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A Subramanian/Lecturer/AWTI/ICF
Diversity of welding processes

Solid state welding Fusion welding Soldering and brazing

Resistance welding Soldering

Cold welding Brazing
Friction welding
Electrical energy Chemical energy
Diffusion welding
Flash welding Oxyacetylene welding

Ultrasonic welding Oxyfuel gas welding

Explosion welding
Consumable electrode Non consumable Other processes
Gas metal arc welding Laser beam welding
Gas tungsten arc welding
Shielded metal arc Thermit welding
welding Atomic hydrogen
Electron beam welding
Submerged arc welding
Plasma arc welding
Flux cored arc welding
Electrogas welding
Electroslag welding
What is Stainless Steel?
 Stainless steel (SS) is a generic term for a
family of corrosion resistant alloy steels
containing 10 wt% or more chromium.
(accidentally discovered in 1913 by English
metallurgist Harry Brearly)

 The high corrosion resistance of SS is due to

the naturally occurring chromium oxide film
formed on the surface of the steel.
Though the chromic
oxide layer is
extremely thin, this
invisible, inert film
is tightly adherent
to the metal and
extremely protective
in a wide range of
corrosive media. The
film is rapidly self
repairing on damage
by abrasion, cutting
or machining.
Benefits of Stainless Steel
 Corrosion resistance
Low alloyed grades resist corrosion in
atmospheric conditions; highly alloyed grades
can resist corrosion in most acids, alkaline
solutions, and chloride bearing environments,
even at elevated temperatures and pressures.
 High and low temperature resistance
Some grades resist scaling and maintain high
strength at very high temperatures, while
others show exceptional toughness at
cryogenic temperatures.
Benefits of Stainless Steel
 Ease of fabrication
The majority of stainless steels can
be cut, welded, formed, machined
and fabricated readily.
 Aesthetic appeal
Stainless steel is available in many
surface finishes. It is easily and
simply maintained resulting in a
high quality, pleasing appearance.
Benefits of Stainless Steel
Hygienic properties
The cleanability of stainless steel makes
it the first choice in hospitals, kitchens,
food and pharmaceutical processing
Life cycle characteristics
Stainless steel is a durable, low
maintenance material and is often the
least expensive choice in a life cycle cost
Types of Stainless Steel

Stainless steels can be divided

into five basic categories
 Austenitic
 Ferritic
 Duplex
 Martensitic
 Precipitation Hardening (PH)
Tonnage wise use of SS
 Austenitic and ferritic grades
account for approximately 95% of
stainless steel applications.
 Austenitic grades are the most
commonly used stainless steels
accounting for more than 70% of
production (Type 304 is the most
commonly specified grade).
Austenitic stainless steels

 Austenitic steels have austenite as their

primary phase (face centered cubic
crystal). These are alloys containing
chromium and nickel (sometimes
manganese and nitrogen). When nickel is
added to stainless steel in sufficient
amounts the crystal structure changes to
"austenite“. Austenitic steels are not
hardenable by heat treatment.

302 0.05 17 7 - GPSS. Used for structural

applications such as rail
carriages and wagons

304 0.05 18 8 - GPSS. food processing,

domestic, pharma and
chemical industries

316 0.05 17 11 2 Mo High corrn. & heat

resistance. Thick sections

316L 0.025 17 11 2 Mo No Weld decay

Ferritic stainless steels
 These are plain chromium stainless
steels with varying chromium
content between 12 and 26%, but
with low carbon content.
 409 (12% Cr) – automotive exhaust,
rail coach, farm equipments
 446 (26% Cr) – high temp. resistance,
heat exchangers.
Martensitic stainless steels

 Martensitic stainless steels were the

first stainless steels commercially
developed (as cutlery) and have
relatively high carbon content (0.1 -
1.2%) compared to other stainless
steels. They are plain chromium
steels containing between 12 and
18% chromium.
Heat treatable SS

 420(0.3 C and 12% Cr) – shafts,

 446 (1 C, 17 Cr and 0.2 Mo) – blades

and tools

Could be hardened to 60 Rc
Precipitation Hardening
 Precipitation hardening stainless
steels have been formulated so
that they can be supplied in a
solution treated condition, (in
which they are machineable) and
can be hardened, after
fabrication, in a single low
temperature "ageing" process.
PH Stainless steels
 The semi-austenitic grades are 17-7 PH and
PH 15-7 . They are austenitic in the annealed
state, but martensitic in the hardened
 17-7 PH stainless has excellent high strength
and fatigue properties, and is used in
aerospace components.
 PH 15-7 stainless is used in applications
requiring high strength and hardness, such as
retaining rings, springs and aircraft bulkheads.
Duplex Stainless Steels
 These are stainless steels containing
relatively high chromium (between 18 and
28%) and moderate amounts of nickel
(between 4.5 and 8%). The nickel content is
insufficient to generate a fully austenitic
structure and the resulting combination of
ferritic and austenitic structures is called
duplex. Most duplex steels contain
molybdenum in a range of 2.5 - 4%.
Duplex Stainless Steels
 Basic properties
 high resistance to stress corrosion cracking
 increased resistance to chloride ion attack
 higher tensile and yield strength than
austenitic or ferritic steels
 good weldability and formability
 Common uses
 marine applications, particularly at slightly
elevated temperatures
 desalination plant
 heat exchangers
Duplex Stainless Steels
 2205 - 0.03 C – 22 Cr - 5.5 Ni - 3.0Mo – 0.15N
Superior corrosion resistance to
316L and 317L, combined with high
strength. Excellent stress corrosion
and abrasion resistance. Typically
used in heat exchangers, gas
scrubbers, fans, chemical tanks,
flow lines, marine and refinery
Duplex Stainless Steels

