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• Net heat accumulated in the element
HEAT due to conduction of heat in all
coordination direction(A) + Heat
CONDUCTION generated in the element (B)= energy
stored in the element(C)
Objectives of conduction analysis:

The primary objective is to determine the temperature field, T(x,y,z,t), in a body

T(x,y,z,t) depends on:

- Boundary conditions
- Initial condition
- Material properties (k, cp, )
- Geometry of the body (shape, size)

Why we need T (x, y, z, t)?

- To compute heat flux at any location (using Fourier’s eqn.)
- Compute thermal stresses, expansion, deflection due to temp. Etc.
- Design insulation thickness
- Heat treatment of metals

• Def:
The set of constrains which are
applied to boundary value problem is
called boundary conditions.
Boundary conditions in heat transfer:
Known temperature boundary condition specifies a known value of temperature T0 at the vertex or at the
edge of the model.
Heat flux boundary condition

Fn = -qs - at outward boundaries,

Fn+ - Fn- = -qs - at inner boundaries,

Fn is a normal component of heat flux density, "+" and “-"

superscripts denote quantities to the left and to the right side
of the boundary

Convection boundary condition can be specified at

outward boundary of the region
Fn = α(T - T0),
where α is a film coefficient, and T0 - temperature of contacting
fluid medium
• Radiation boundary condition can be specified at outward boundary
of the region. It describes radiative heat transfer and is defined by the
following equation:
Fn = β·kSB·(T4 - T04),
where kSB is a Stephan-Boltsman constant (5.67032·10-8 W/m2/K4), β is
an emissivity coefficient, and T0 - ambient radiation temperature
• Constant temperature boundary condition may be used to describe
bodies with very high heat conductivity. You can exclude interior of
these bodies from the consideration and describe their surface as the
constant temperature boundary.

Dirichlet boundary conditions

In thermodynamics, Dirichlet boundary conditions consist of
surfaces (in 3D problems) held at a fixed temperatures.
Neumann boundary conditions
In thermodynamics, the Neumann boundary condition represents
the heat flux across the boundaries. The perfect insulator reflects a
homogeneous condition (naturally satisfied), while all warmed and
cooled boundaries require to explicitly assign the boundary
condition. This is normally the case of electronic components
(inward heat flux) of external cooling spray/channel (outward heat
If the situation is time dependent (transient heat
conduction), we have to specify also the initial condition.
Since the heat equation is first order in time, only one
condition must be specified. In rectangular coordinates,
the initial condition can be the initial temperature field
specified in the general form as:

conditions: where the function f(x, y, z) represents the temperature
field inside the material at time t = 0. Note that under
steady conditions, the heat conduction equation does not
involve any time derivatives (∂T/∂t = 0), and thus we do
not need to specify an initial condition.