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ECE 15
Martyn Miguel Q. Tadena, ECE, ECT
 Long-distance communication.
 From Greek word tele meaning “distant
or “afar”.
 Generally indicates that communications
is taking place between a transmitter and
a receiver that are too far apart to
communicate effectively using only sound
 From the Greek word tele meaning “afar”
and phone meaning “sound,” “voice” or
“voiced sound”.
 An apparatus for reproducing sound,
especially that of the human voice
(speech), at a great distance by means of
electricity; consisting of transmitting and
receiving instruments connected by a line
or wire which conveys the electric
 Although telephone systems were
originally developed for conveying human
speech information (voice), they are now
also used extensively to transport data,
using modems that operate within the
same frequency band as human voice.
Public Telephone Network (PTN)
 Anyone who uses a telephone or data
modem on a telephone circuit is part of a
global communications network called the
public telephone network (PTN).
 It is also referred to as public switched
telephone network (PSTN), since it
interconnects subscribers through one or
more switches.
 It is comprised of several very large
corporations and hundreds of smaller
independent companies jointly referred to
as Telco.
 The telephone system as we know it
today began as an unlikely collaboration of
two men with widely disparate
personalities: Alexander Graham Bell and
Thomas A.Watson.
 On March 10, 1876, one week after his
patent was allowed, Bell first succeeded in
transmitting speech in his lab at 5 Exeter
Place in Boston.
 Bell’s patent number, 174,465, has been
called the most valuable ever issued.
 The telephone system developed rapidly.
In 1877, there were only six telephones in
the world. By 1881, 3,000 telephones
were producing revenues, and in 1883,
there were over 133,000 telephones in
the United States alone.
The Subscriber Loop
Plain Old Telephone System (POTS)
 The simplest and most straightforward
form of telephone service.
 Involves subscribers accessing the public
telephone network through a pair of
wires called the local subscriber loop (or
simply local loop).
Local Loop
 An unshielded twisted-pair transmission
line (cable pair), consisting of two
insulated conductors twisted together.
 Generally comprised of several lengths of
copper wire interconnected at junction
and cross-connect boxes located in
manholes, back alleys, or telephone
equipment rooms within large buildings
and building complexes.
 Provides the means to connect a
telephone set at a subscriber’s location to
the closest telephone office.
Standard Telephone Set
Standard Telephone Set
 The basic telephone set is a simple analog
transceiver designed with the primary
purpose of converting speech or acoustical
signals to electrical signals.
 New features such as multiple-line
selection, hold, caller ID, and
speakerphone have been incorporated
into telephone sets, creating a more
elaborate and complicated device.
Butterstamp Telephone
 The first telephone set that combined a
transmitter and receiver into a single
handheld unit that was introduced 1878.
 You talk to into one end and then turn
the instrument around and listen with the
other end.
Butterstamp Telephone
302-type Telephone
 The telephone with the hand-crank
magneto, fixed microphone, hand-held
earphone and no dialing mechanism.
302-type Telephone
500-type Telephone
 Replaced the 302-type telephone set.
 The rotary dial telephone by our
500-type Telephone
2500-type Telephone
 The rotary dial mechanism is replaced by
a Touch-Tone keypad.
 Used in modern day telephone sets.
2500-type Telephone
The quality of transmission over a
telephone connection depends on the:
 Received volume
 The relative frequency response of the
telephone circuit
 Degree of interference
The ratio of the acoustic pressure at the
transmitter input to the corresponding
pressure at the receiver depends on the
 The translation of acoustic pressure into
electrical signal
 The losses of the two customer local loops,
the central telephone office equipment, and
the cables between central telephone offices
 The translation of the electrical signal at the
receiving telephone set to acoustic pressure
at the speaker output
Functions of the Telephone Set
 Notify the subscriber when there is an
incoming call with an audible signal, such
as a bell, or with a visible signal, such as a
flashing light. This signal is analogous to an
interrupt signal on microprocessor, as its
intent is to interrupt what you are doing.
These signals are purposely made
annoying enough to make people want to
answer the telephone as soon as possible.
Functions of the Telephone Set
 Provide a signal to the telephone network
verifying when the incoming call has been
acknowledged and answered (i.e. the
receiver is lifted off hook).
Functions of the Telephone Set
 Convert speech (acoustical) energy to
electrical energy in the transmitter and
vice versa in the receiver. Actually, the
microphone converts the acoustical
energy to mechanical energy, which is
then converted to electrical energy. The
speaker performs the opposite
Functions of the Telephone Set
 Incorporate some method of inputting
and sending destination telephone
numbers (either mechanically or
electrically) from the telephone set to the
central office switch over the local loop.
This is accomplished using either rotary
dialers (pulses) or Touch-Tone pads
(frequency tones).
Functions of the Telephone Set
 Regulate the amplitude of the speech
signal the calling persons outputs onto
the telephone line. This prevents speakers
from producing signals high enough in
amplitude to interfere with other people’s
conversations taking place on nearby
cable pairs (crosstalk).