 2520 – 0.02C – 25 Cr – 6Ni – 3.5 Mo – 0.25N – 1.5 Cu

 Extremely high resistance to corrosion in severe

marine, chloride and acid environments. Suitable
for heat exchangers, reactors, pipework etc.
Welding of Stainless steels
 Stainless steels can be welded
using several different procedures
such as
 gas tungsten arc welding
 shielded metal arc welding
 gas metal arc welding and
 flux core arc welding
Welding of Stainless steels

 Stainlesssteels are slightly

more difficult to weld than mild
carbon steels. The physical
properties of stainless steel are
different from mild steel and
this makes it weld differently.
The differences of SS

 Lower melting temperature

 Lower coefficient of thermal
 Higher coefficient of thermal
 Higher electrical resistance
 Higher solidification shrinkage
Recommendations for
Austenitic stainless steels

 The austenitic stainless steels have about

45% higher thermal coefficient of expansion,
higher electrical resistance, and lower
thermal conductivity than mild-carbon
 High travel speed welding is recommended,
which will reduce heat input and carbide
precipitation, and minimize distortion
Lower welding current

 The melting point of austenitic

stainless steels is slightly lower than
melting point of mild-carbon steel.
Because of lower melting
temperature and lower thermal
conductivity, welding current is
usually lower.
How to combat distortion?
 The higher thermal expansion dictates
that special precautions should be taken
with regard to warping and distortion.
 Tack welds should be twice as often as
normal. Any of the distortion reducing
techniques such as back-step welding,
skip welding, and wandering sequence
should be used.
 On thin materials it is very difficult to
completely avoid buckling and distortion.
Ferritic Stainless Steels

 The coefficient of thermal expansion is

lower than the austenitic types and is
about the same as mild steel, hence no
serious distortion problem
 Welding processes that tend to increase
carbon pickup are not recommended. and
hence gas metal arc welding with CO2
shielding gas should not be used.
Ferritic Stainless Steels

 The lower chromium types show

tendencies toward hardening with a
resulting martensitic type structure
at grain boundaries of the weld area.
This lowers the ductility, toughness,
and corrosion resistance at the weld.
For heavier sections preheat of
200°C is beneficial.
Ferritic Stainless Steels
 To restore full corrosion resistance and
improve ductility after welding, annealing
at 760-820°C, followed by a water or air
quench, is recommended.
 Large grain size will still prevail and
toughness may be impaired. Toughness
can be improved only by cold working the
Ferritic Stainless Steels

 Ifheat treating after welding is not

possible and service demands
impact resistance, an austenitic
stainless steel filler metal should be
 Otherwise, the filler metal is selected
to match the base metal.
Martensitic Stainless Steels
 The low-carbon type can be welded
without special precautions. The types
with over 0.15% carbon tend to be air
hardenable and, therefore, preheat and
postheat of weldments are required.
 A preheat temperature range of 230-
290°C is recommended.
 Postheating should immediately follow
welding and be in the range of 650-
760°C, followed by slow cooling.
Martensitic Stainless Steels

 If preheat and postheat are not possible,

an austenitic stainless steel filler metal
should be used.
 Type 416Se is the free-machining
composition and should not be welded.
 Welding processes that tend to increase
carbon pickup are not recommended.
Increased carbon content increases crack
sensitivity in the weld area.
Welding Procedures

 Gas tungsten arc welding process is widely

used for thinner sections of stainless steel.
The thoriated tungsten electrode is
recommended and the electrode should be
ground to a taper.
 Argon is normally used for gas shielding;
however, argon-helium mixtures are
sometimes used for automatic applications.
Shielded metal arc welding

 Two electrodes - lime type indicated

by the suffix 15 and the titanium
type designated by the suffix 16.
 The lime type electrodes are used
only with direct current electrode
positive (reverse polarity). The
titanium-coated electrode with the
suffix 16 can be used with
alternating current and with direct
current electrode positive.
Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW): “Stick
• Older, simple technology
• The electrode is also the filler rod
• Only for steel
• Strong welds if done properly (but often not)
• Very high heat input: good for thick parts, bad for grain
growth and distortion

