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Self – Awareness

 “Self-Awareness is being conscious of what you’re good at while

acknowledging what you still have yet to learn” (Musselwhite (2007)
Having “conscious knowledge about oneself, about one’s beliefs,
assumptions, organizing principles, and structure of feelings and their
consequences on one’s day to day lived experience” (Eriksen, 2009)
Serve as frameworks that guide you on how
you interpret your experiences so that you can
decide on appropriate actions to take.
They guide your decision making and actions
Becoming an authentic person requires that
your actions should be consistent with your

“ We are not always what we think we are”

• Activity 1: Becoming a Better Me On the succeeding pages, you will be asked to answer
questions related to one’s self. Write what comes to your mind without giving so much
thought about it. Write your responses on the spaces provided for.
A. This is Me (Self-Reflection)
1. What qualities (positive) best describe you as a person?
a. _________________________________
b. _________________________________
c. _________________________________
d. _________________________________
e. _________________________________
2. What qualities (negative) best describe you as a person?
a. _________________________________
b. __________________________________
d. __________________________________
e. __________________________________
3. What qualities best describe you as a teacher?
a. _________________________________
b. _________________________________
c. _________________________________
d. _________________________________
e. _________________________________
4. From the above, which qualities form part of your strengths?
a. ____________________________ _______________________
b. ____________________________ _______________________
c. ____________________________ _______________________
d. ____________________________ ________________________
Your qualities underlie the values that you hold dear.

1. What do these values mean to you and your day-to-day life?

2. How do you demonstrate these values with your actions? In other words,
are they consistent or inconsistent with your actions? Cite a situation.

3. How do you integrate these values in your teaching?

• B. My Emotional Maturity
1. Encircle at least 10 feelings from the inventory below that you experience
most of the time while in school.