Functions of the Telephone Set
 Incorporate some means of notifying the
telephone office when a subscriber
wishes to place an outgoing call (i.e.
handset lifted off hook). Subscribers
cannot dial out until they receive a dial
tone from the switching machine.
Functions of the Telephone Set
 Ensure that a small amount of the
transmit signal is fed back to the speaker,
enabling talkers to hear themselves
speaking. This feedback signal is
sometimes called sidetone or talkback.
Sidetone helps prevent the speaker from
talking too loudly.
Functions of the Telephone Set
 Provide an open circuit (idle condition) to
the local loop when the telephone is not
in use (i.e., on hook) and a closed circuit
(busy condition) to the local loop when
the telephone is in use (off hook).
Functions of the Telephone Set
 Provide a means of transmitting and
receiving call progress signals between the
central office switch and the subscriber,
such as on and off hook, busy, ringing, dial
pulses, Touch Tone signals, and dial tone.
Telephone Set
 A basic telephone set requires only two
wires (one pair) from the telephone
company to operate, or the local loop.
Telephone Wire
 Tip (Green Wire) – used to transmit
signal (positive terminal).
 Ring (Red Wire) – used to receive the
signal from far end (negative terminal).
 Sleeve (Yellow Wire) – used as a spare for
special purposes.
 Ground (White/Black Wire)
Simplified Two-Wire Loop
 The switching machine outputs – 48Vdc
on the ring and connects the tip to
 DC Voltage was used rather than ac
voltage for several reasons: (1) to prevent
power supply hum, (2) to allow service to
continue in the event of a power outage,
and (3) because people were afraid of ac.
 The – 48Vdc is used for supervisory
signalling and to provide talk battery for
the microphone in the telephone set.
 It is the only voltage required for the
operation of a standard telephone.
Block Diagram of a Telephone Set
Ringer Circuit
 Originally an electromagnetic bell.
 Placed directly across the tip and ring of
the local loop.
 Its purpose is to alert the destination
party of incoming calls.
 The audible tone from the ringer must be
loud enough to be heard from a
reasonable distance and offensive enough
to make a person want to answer the
telephone as soon as possible.
On/Off Hook Circuit
 Sometimes also called switch hook.
 A simple single-throw, double-pole (STDP)
switch placed across the tip and ring.
 The switch is mechanically connected to the
telephone handset so that when the
telephone is idle (on hook), the switch is
 When the telephone is in use (off hook), the
switch is closed completing an electrical path
through the microphone between the tip
and ring of the local loop.
Equalizer Circuit
 Combination of passive components
(resistors, capacitors, and so on) that are
used to regulate the amplitude and
frequency response of the voice signals.
 The receiver for the telephone.
 Converts electrical signals received from
the local loop to acoustical signals (sound
waves) that can be heard and understood
by a human being.
 The transmitter for the telephone.
 Converts acoustical signals in the form of
sound pressure waves from the caller to
electrical signals that are transmitter into
the telephone network through the
hybrid network.
 The microphone and the speaker is
enclosed in the handset of the telephone.
Hybrid Network
 A special balanced transformer used to
convert a two-wire circuit (the local loop)
into a four-wire circuit (the telephone
set) and vice versa, thus enabling full
duplex operation over a two-wire circuit.
 Separates transmitted signals from the
received signals.
 Allows a small portion of the transmit
signal to be returned to the receiver in
the form of sidetones.
Dialing Circuit
 Enables the subscriber to output signals
representing digits, and this enables the
caller to enter the destination telephone
 It is either an electronic dial-pulsing
circuit or a Touch-Tone keypad.
Basic Telephone Call Procedures
Basic Telephone Call Procedures
 Typical loop resistance ranges from a few
ohms up to approximately 1300 ohms.
 Typical telephone set impedances range
from 500 ohms to 1000 ohms.
Basic Telephone Call Procedures
Call Progress Tones and Signals
 Ensure the processes necessary to set up
and terminate a telephone call.
 When a switching machine outputs a call
progress tone to a subscriber, it must
audible and clearly identifiable.
Signalling can be divided into two major
 Station signaling – the exchange of
signaling messages over local loops
between stations (telephones) and telephone
company switching machines.

 Interoffice signaling – the exchange of

signaling messages between switching
Signaling can be subdivided into one of four
 Alerting Signals – indicate a request for service
such as going off hook or ringing the destination
 Supervising Signals – provide call status
information, such as busy or ring-back signals.
 Controlling Signals – provide information in the
form of announcements, such as number changed
to another number, a number no longer in
service, and so on.
 Addressing Signals – provide the routing
information such as calling and called numbers.
Call Progress Tone Summary
Call Progress Tone Direction of
Dial Tone
 An audible signal comprised of two
frequencies: 350Hz and 440Hz.
