Potential Evapo-
transpiration
(Crop Consumptive Use of Water)

The empirical methods for the estimation of


Evapo-transpiration relate potential Evapo-
transpiration to one or more of the climatologically
factors.
-The more commonly used formulae in estimating
potential evapo-transpiration (Crop Consumptive
Use of Water) are:

i. Blaney - Criddle Method;


ii. Thornthwaite Method;
iii. Hargreaves Method ;
iv. Modified Penman Method.
1- Blaney - Criddle Method

Blaney and Criddle observed that the amount


of water consumptively used by crops during
their growing season was closely correlated with
mean monthly temperatures and daylight
hours.
The relationship developed by Blaney -
Criddle may be stated in the following forms:
ETP = 192 ×K×P× (T+17.8)/100
(m3/feddan/month)

ETP = 4.57 ×K ×P× (T + 17.8) /100


(cm/month)

ETP : monthly evapotranspiration


K : empirical factor for the month for each
crop.
P : monthly daylight hours expressed as
percent of daylight hours of the year.
t : mean monthly temperature in Co.
Blaney-Criddle Crop Factort Value (K)
Months
Crop
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Rice 0.85 1.0 1.15 1.3 1.25 1.1 0.9

Maize 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.5

Wheat 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.7

Sugarcane 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.85 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 0.95 0.9 0.85 0.75

Cotton 0.5 0.6 0.75 0.9 0.85 0.75 0.55 0.5 0.5

Vegetables 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 .75 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.55 0.5

Citrus 0.5 0.55 0.55 0.6 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.7 0.65 0.6 0.55 0.55
Monthly Daylight Hours Value (P)
Lat 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
0 8.5 7.66 8.49 8.21 8.50 8.22 8.50 8.49 8.21 8.50 8.22 8.50
5 8.32 7.57 8.47 8.29 8.65 8.41 8.67 8.60 8.23 8.42 8.07 8.30
10 8.13 7.47 8.45 8.37 8.81 8.60 8.86 8.71 8.25 8.34 7.91 8.30
15 7.94 7.36 8.43 8.44 8.98 8.80 9.05 8.83 8.28 8.26 7.75 7.88
20 7.74 7.25 8.41 8.52 9.15 9.00 9.25 8.96 8.30 8.18 7.58 7.66
25 7.53 7.14 8.39 8.61 9.33 9.23 9.45 9.09 8.32 8.09 7.40 7.42
30 7.30 7.03 8.38 8.72 9.53 9.49 9.76 9.22 8.33 7.99 7.19 7.15
32 7.20 6.97 8.37 8.76 9.62 9.59 9.77 9.27 8.34 7.95 7.11 7.05
34 7.10 6.91 8.36 8.80 9.72 9.70 9.88 9.33 8.36 7.90 7.02 6.92
36 6.99 6.85 8.35 8.85 9.82 9.82 9.99 9.40 8.37 7.85 6.92 6.79
38 6.87 6.79 8.34 8.90 9.92 9.95 10.1 9.47 8.38 7.80 6.82 6.66
40 6.76 6.72 8.33 8.95 10.02 10.08 10.22 9.54 8.39 7.75 6.72 7.52
42 6.63 6.65 8.31 9.00 10.14 10.22 10.35 9.62 8.40 7.69 6.62 6.37
2- Thornthwaite Method

According to the Thornthwaite equation, based on


the data from the eastern U.S.A, the monthly
consumptive use or the potential evapo-
transpiration is given by:
10T a
ETP  1.6  b  ( ) cm / month
I
T = mean monthly temperature in Co.
I = annual heat index, obtained from monthly heat
index I of the year
1.514 1.514
12
T  12
T 
I  i , i   I   
n 1 5 n 1  5 

The values of the exponents a and b are obtained


from the relation

a = (67.5×10-8) ×I3 - (77.1×10-6) ×I2 +


0.01791×I + 0.492
max . number of sun shine (hrs ) in the month
b
12  30
3- Hargreaves Method

This method introduce the effect of relative


humidity at noon, the average temperature of
the month and the length of the day light.