Inventory of feelings from Facebook

happy annoyed awesome thankful tired
frustrated blessed energized blissful relieved
Great irritated confused accomplished optimistic
inspired stressed stressed disgusted confident
worried fed up satisfied sarcastic content
pained lazy exhausted refreshed bored
2. What situations usually trigger negative or
uncomfortable emotions in you?
3. If a student anonymously posted on facebook
something derogatory about you, how would you
react or what would you do?
4. How do you feel if a student does not meet a
5. What do you do when others stress you?
C. Building Self-Awareness
1. Put the time in
- Self-awareness is not learned in a book, but achieved through self-
reflection. Use what you have learned about yourself to inform decisions,
behaviors, and interactions with other people.
2. Predict how you will feel and respond before a situation and reflect on your
actual feelings and response after the situation.
3. Focus on your choices - What can you learn from your past triumphs and
mistakes? Why did you make a particular decision? How did this choice make
you feel?
4. Ask for feedback – Self-awareness is as much about acknowledging what
you still need to learn as it is about identifying your strengths. Asking for
feedback on your performance, behavior, interactions, can serve to improve
your future actions and responses. Feedback can also identify aspects of your
behavior you aren’t seeing clearly (your blind spots).
• 5. Record (keep a journal) – Allows you to reflect on daily thoughts,
feelings, perceptions, choices, behaviors, and interactions with others.
Be honest with yourself. Reflecting on your experiences allows you to
learn something that can guide your personal development so think
about it and write it down.
• 6. Label your emotions – Feelings can be expressed using one word,
but are often held back. Use the below Inventory of feelings to
practice labeling what you experience in different situations
throughout your day. Your feelings provide insight into your thoughts
and actions, as well as allow us to better relate with others. You may
also recognize trends in how you are feeling which can teach you
something about yourself.
• 7. Talk with a success coach. Share your discoveries about yourself
with a coach or peer that you trust to get the most of the experience.
D. Me and Others
1. What group of people do you like to hang out with?
2. Who are your role models? Give at least 3. What makes you look up to and
admire these people?
3. How does your personality change as you associate with different groups of
people? Why do you think it changes?
4. What kind of school head brings out the best in you?
5. How do you involve parents in the learning process?
6. What kind of people do you find it difficult to work with? Cite your reason
7. What do I value most in a pupil/student?
8. As a teacher, in what area/s do I feel I need improvement?
E. The Leader In Me
Instructions: This questionnaire describes your leadership style. Twenty‐one descriptive
statements are listed below. Judge how frequently each statement fits you. The word
others may mean your followers, clients, or group members.
KEY 0 ‐ Not at all 1 ‐ Once in a while 2 = Sometimes 3 = Fairly often 4 = Frequently, if not
1. I make others feel good to be around me ……………………….. 01234
2. I express with a few simple words what we could and should do ........ 01234
3. I enable others to think about old problems in new ways.................... 01234
4. I help others develop themselves......................................................... 01234
5. I tell others what to do if they want to be rewarded for their work....... 01234
6. I am satisfied when others meet agreed‐upon standards..................... 01234
7. I am content to let others continue working in the same ways always. 0 1 2 3 4
8. Others have complete faith in me ....................................................... 01234
9. I provide appealing images about what we can do............................... 0 1 2 3 4
10. I provide others with new ways of looking at puzzling things. ............. 01234
11. I let others know how I think they are doing. ...................................... 0 1 2 3 4
12. I provide recognition/rewards when others reach their goals .............. 0 1 2 3 4
13. As long as things are working, I do not try to change anything. .......... 0 1 2 3 4
14. Whatever others want to do is OK with me ......................................... 0 1 2 3 4
15. Others are proud to be associated with me......................................... 0 1 2 3 4
16. I help others find meaning in their work............................................. 0 1 2 3 4
17. I get others to rethink ideas that they had never questioned before .... 0 1 2 3 4
18. I give personal attention to others who seem rejected ......................... 0 1 2 3 4
19. I call attention to what others can get for what they accomplish......... 0 1 2 3 4
20. I tell others the standards they have to know to carry out their work.. 0 1 2 3 4
21. I ask no more of others than what is absolutely essential ................... 0 1 2 3 4
• Scoring
The MLQ‐6S measures your leadership on seven factors related to
transformational leadership. Your score for each factor is determined by
summing three specified items on the questionnaire. For example, to
determine your score for factor 1, Idealized influence, sum your responses for
items 1, 8, and 15. Complete this procedure for all seven factors.
Idealized influence (items 1, 8, and 15) __________ Factor 1
Inspirational motivation (items 2, 9, and 16) __________ Factor 2
Intellectual stimulation (items 3, 10, and 17) __________ Factor 3
Individual consideration (items 4, 11, and 18) __________ Factor 4
Contingent reward (items 5, 12, and 19) __________ Factor 5
Management‐by‐exception (items 6, 13, and 20) __________ Factor 6
Laissez‐faire leadership (items 7, 14, and 21) __________ Factor 7
• Score range: HIGH = 9-12, MODERATE = 5-8, LOW = 0-4
Scoring Interpretation
Factor 1 – Idealized influence indicates whether you hold subordinates’ trust,
maintain their faith and respect, show dedication to them, appeal to their
hopes and dreams, and act as their role model.
Factor 2 – Inspirational motivation measures the degree to which you provide
a vision, use appropriate symbols and images to help others focus on their
work, and try to make others feel their work is significant.
Factor 3 – Intellectual stimulation shows the degree to which you encourage
others to be creative in looking at old problems in new ways, create an
environment that is tolerant of seemingly extreme positions, and nurture
people to question their own values and beliefs of those of the organization.
Factor 4 – Individualized consideration indicates the degree to which you
show interest in others’ well‐being, assign projects individually, and pay
attention to those who seem less involved in the group.
Factor 5 – Contingent reward shows the degree to which you tell others what
to do in order to be rewarded, emphasize what you expect from them, and
recognize their accomplishments.
Factor 6 – Management‐by‐exception assesses whether you tell others the job
requirements, are content with standard performance, and are a believer in
“if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.”
Factor 7 – Laissez‐faire measures whether you require little of others, are
content to let things ride, and let others do their own thing.
F. Developing Self-Mastery
Self-mastery is a broad term that covers many aspects of your personal and
professional life. Developing self-mastery can mean working on many of these areas.
(if so, it may be best to focus on one or two areas at a time, so you don’t become
overwhelmed.) Look at the following areas of your life to develop self-mastery:
1. Goals Start with a vision of how you want your life to be.
2. Attitudes and Emotions Your attitude and emotions play a major role in self-
mastery. Those who show strong self-master don’t let their emotions control them—
they control their own emotions. Focus on something positive every day. Be
grateful for things, even if these are just things like the weather is beautiful. Having
gratitude and a positive outlook will set the tone or the rest of your day. Resist the
temptation to blame yourself when things go wrong. Self-sabotage is a quick and
cruel way of stopping yourself from reaching your true potential. If you find that
you are undermining yourself, consciously make yourself stop. Instead, think of
something positive an encouraging.
3. Willpower Think about how many times you have set a goal and, for one
reason or another, never followed it through because of lack of willpower To
boost your willpower, make sure you have both rational and emotional
motives for what you want to achieve.
4. Focus Improving focus is also a key to self-mastery. For instance, how much
time do you waste during our day? What could you accomplish if you fully use
the hours available to you? Start by focusing on one task at a time, and slowly
increase your level of focus. At first you may find that you cannot concentrate
on a task for more than one hour at a time, before you get tired and
distracted. Try to increase this to two hours by adding 15 minutes of focused
work every day. This will allow you to strengthen your focus to two-hour
stretches – and then even more, if that’s what you need to get things done.
G. My Personal Professional Improvement Plan
In this activity, you will plot your plans to continually improve your competence
and career as a teacher and a teacher-leader. Fill up the template following
the terms of reference provided. Professional Goals – refer to short or long term
goals you set to improve your professional competence. Time Frame – reflects
the target date/s you intend to accomplish your stated goal. Strengths – refer
to positive qualities that you possess that are needed to accomplish the goal.
Weakness – refer to your qualities that may hinder the achievement of that
goal. Remarks – are the reason/s that contribute to or hinder the achievement
of the desired goal
Achieved ? ((please check)
• Cite significant experience with either your school head, learners, colleagues,
parents, community, that reflects your values. Use the STAR format. (Cite reference)
• S- stands for Situation
• T – stands for Task
• A – stands for action
• R – stands for result/s

