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LOCATING PLACES ON

EARTH

SCIENCE VII
Concept of Geographic
Coordinate Systems
Objectives
- Understand the concept
of coordination system
- Familiarize oneself to the
terms relevant to
geographical location
Y

(+X,+Y)
(-X,+Y)

X
(+X,-Y)
(-X,-Y)
Y

X - Equator.
Y - Prime Meridian
Lat/Long are the coordinate of point on earth.
(N, W) N (N, E)

W E

(S, W) (S, E)
S
Latitude and Longitude
Latitude - distance
from the equator
along the Y axis

Longitude - distance
from the prime
meridian along the X
axis.

.
Positioning on the Earth’s Surface
East is the direction of Latitude: (90oN to 90oS)
rotation of the Earth North Pole
Prime Meridian Longitude: (180oE to 180oW)

0o Longitude

Tropic of Cancer Latitude 23½o North


21st June Geographical coordination
90
60ooW
30
30 Eo system
60
90 9066½ o
o
22nd Sept 23½
Equator Latitude 0o
20th March 900 23½o

22nd December
Tropic of Capricorn Latitude 23½o South

Longitude 90o West


Longitude 90oEast
Longitude 60o West Longitude 60o East

Longitude 30o West Longitude 30o East


South Pole
Latitude and Longitude together enable the fixing of position on the Earth’s surface.
Projection for accurate mapping

• Earth is neither a perfect sphere nor a spheroid


• Local irregularities
• Earth surveyed many times to determine semi-
minor and semi-major axis
• Semi-minor and semi-major axis that fits well one
region may not fit well another region
SEATWORK TIME!
Identify the quadrant of the
following coordinates.

43 °N, 21°E


78°S, 111°W
4°S, 23°E
15°N, 29°E
Thank you for
participating!