 They are linearly combined and
transmitted simultaneously from the
central office switching machine to the
subscriber in response to the subscriber
going off hook.
 Informs subscribers that they have
acquired access to the electronic
switching machine and can now dial or
use Touch-Tone in a destination telephone
Dual-Tone Multifrequency
 Originally called Touch-Tone.
 It is a more efficient means than dial-
pulsing for transferring telephone
numbers from a subscriber’s location to
the central office switching machine.
 A simple two-of-eight encoding scheme
where each digit is represented by the
linear addition of two frequencies.
Dual-Tone Multifrequency
Dual-Tone Multifrequency
 When a digit (or letter) is selected, two
of the eight frequencies (or seven for
most home telephones) are transmitted
(one from the low group and one from
the high group).
 The eight frequencies were purposely
chosen so that there is absolutely no
harmonic relationship between any of
them, thus eliminating the possibility of
one frequency producing a harmonic that
might be misinterpreted as another
Dual-Tone Multifrequency
 Its major advantage over dial-pulsing is
speed and control.
 All digits take the same length of time to
produce and transmit.
 It eliminates the impulse noise produced
from the mechanical switches necessary
to produce dial pulses.
Dual-Tone Multifrequency
Multifrequency Tones
 Similar to DTMF signals in that they
involve the simultaneous transmission of
two tones.
 MF Tones are used to transfer digits and
control signals between telephone sets and
local switching machines, whereas DTMF
signals are used to transfer digits and
control between telephone sets and local
switching machines.
Multifrequency Tones
 These codes are used to send
information between the control
equipment that sets up connections
through a switch when more than one
switch is involved in completing a call.
 They are also used to transmit the calling
and called numbers from the originating
telephone office to the destination
telephone office. The calling number is
sent first, followed by the called number.
Multifrequency Tones
Multifrequency Tones
 Key Pulse – is used to indicate the
beginning of a sequence of MF digits.

 Start Signal – multifrequency control tone

used to indicate the end of a sequence.
Dial Pulsing
 Or Rotary Dial Pulsing.
 Method originally used to transfer digits from a
telephone set to the local switch.
 The process begins when the telephone set is
lifted off hook, completing a path for current
through the local loop.
 When the switching machine detects the off-
hook condition, it responds with dial tone.
 After hearing the dial tone, the subscriber begins
dial pulsing digits by rotating a mechanical dialing
mechanism and then letting it return to its rest
 As the rotary switch returns to its rest position,
it outputs a series of dial pulses corresponding to
the digit dialed.
Dial Pulsing
 When a digit is dialed, the loop circuit
alternately opens (breaks) and closes
(makes) a prescribed number of times.
 Dial pulses occur at 10 make/break cycles
per second.
 The switching machine senses and counts
the number of make/break pairs in the
Dial Pulsing
 The break time is nominally 61ms, and the
make time is nominally 39ms.
 Digits are separated by an idle period of
300ms called the interdigit time.
Station Busy
 Signal sent from the switching machine
back to the calling station whenever the
called telephone number is off hook (i.e.
the station is in use)
 480Hz and 620Hz
 On for 0.5 seconds, off for 0.5 seconds
Equipment Busy
 Also called a congestion tone or a no-
circuits-available tone.
 Sent from the switching machine to the
calling station whenever the system
cannot complete the call because of
equipment unavailability (i.e., all the circuits,
switches, or switching paths are already in
use). This condition is called blocking.
Equipment Busy
 Blocking occurs whenever the system is
overloaded and more calls are being
placed that can be completed.
 480Hz and 620Hz
 On for 0.2 seconds and off for 0.3
 Because an equipment busy signal repeats
at twice the rate as a station busy signal,
an equipment busy is sometimes called
fast busy, and a station busy is sometimes
called a slow busy.
 Signal sent from a central office to a
subscriber whenever there is an incoming
 Its purpose is to ring the bell in the
telephone set to alert the subscriber that
there is an incoming call.
 20Hz, 90Vrms ringing signal.
 On for 2 seconds, off for 4 seconds.
 Signal sent back to the calling party at the
same time, the ringing signal is sent to the
called party.
 The purpose of the ring-back signal is to
give some assurance to the calling party
that the destination telephone number
has been accepted, processed and is being
 440Hz and 480Hz
 On for 2 seconds, off for 4 seconds
Receiver On/Off Hook
 On Hook – idle/open state. Not in use.
 When the telephone is on hook, the local
loop is open and there is no current
 On-Hook signal is also used to terminate
a call and initiate a disconnect.
Receiver On/Off Hook
 When the telephone set is taken off hook, a
switch closes in the telephone that
completes a dc path between the two wires
of the local loop.
 DC current is nominally between 20mA and
 The switching machine will respond to the
off-hook condition by placing an audible dial
tone on the loop.
 The off-hook signal is also used at the
destination end as an answer signal to
indicate that the called party has answered
the telephone.