To calculate the evapo-transpiration as


follow;
ETP = 180 K C d1 t
ETP : monthly evapo-transpiration in
m3/feddan/month.
K : Hargreaves coefficient varies
according to the type of crop
d1 : coefficient depend on the length of
the daylight in month
t : mean monthly temperature in C.
TF = 1.8TC+ 32
C : coefficient depend on the relative
humidity at noon
Hargreaves Crop Coefficient (K)

Crop K
Rice 1.4
Maize 0.50
Wheat 0.50
Sugarcane 0.70
Cotton 0.60
Vegetables 0.50
Citrus 0.65
Beans 0.60
Hargreaves the Length of the Daylight
Coefficient (dl)
Latitude
Month
300 350
1 0.88 0.85
2 0.84 0.83
3 1.00 1.00
4 1.05 1.06
5 1.14 1.17
6 1.14 1.17
7 1.16 1.19
8 1.11 1.32
9 1.10 0.96
10 0.96 0.94
11 0.86 0.84
12 0.86 0.82
Hargreaves the Relative Humidity
Coefficient (C)
% of Humidity C
10 0.37
20 0.32
30 0.28
40 0.25
50 0.21
60 0.17
70 0.13
80 0.09
90 0.05
100 0.02
Problem 4
Using Blaney -Criddle equation to calculate the
consumptive use of water for an area cultivated
with cotton at latitude 36N if the field surface
irrigation efficiency reaches 70%. The mean
monthly temperature and the monthly crop
coefficient during the growing season are as
follow:
March April May June July Agu. Sep.
T 14.3 16.9 18.7 20.2 19.8 19.2 16.7
K 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85
Solution
According to Blany-Criddle equation:
ETP = 192 × K × P × (T+17.8)/100
(m3/feddan/month)
March April May June July Agu. Sep.

T 14.3 16.9 18.7 20.2 19.8 19.2 16.7


K 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85
P 8.35 8.85 9.82 9.82 9.99 9.4 8.37
Cu = ETP 308.78 353.77 550.55 609 613.02 567.61 471.3

Cu /0.7 441.11 505.4 786.5 870 875.74 810.87 673.23

 The water requirements for cotton = 4962.85


m3/feddan
Problem 5
Calculate the irrigation interval for a certain crop
according to the following data:
- Average air temperature 25 Co,
- Percent of day light hours during the month
with respect to the year = 8.4,
- Crop coefficient = 0.75,
- Effective root depth =85 cm,
- Soil specific gravity =1.4gm/cm3,
- Water depth at field capacity =20 cm,
- Wilting point on weight basis =12 %.
-extraction coefficient =75%
Solution
Cu = EPT = 4.57 K  P  (T + 17.8) /100

Cu = 4.57  0.75 8.4 (25 +17.8) /100 = 12.32


(cm/month) = 0.41 cm/day
w  y
Fc 
s d
1  20
Fc   16.81%
1.4  85
The depth of available water (y) in root zone is
equal to:
( Fc  WP )  d   s
y 
w

(0.1681  0.12)  85  1.4


y  5,72cm
1

Irrigation interval = (y  El) / Cu = 5.72 0.75/


0.41 = 10.49  10days
Problem 6
Estimate the potential evapo-transpiration for a
crop for the month of June using the Thornthwaite
equation from the following data.

Month April May June July Aug. Sep. Oct.

T (C˚) 4.5 12.5 20.4 20.2 21.5 10.5 5.5

Max. sun shine (hrs) 370 380 365 358 355 350 345
Solution
10T a
ETP  1.6  b  ( ) cm / month
I
1.514
T 
i 
5

max . number of sun shine (hrs ) in the month


b
12  30

Month April May June July Aug. Sep. Oct.