• Indicate the person/s involved in each milestone. How did you express your
gratitude to them?
• What benefit/s you have gained with each milestone?
E. Key Concepts
1. Self-assessment and evaluation will help you to make your own personal and
performance improvement plan. The more you improve, the more your students
will benefit. Although it is extremely difficult to critique one’s own strengths and
weaknesses, it is hugely important.
2. The TSNA is essential in the provision of quality professional development programs
that are aligned to the needs of the programs’ clientele. The TNSA determines the
differences between the actual situation (what is) and the desired condition (what
should be) in terms of teacher’s competencies within the department. It also
described the current competencies as perceived by the teacher.
3. An IPPD is a tool that serves as guide for the teacher’s purposive learning and
development as a professional. The IPPD is structured such that every teacher
regularly and individually prepares, implements, monitors, and updates the plan. It is
based on the individual teacher’s identified professional development needs as
revealed by the NCBTS-TSNA and is consistent with the priority development goals of
the school, division and region.
4. The IPPD is accomplished by the teachers to enable them chart their goals and
planned learning activities to enhance their professional competencies in order for
them to work better for the improvement of their school and learners’ performance.
Developing a structured IPPD allows them to practice individual accountability for
professional growth and shared responsibility for the entire organization’s
In your journal, write concrete ways that would help you become a better
Add your points using this system:
Always = 2 points Sometimes = 1 point Never = 0 points
0-10Points: Indicates a need to take control of your finances.
11-15 Points: Reflects a good effort to manage your money
16-20 Points: Demonstrates ability to manage your finances
successfully. Can you write down your realization?
Key Concepts
1. How can you live within your income and keep away from chronic debts?
Based on the result of your assessment, you can now reflect on your
financial situation. As a teacher, be aware that banks and other loan
institutions would love to offer you loans. Not only that. There will also be
individuals who would sell you products through cash or credit. They all sound
tempting. Be careful. So, before they will get you, navigate your ways into this
lesson to learn more about how to become financially literate. First stop. Let’s
get to know the principles.
2. What is personal financial literacy?
It refers to your efficiency in managing personal finances through
making appropriate decisions on spending, budgeting, saving, investing, and
3. Why is it important to be financially literate?
The kind of life you live depends on the way you handle your finances.
This means that with financial literacy you will be able to live within your
budget to avoid chronic debts and other financial issues. Aside from that, you
can effectively handle your income, expenses, and debts.
4. How do you make sense of your money?
As a teacher, you are excited to receive your salary because you
would like to share your blessing and reward yourself. Sometimes you don’t
keep track of your spending thus you end up short of budget and eventually
resort to loans.
According to the Institute for Financial Literacy in its e-book on Making
Sense of Your Money, there are things that you need to consider and do to
make sense of your financial resources.
A. Set financial goals
Financial goals have to be set first to identify your financial direction. Goals
can be short-term or long-term depending on you.
Goals have to be SMART. o Specific – your goals should state clearly what
will you do and how you will do it. Otherwise you won't be able to focus your
efforts or feel truly motivated to achieve it.
Example: Monthly pay off of my motorcycle loan by allocating
P2,000.00 from my monthly salary.
Measurable – these have to be measurable for easy progress monitoring or for
taking action if you are not on the right track. Example: Completely pay off
motorcycle loan in 2 years.
Attainable and realistic – your goals must also be based on your current
financial status. Goals should require you discipline for you to stick to the plan.
Time-bound – goals require timeframe. This will set also your direction and
keep you away from procrastination and from the pitfall of debts. If it is about
paying off loans or anything borrowed, especially with interest, you must set
the target before or on the due date to avoid additional interest.
Example of a goal statement:
Completely pay off my motorcycle loan in 2 years by setting aside P2,000.00
of my monthly salary to pay its monthly amortization. Let us see if you can
make now your SMART goal.

