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Presented by:
Bibek Koirala
Sujata Giri
Leased Line

• Also known as point to point.

• Prior to Frame Relay it was


• Fixed bandwidth

• Expensive

• Frame relay is a high performance WAN protocol that operates at physical and
data link layer of the OSI reference model.

• It is a shared connection.

• Works on Packet switching

Packet Switching

• Packet-switched networks enable end stations to dynamically share

the network medium and the available bandwidth.

• Connects one point to many points.

• Multiple access network.

Working of Frame Relay
• Frame Relay switches are used for termination of circuit and to provide
frame relay services.

• DTE: Data Terminal Equipment are those devices that require the services.
eg: router

• DCE: Data Communication Equipment are those which provide the frame
relay services. eg: frame relay switches

• Virtual Circuits: They are the logical path in the network through service
provider. They are also known as permanent virtual connection.

• DLCI: Data Link Connection Identifier is a number which indicates the

destination and find particular virtual circuit.
• Cost Savings: FR offers reduction of physical local loops over private line
network as frame uses a virtual circuit for each new connection
• Higher circuit utilization: FR makes use of physical circuit by statistically
multiplexing multiple PVCs over a single physical circuit
• Higher network availability: FR network employs switches that support
automatic routing of PVC around circuit failure
• Extended Technology Life Duration: FR is backwards compatible with older
technologies like X.25 and forward compatible with newer technologies like
ATM and MPLs
• Protocol Independence: Supports wide variety of application transports
and meets the throughput requirements.
• Performance: FR services offers higher speed with lower delay as
compared to X.25
• 44.736 Mbps data rate is not enough for protocols with higher data

• Allows variable length frames

• Create varying delays for different users

• Not suitable for sending delay sensitive data such as real; time voice
or video or teleconferencing
• LAN interconnection

• Image Transmission

• Virtual Private Network and so on