T (C˚) 4.5 12.5 20.4 20.2 21.5 10.5 5.5
Max. sun shine (hrs) 370 380 365 358 355 350 345
i 0.85 4 8.4 8.28 9.1 3.07 1.16
b 1.03 1.06 1.01 0.99 0.99 0.97 0.96
12
I  i
n 1
 34.86

a = (67.5×10-8) ×I3 - (77.1×10-6) ×I2 +


0.01791×I + 0.492 = 1.051

b for June =1.01, T for June = 20.4

10  20.4 1.051
ETP  1.6  1.01 ( )  10.35cm / month
34.86
Problem 7

Cotton is grown on a medium textured soil if:


Available moisture =140mm/m
Rooting depth = 150cm
Extraction coefficient = 65%
Evaporation rate = 9.5mm/day
Application efficiency = 70%

Determine the irrigation interval


Solution

ynet = 140  1.5  0.65 = 136.5mm

yactual = 136.5 / 0.7 = 195mm

Irrigation interval = ynet / evaporation rate =


136.5 / 9.5 = 14.4  14days
Problem 8
Calculate the net depth of irrigation water and the
total quantity of water required to irrigate an area
of 100 feddans grown wit wheat its root depth =
120cm, if the moisture content at field capacity =
25% and at wilting point = 5% and the specific
gravity of the soil = 1.4gm/cm3. It is allowed to
depleted 50% of the available moisture before the
irrigation starts. The efficiency of the irrigation
pump 80%. Calculate also the frequency of
irrigation if the evapo-transpiration rate =
8mm/day
Solution
The depth of available water (y) in root zone is
equal to: ( F  WP )  d  
y c s

w
(0.25  0.05)  120  1.4
y  33.6cm
1

ynet = 0.5  33.6 = 16.8cm


yactual = ynet / 0.8 = 21cm
Total quantity of water =(21/100)  100  4200 =
88200 m3
Irrigation frequency = 168/8 = 21 days
Irrigation Efficiencies
Irrigation efficiency is the ratio between the plant
and the irrigation requirements.

Factors affecting Irrigation Efficiency


1-Type of soil
2-Type of plant and the stage of growth
3-Percentage of salinity in soil
4-Level of ground water
5-Method of irrigation
6-Source of irrigation water
7-Water losses from canals
Types of Irrigation Efficiencies

(a) water conveyance efficiency (Ec),


(b) water application efficiency (Ea),
(c) water use efficiency (Eu),
(d) water storage efficiency (Es),
(e) water distribution efficiency (Ed) and
(f) consumptive use efficiency (Ecu).
1- Conveyance Efficiency ( Ec )
Wf
Ec   100
Wd
Wf : water delivered to the farm
Wd : water delivered from the source

The losses of conveyance

1) evaporation from free water surface,


2) water consumed by weeds,
3) water plants in the canals,
4) seepage losses from the canals
2- Application Efficiency (Ea)

The water application efficiency is the ratio of the


quantity of water stored into the root zone of the
crops to the quantity of water delivered to the
field. W
Ea  s
 100
Wf

Ws : water stored in the root zone during


irrigation.
The common sources of loss of irrigation
water during water application

1- irregular land surface and steep


slopes of land
2- soils of high permeability
3- excessive irrigation,
4- irrigation method
3- Water Use Efficiency (Eu)

It is the ratio of water beneficially used, including


leaching water, to the quantity water delivered,

Wu
Eu   100
Wf

Wu : water beneficially used in irrigation.