(Please write it inside the box. )

B. Be motivated by the compounded interest.
It refers to an interest gaining interest. Meaning, your earned interest value
will increase in monthly or annual basis depending on the institution where you
save your money.
It is your friend if it is a saving or investment interest, but, it is your greatest
enemy if it is a debt interest.
You can practice solving for your compounded interest. If you saved
P12,000.00 (that is 1,000.00 a month taken from your salary) for your first year of
service, look how far your money would go for 5 years with 4% interest per
annum. Compute the interest. The first item is done for you.
• Here is a suggested formula to ensure that you will really be able to save
and gain compounded interest.

C. Track your Cash flow

This first essential step in achieving your financial goal is understanding one’s
own financial cash flow. Write down in the table below your income and
D. Develop a spending plan.
Taking control of your financial situation can be done through setting up a spending
or budget plan. Do it today before money will take control of you.
You may consider using this budget/spending plan template.
You may take note of these signs of overspending.
Use of savings to pay bills
Delayed payment of bills
Decrease of monthly savings with the same income
Increase of expenses with the same income
More monthly loan payment against monthly income
E. Choose easy ways of budgeting
There are ways to make your budgeting easier.
o Envelope system – use an envelope in separating your budget for different
expenses o Written record system – use the template suggested above or a
simple list of budget for tracking down the different expenses
o Electronic system – similar to the written record system but can only done
using your mobile phone application or computer.
o Three bank account system – open three bank accounts for different
Normal savings account for day to day banking transaction where you may
get your daily expenses.
Emergency savings account for emergency purposes which mean you only
have to withdraw when it is an absolute necessity.
Long term savings account for retirement or for your children’s education. F.
Stretch your money
Be a wise consumer. Buying “sale” items does not mean you are wise but
only when you bought it because it’s necessary. Necessary means you can’t
survive without it or you don’t have any alternatives available.
Be thrifty. Being thrifty is different from being miser. It comes with being a
wise consumer.
G. Focus on needs not want
There is a need to differentiate needs from wants. It is only then that you can
prioritize and decide whether you will buy or not.
There are suggested questions to help you decide when to spend on anything. o
Why should I spend on this item?
o What difference does it make if I have it or not?
o Is there any cheaper alternative?
Now, let’s have a break from here. Then, please proceed to Activity 2. Practice what
you learn here. After you finish doing the activity, please continue. (Proceed to
Activity 2)
5. Why do you get into debts?
Chinkee Tan, in his book ‘Till Debt Do Us Part, identified four roots of debts.
a. Greed – the desire to have everything you want whatever it takes.
b. Ignorance – practices on spending your finances and on getting credit from an
institution without checking on its terms and conditions.
c. Impulsiveness – buying things even if you don’t actually need them. You tend to
be lured by the “sales” on department stores thinking that you saved but you
actually didn’t because it’s not a necessity. Your money, then, was put to waste.
This also speaks about being impatient on getting something. For example, you like
to have a new cellphone, but instead of saving for 6 months to buy a new
one, you borrow money from someone or from the bank just to have it right
there and then. d. Self-indulgence – living on the idea of gratifying yourself
without thinking that what you did put out money on unnecessary expenses. It
is good to gratify yourself but you need to look at your budget if it would still
Aside from these roots of debt, Mr. Tan also introduced the two sources of
a. We spend our tomorrow’s income today. For this reason, we tend to rely on
credit to pay for our current bills.
b. b. We are not willing to change our lifestyle. This means that our lifestyle
may not fit to our income anymore. If we don’t change, again, we
succumb to debt to pay for the lifestyle that we enjoyed living.