Shielded metal arc welding
 Both coatings are of the low-hydrogen
type and both are used in all positions.
 However, the type 16 is smoother, has
more welder appeal, and operates better
in the flat position.
 The lime type electrodes are more crack
resistant and are slightly better for out-
of-position welding.
 The width of weaving should be limited
to two-and-one-half (2 – 1.5d) times the
diameter of the electrode core wire
Shielded metal arc welding

 Covered electrodes for shielded metal arc

welding must be stored at normal room
temperatures in dry area. These electrode
coatings, of low hydrogen type, are
susceptible to moisture pickup.
 Once the electrode box has been opened,
the electrodes should be kept in a dry box
until used
Gas metal arc welding
 GMAW process is widely used for
thicker materials since it is a faster
welding process. The spray transfer
mode is used for flat position
welding and this requires the use of
argon for shielding with 2% or 5%
oxygen or special mixtures. The
oxygen helps producing better
wetting action on the edges of the

Equipment required for the GMAW

(Modern Welding (p63))
Gas metal arc welding

 The short-circuiting transfer can

also be used on thinner materials.
In this case, CO2 shielding or the
25% CO2 plus 75% argon mixture is
used. The argon-oxygen mixture
can also be used with small-
diameter electrode wires.
 If corrosion resistance is a major
factor, the CO2 gas or the CO2-argon
mixture should not be used.
General Precautions

 For all welding operations, the weld

area should be cleaned and free from
all foreign material, oil, paint, dirt,
 The welding arc should be as short
as possible when using any of the
arc processes
Metallurgical problems

 Sensitization (weld decay)

 Hot cracking (solidification Cracking)

 Sigma phase formation (embrittlement)

Sensitization (weld decay)

 sensitization process occurring in

a certain temperature interval
from about 600 to 900 oC which
promotes the precipitation
(gathering) of chromium carbides
at grain boundaries and the
parallel loss of anticorrosive
chromium from the base metal..
Sensitization (weld decay)

 600 to 900 oC range of temperature

occurs naturally not at the Welding-stainless
location, where temperature is higher and
lasts only for a short time,
 but in two strips of metal on both sides of
the weld bead. This is the so called Heat
Affected Zone (HAZ) where the harmful
effects take place
 grain boundary carbide precipitation leads to
intergranular corrosion
The three methods

 In order to control the sensitization

of the heat-affected zone, use
(1) 304L or 316L grade, because
lower carbon content decreases the
carbide precipitation.
(2) 347 or 321 stabilized grade,
because stronger carbide-forming
elements (Nb or Ti) prevent the
precipitation of chromium carbides.
The three methods

(3) postweld solution annealing

treatment in the temperature
range of 1000-1150 C, followed by
rapid cooling, which decomposes
the chromium carbides and make
the chromium resistible to
Delong diagram
Hot cracking
 Hot cracking in stainless steel welds is caused by
low-melting eutectics containing impurities such
as S, P and alloy elements such as Ti, Nb.
 Solidification mode is a major determinant of
cracking susceptibility
 Obtaining about 4% of ferrite resists the cracking
 ensuring an FA or F mode ensures the best
resistance to cracking.
Modes of Solidification
Safe mode of solidification
 The WRC-92 diagram has been found useful in
determining safe compositional regimes for
cracking based on the solidification mode
criteria. (safe modes are F and FA with enough
 Cracking is greater in more alloyed stainless
steels than in leaner versions. In the latter the
amount of retained ferrite is lower in the FA/F
solidification modes than in the higher-alloyed
Formation of sigma phase
 A further problem that some stainless steels
have in high temperature applications is the
formation of sigma phase. The formation of
sigma phase in austenitic steels is dependent
on both time and temperature and is different
for each type of steel.
 In general Grade 304 stainless steel is
practically immune to sigma phase formation
 but grades with higher chromium contents
(Grade 310) with molybdenum (Grades 316
and 317) or with higher silicon contents
(Grade 314).
Formation of sigma phase

 310, 314, 316, 317 grades are all prone to

sigma phase formation if exposed for long
periods to a temperature of about 590 to
 Sigma phase embrittlement refers to the
formation of a precipitate in the steel
microstructure over a long period of time
within this particular temperature range.
 The effect of the formation of this phase is to
make the steel extremely brittle and failure
can occur because of brittle fracture.
Formation of sigma phase
 Once the steel has become embrittled with
sigma it is possible to reclaim it by heating
the steel to a temperature above the sigma
formation temperature range, however this is
not always practical.
 Because sigma phase embrittlement is a
serious problem with the high silicon grade
314, this is now unpopular and largely
replaced by high nickel alloys or by stainless
steels resistant to sigma phase embrittlement
Tackling sigma phase

 Avoiding prolonged exposure at

temperature range of 600 to 900 C
 If possible, reheat to 1000 C and cool
 Optimise the amount of ferrite (< 5%)
 Classification
of Stainless steels,
properties and applications

 Welding Procedures, precautions

 Metallurgical problems
Thank you