4- Water Storage Efficiency (Es)
The concept of water storage efficiency gives an
insight to how completely the required water has
been stored in the root zone during irrigation.
Water storage efficiency is important when
insufficient water is stored in the root zone during
irrigation.
Ws
Es   100
Wn
Wn : water needed in the root zone before
irrigation.
5- Water Distribution Efficiency (Ed)
This shows how uniformly water is applied to the
field along the irrigation run. In sandy soils there
is generally over irrigation at upper reaches of the
run where as in clayey soils.

 yw 
Ed 
1  d 
  100
 w 

yw : average numerical deviation in depth of water stored


from average depth stored during irrigation.
dw : average depth of water stored during irrigation.
6- Consumptive Use Efficiency (Ecu)

Wcu
Ecu   100
Ws

Wcu : normal consumptive use of water


The Overall Project Efficiency (Ep)
This shows how efficiently the water source used
in crop production. It shows the percentage of the
total water that is stored in the soil and available
for consumptive requirements of the crop. It
indicates the overall efficiency of the systems
from the headwork to the final use by plants for
Cu. The overall project efficiency must be
considered in order to fix the amount of water
required at the diversion headwork.
Wcu
Ep   100
Wd
.
The most important sources of losses in
the Egyptian irrigation system are;
1- Seepage from irrigation canals,
2-Tail end losses,
3- Leakage from gates and other control
structures,
4- Irregularities in land surface and steep
land slopes,
5- Evaporation from free water surfaces,
6- Percolation of water to the drainage
system or deep aquifer.
Problem 9
A discharge of 120 lit/sec was diverted from a
reservoir, and 95 lit/sec were delivered to the field. An
area of 5 feddans was irrigated in 6 hours the effective
depth of root zone was 1.2 m. The water losses in the
field was 420 m3. Available moisture holding capacity of
the soil is 15 cm per meter depth of soil. If irrigation
starts when moisture depletion level reach 40% of the
available moisture, determine:
1- Water conveyance efficiency.
2- Water application efficiency
3- Water storage efficiency
Solution

1.Water conveyance efficiency equal to


Wf 95
Ec   100 Ec   100  79%
Wd 120

2. Water application efficiency equal to

Ws 95  6  60  60
Ea   100 Wf   1404m 3
Wf 1000
Ws = Wf – Wloss = 1404 – 420 = 984 m3
984
Ea   100  70%
1404

3. Water storage efficiency equal to


Ws
Es   100
Wn

Wn = 15  1.2  0.4 = 7.2 cm


Wn = 0.072  5  4200 = 1512 m3
984
Es   100  65%
1512
Problem 10
A discharge of 135 lit/sec was delivered from an
irrigation canal and 100 lit/sec were delivered to the
field. An area of 1.6 hectares was irrigated in 8
hours. The effective depth of root zone was 1.8m.
The water losses in the field by surface runoff were
432 m3.
The depth of water penetration changes linear from
1.8 at the beginning of the ground to 1.2 meters at its
end.
Available moisture holding capacity of the soil is 20
cm per meter depth of soil.
If irrigation starts when moisture depletion level
reaches to 50% of the available moisture.

Determine:
i. Water conveyance efficiency.
ii. Water application efficiency
iii. Water storage efficiency
iv. Water distribution efficiency
Solution

1.Water conveyance efficiency equal to


Wf 100
Ec   100 Ec   100  74%
Wd 135

2. Water application efficiency equal to

Ea 
Ws
 100 100  8  60  60
Wf Wf   2880m 3

1000
Ws = Wf – Wloss = 2880 – 432 = 2448 m3
2448
Ea   100  85%
2880

3. Water storage efficiency equal to


Ws
Es   100
Wn

Wn = 20  1.8  0.5 = 18 cm
Wn = 0.18  1.6  104 = 2880 m3
2448
Es   100  85%
2880
4. Water distribution efficiency equal to
 yw  1.8  1.2
Ed 
 1  
  100 dw   1.5m
 dw  2

y1 = Max. numerical deviation in depth of water


stored from average depth stored during irrigation
=1.8 - 1.5 = 0.3m
y2 = Min. numerical deviation in depth of water
stored from average depth stored during irrigation
= 1.5- 1.2 = 0.3m
0.3  0.3  0.3 
 yw   0.3m E d  1    100  80%
2  1.5 