What are the bad money habits that you need to avoid or break?
According to the article written by Alexa Mason, there are 10 bad money
habits that need to be avoided.
a. Spending more than you earn This is considered as a cardinal sin in
personal finance. This will lead you into debt troubles. For example, if you
spend more than what you earn, you will rely on credit to pay the excess of
your expenses. Thus, this will make you trapped by debts.
b. Relying on credit to pay your bills Why pay bills for electricity, water or
other basic needs, through credit if you have the income? In your mind,
you might be framing answers to this question. It can happen because
your income is not sufficient. But if you live within the limit of your income,
you will not encounter this problem. There are times when you need to pay
mortgages or education expenses, through credit. If you do, you need to
put extra care and planning to meet your basic needs without resorting to
c. Taking out payday loan There might be cases that you need to succumb
to payday loan because you don’t have savings for emergency.
Remember, loans have interest and worst is if it is compounded, meaning,
interest gaining interest.
d. Preparing for an emergency There are things that might happen that you
don’t expect or you don’t even like to happen. These are called emergencies.
How prepared are you for such? Saving is the key.
e. Paying your bills late Paying our bills late incur additional interest which
means additional expenses.
f. Failing to save for the future You don’t know what the future holds. You don’t
know what comes during your retirement age. It is good to live life everyday
but still save for the future.
g. Not taking control of your career You have a good career in DepEd but if
you miss to take control of it by not taking control of your finances, this good
career will become your nightmare.
h. Hoarding money and never having fun This is what stingy people do. They
miss the fun of life because they are afraid to spend. Lighten up. Have fun. But
spend prudently.
7. What can you do to achieve financial success? According to George S.
Clason, author of the book “The Richest Man in Babylon”, there are seven
cures for a lean purse.
a. Start thy purse to fattening Allocate 10% of your income for yourself,
meaning save that 10% for yourself. This is a way of gratifying yourself for all
the job that you do.
b. Control thy expenditures Do not spend beyond the remainder of your
income. Budgeting here is necessary.
c. Make thy gold multiply o Make investments. There are a lot of ways to
invest your money. You can invest through:
o Bank o Traditional business
o Stock market
d. Guard thy treasures from loss Invest only where your money is safe. If you
invest into business, make sure you know the system and nature of the
e. Make thy dwelling a profitable investment Invest on a house that you will
own. Renting is not a good practice because it would cost you more.
f. Insure a future income Plan for your retirement years. Grab or make
opportunities to increase your income today because you do not know what
tomorrow holds because as you age your energy lessens. g. Increase thy
ability to earn It is a fact that we are all facing financial concerns every day
and to be able to deal with them all it is necessary to look for other sources of
income. Study and become wiser and skillful.

F. Activities and Assessment

Assessment 1. Case Analysis: How Do I Budget?

The case study that you are about to read is adopted from
Next Gen Personal Finance (NGPF).
1. Why do you think the so called “Sangla ng ATM” is happening to teachers and
personnel of the department?
2. How can the teachers get out of that situation? 3. What recommendations can
you give them?
A ‘yes’ to any of these questions is a sign that you may need to make debt payoff a priority.
Write your reflection here.
Pre-Test A.
Direction: Here are some health practices and behavior which will allow you
to rate your opinion. Please highlight your option by rating your responses using
the following: Strongly Disagree (SA), Disagree (D), Agree (A), and Strongly
Agree (SA).
1. Diet is a temporary thing. I’ll do it next week after heavy work in school.
2. It is ok that I sleep at 12 midnight and will wake up at 3: 00 AM to finish my
3. Time is gold. I do recreation if I have the time.
4. There are lots of paper works. Teaching is stressful.
5. I follow the “more fruits less fatty foods” rule
6. I drink coffee a lot, it makes me alive and energetic
7. Cleaning my workplace is not a priority to me
8. I believe and practice the saying “Do not do for tomorrow what you can do
for today
9. I do stretching every two hours while working with my laptop
10. I need my boss or someone, to inspire me to accomplish my work on time.
Key to Interpretation of answers:
For questions 1 – 2,3,4, & 6: Those who answered: SD will get 4
points, D will get 3 points, A will get 2 points, and SA will get 1

