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VYGOTSKY’S

SOCIO-CULTURAL
THEORY
LEV VYGOTSKY
●He was born in Russia in 1896.
●He wrote on language, thought
psychology of art, learning and
development, and educating
students with special needs.
●His ideas about language, culture
and cognitive development have
become major influences in
psychology and education today.
●The key theme of Vygotsky’s theory is that the social
interaction plays a very important role in cognitive
development.
●He believed that individual development could not be
understood without looking into the social and cultural
context within which development happens.
Social interaction
 Vgotsky state that effective learning happens

through participation in social activities, making


the social context of learning crucial.
 Parents and teacher tend to explain, model

assist, give direction and provide feedback to the


learner. And peers tend to cooperate and
collaborate and enrich the learning experiences.
Cultural Factors
 Vygotsky believed the in the crucial role
that culture played on the cognitive
develpoment of children .
 Vygotsky looked into wide range of
experiences that a culture would give to a
child
Language
 Opens the door for learners to acquire

knowledge that the others already have. It


serves a social function but it also has an
important individual function. It also helps the
learner to regulate and reflect on his own
thinking.
Ex. Observe the preschooler play and you
hear, “Gagawin ko itong airplane (holding a
rectangular block), tapos ito ang airport
(holding two long blocks).”
For Vygotsky, this talking to oneself is an
indication of the thinking that goes on in the
mind of the child. And that’s lead to private
speech.
Private speech
 is a form of self-talk that
guides the child’s
thinking and action.
 Children learn better
through hands-on
activities than passive
learning. Learning by
doing is even made
more fruitful when
children interact with
knowledgeable adults
and peers.
Zone of actual development
 when a child attempts to perform a skills
alone and she/he may not be
immediately proficient at it.
Zone of proximal development
 the difference between what the child
can accomplish alone and what he/she
can accomplish with the guidance of
another.
L

POTENTIAL LEVEL (Level that the learner achieves


with the assistance of the teacher or a more advanced
peer)

L
E
ACTUAL LEVEL (Level that the learner achieves A
when alone R
N
I
N
G
INSTRUCTIN ZONE OF
with PROXIMAL
scaffolding DEVELOPMENT
(ZPD)
 Scaffolding – the support or
assistance that lets the child
accomplish a task she/he cannot
accomplish independently. Scaffolding
is not about doing the task for the child
while she/he watches
Scaffold and fade-away techniques
 learner become more proficient, able to
complete task on their own that they
could initially do without the assistance,
the guidance can be withdrawn.
That’s all 