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Motivation

Basic Motivation Concepts


Motivation

The willingness to exert high levels of


effort towards organizational goals,
conditioned by effort's ability to satisfy
some individual need
Need is some internal state that makes
certain outcomes appear attractive
The motivation Process
Unsatisfied Need

Tension

Drives

Search Behavior

Satisfied need

Reduction of
tension
Theories of Motivation

Hierarchy of Needs Theory


Theory X and Theory Y
Motivation Hygiene Theory
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory

There is a hierarchy of five needs-


physiological, safety, social, esteem and
self actualization- and as each need is
sequentially satisfied, the next need
becomes dominant
Hierarchy of Need Theory

Higher- Order
Self Needs
Actualization

Esteem

Lower
Social
Order
Safety Needs

Physiological
McGregor Theory X and Theory Y

Theory X:
The assumption that employees dislike
work, are lazy, dislike responsibility and
must be coerced to perform.
Theory Y
The assumption that employees like work,
are creative, seek responsibility and can
exercise self direction
Assumptions of Theory X
 Employee inherently dislike work and whenever
possible will attempt to avoid it
 Since employees dislike work, they must be
coerced, controlled or threatened with
punishment to achieve goals
 Employees will avoid responsibilities and seek
formal direction whenever possible.
 Most workers place security above all factors
associated with work and will display little
ambition
Assumptions of Theory Y
 Employees can view work as being natural as
rest or play
 People will exercise self direction and self
control if they are committed to objectives
 The average person can learn to accept, even
seek responsibility
 The ability to make innovative decision is widely
dispersed throughout population and is not
necessarily the sole province of those in
Management position
Herzberg’s Motivation- Hygiene Theory

Intrinsic Factors are related to on


Satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are
associated with dissatisfaction
COMPARISION OF SATISFIERS & DISSATISFIERS

Achievement
Recognition
Work
Responsibility MOTIVATION
Advancement FACTORS
Growth
Company Policy & Admin
Supervision
Peers
Work Conditions
HYGIENE Salary
FACTORS
Personal Life
Subordinates
Status
Security
Welfare
Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and
Dissatisfaction

Traditional View

Satisfaction Dissatisfaction

Herzberg’s View

Satisfaction No Satisfaction

Dissatisfaction No Dissatisfaction
Contemporary
Theories of
Motivation
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
There are three groups of core needs: existence, relatedness
and growth
Existence group refers our basic existence requirement. It
includes the items that Malaw considered physiological and
safety needs.
Relatedness refers to the desire we have for maintaining
important interpersonal relationships. These social and status
desire require satisfactory interactions with others.
Growth needs are the intrinsic desire for personal
development and characteristics include self actualization
McClelland’s Theory of Needs

This theory focuses on :


Need for achievement
Need for Power
Need for affiliation
Goal Setting theory

This theory postulates the goals persuaded by


employees can play an important role in
motivating superior performance.

People examine their current behavior to


ascertain its suitability and sufficiency for goal
achievement, if not found satisfactory, they
either modify their behavior or change to a
realistic goal
Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

This theory Postulates that it is the


anticipated satisfaction of valued Goals
which causes individuals to adjust their
behavior in a way which is most likely to
their attaining them.
Factors of Expectancy Theory
 Expectancy
Individuals own assessment of whether
performing in a certain way will result in
measurable result
 Instrumentality
Perceived likely hood that such a result will
attaining a given reward.
 Valance or satisfaction associated with reward
Individuals assessment of likely satisfaction or
valance associated with reward
Self - Efficacy Theory

Self Efficacy is concerted with an


employees belief about his capability to
perform a task.
High Self efficacy leads to good
performance
Low self efficacy may lead to poorer
performance
More Concepts on Motivation

Reinforcement Theory
Equity Theory
Performance Dimensions

Ability

Performance

Motivation Opportunity
Integrating Contemporary Theories
s of Motivation
High
N Ach

Performance Equity
Evaluation Comparison
Ability Criteria
Opportunity

Individual Rewards Personal


Individual Effort Performance Goals

Objective
Dominant
Performance Reinforcement
Needs
Evaluation
System

Goals Direct Behavior