For questions 5,7,8, 9, & 10 Those who answered: SA will get 4

points, A will get 3 points, D will get 2 points, and SD will get 1

Get the average of scores. Then you will be given the

interpretation of 4 - You can be a health advocate 3 – You
have a good knowledge about health habits 2 - You have a
fair knowledge about health habits 1 - You need to improve
your health habits
E. Activities and Assessment
Activity 1.
On Facing Life’s Challenges Here are situations/ thoughts for you to ponder.
Tell us what you think and how will you react to the following situations. Your
responses might give you a glimpse of what you do when confronted with
similar or related situations in the future.
On positivity vs reality
Make your first thought of the day: “Great things will happen today.”
You woke up early with a smile, thinking for a happy day. Yet while
contemplating on it you were alerted from a call coming from the school
security guard telling you that the faucet in your room is still running, for it was
not turned off yesterday. They cannot open the door for you did not leave the
key in the guard house. Your room is adjacent to the office, who is already in
his/her office.
What would be your initial reaction? _______________________________
What would you do? _______________________________
What insights have you gained? _______________________________
On sleeping well vs preparing well
You came home tired, with a headache. You wanted to have an early night
sleep. Yet you are worried for the coming of the visitors from the division office
to observe classes the following day. Being a newly hired teacher, you are sick
worried for you might be chosen to be observed. That’s why you have to
prepare instructional materials and enhance your daily lesson plan. You know
that you will end up sleeping at 12:00 to 1:00 o’clock in the morning.
What would be your initial reaction? _______________________________
What would you do? _______________________________
What insights have you gained? _______________________________
On breaking the fast vs making it fast!
Skipping Breakfast altogether It is said that breakfast is the most important
meal of the day: You have known it ever since. Yet here you are making it the
second priority of your day. You sleep late, for you spent the night exchanging
texts messages in the messenger with a “special friend”. Naturally you woke up
late. You are in a hurry to go to school knowing that its Monday and you need
to be early for you it’s your turn to lead the morning activity of the flag
ceremony. The food is already set on the table and its aroma is enticing you to
taste it. The time is 6:50 AM. The ceremony starts at 7:00. You still need to walk
10 minutes to school. But you promise your mother that you will no longer skip
Tell us what you think _______________________________
Tell us what you will do _______________________________
Tell us what insight will you learn _______________________________
On medical expenses vs basic household expenses
You feel well, you seldom catch colds or cough. Yet your colleague who
seems as healthy as you always visit her doctor for a general check-up from
time to time.
You on the other hand thinks it’s not your priority for your salary is just enough
for your personal needs and the needs of your parents whom you promise to
help them with the school expenses of your 3 siblings. Just today your
colleague is asking you if you would like to visit a doctor with her for a check-
Tell us what you think _______________________________
Tell us what you will do _______________________________
Tell us what insights You have gained ______________________________
On expressing anger vs handling stress
Team in Crisis
As human beings, we are each subject to a range of emotions from elation to
rage. While anger is a normal human emotion, it is important to express anger
in healthy ways that are appropriate in the workplace setting.
It’s a hectic day for the all of you. Your school is scheduled to be visited by the
regional evaluators on the “Barkada Kontra Druga” Program tomorrow. Your
group is assigned to take charge of the decoration of the hall. While working
one of the members, the niece of the principal adamantly refuses to extend
her time for she has visitors waiting at home. You really need to finish the task
for tomorrow’s activity.
Tell us what you think _______________________________
Tell us what you will do _______________________________
Tell us what insight you have gained _______________________________
Key Concepts and Vocabulary

1. Gender is about recognizing roles between men and women.

The challenge is to strike an appropriate balance of gender roles between
men and women/boys and girls, through education and training, given that
gender, role differences and stereotyping are socially constructed.
Gender equality is a globally recognized development agenda. Addressing
gender issues is a complex process – the issues are often culturally ingrained,
and involve a number of institutions.

2. Difference between SEX and GENDER

Sex is biological, universal, relatively fixed, categorized as male or female, and
attributes are equally valued.
Gender is socially and culturally constructed. It is socio-physiological, culture-
bound, interchangeable/changing, categorized as feminine and masculine,
and attributes are marked by inequality.
3. Gender Roles are developed/Perpetuated by
a. Manipulation
b. Canalization
c. Verbal Appellations
d. Activity Exposures
Gender and development adopts the principle that development is for all – all
humans, men or women have the right to the same opportunities to achieve a full and
satisfying life. It further recognizes that gender biases impede development (capacity
to do and be).
GAD rethinks and restructures practices and structures perpetuating inequalities
(discrimination) of all kinds. Gender issues are deterrents to development.
Gender sensitivity:
Is a frame of mind.
A set of attitude
The way we approach whatever we do in our intimate relationships, in our work, in
our everyday transactions with the outside world
Not a war of the sexes
Not anti-male
Recognition that in practically all cultures women have a lower status than men.
Agents of Gender Socialization
Peer Group

4. What emerged?
• Schools in most cases reinforce the existing gender ideology, stereotypes,
norms, and expectations everywhere
• schools have the potential of playing a transformative role in changing the
prevalent notions and unequal relations, it does not necessarily happen on its
own, and requires specific and targeted interventions in most cases.
5. What is Gender Fair Education (GFE)?
• involves the experiences, perceptions, and perspectives of girls and women
as well as boys and men.
• aims to promote the teaching and learning of gender equity, highlighting
female experiences as products of historical and cultural processes.
6. Gender in Philippine Education Strategic gender issues to be
Boys are underperforming in key education indicators compared to girls
Indigenous people (IP) also fall behind in enrolment data and experience
Higher education degrees manifest marked gender-segregation
Gender biases and stereotypes remain, and are still embedded in the
curricula, instructional methods, materials and learning media
Women and girls continue to be vulnerable to sexual harassment and
violence inside schools because of the lack of safe and gender responsive
teaching-learning environment
7. DepEd’s role in ensuring that gender-based discrimination/violence is
minimized if not totally eradicated in the school system:

a. In RA 9710, the instructional goal is “to ensure the promotion and

protection of the dignity and self-worth of both sexes by integrating and/or
infusing core messages and related values on gender-fair education in the
b. Learners goals are:
“To foster a sense of personal growth and dignity and respect for the abilities
and rights of people of all races, ethnic backgrounds of both sexes; and
To develop awareness of the gender biases and stereotyping that have
been culturally perpetuated in order to be able to rectify these.”
(Note: You can also refer to Magna Carta of Women SEC. 13. Equal Access
and Elimination of Discrimination in Education, Scholarships, and Training.)
8. Develop Skills
• Recognize that gender issues are rooted in cultural attitudes and social
structures that prioritize men’s needs over those of women
• Understand and recognize the link between violence prevention and
increasing gender equity
• Teach young people to engage in respectful and emotionally healthy
Empower young people with useful knowledge, skills and understanding and
promoting positive, non-violent relationships based on equality and respect
Create an atmosphere where violence (such as bullying) and the use of
aggression to resolve conflicts is not tolerated
Case 4: Posters and other classroom materials showed gender bias and sexist messages.
D. Activity: Mirroring (This could be done when you have a School LAC) Note: For Non-Muslim
areas only
1. Find a partner of opposite sex.
2. You should stand face to face.
3. The male partner execute actions while the female imitates or mirror.
4. Exchange roles.
Process Questions:
1. How do you feel while doing the activity?
2. Did you find any difficulty?
3. Did you perfectly mirror the actions of your partner? Why?
4. Are there attributes or characteristics that your partner has which you don’t have? What
are those?
5. What are your insights from the activity?
E. Application Activity

(Note: Let your mentor/coach check your LP. You agree with your
mentor of the schedule of your demonstration. Post conference shall be
done shortly after. The result of observation on your demo may be
brought for discussion during the LAC Session)
Prepare a lesson plan in your subject area integrating the GAD
concepts learned.

Reflection Journal Writing

In what concrete ways does the session help me become a more

agentive teacher in promoting gender-fair classroom setting.