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« In times of crisis »

Survey results EURISLAM (2011)

Dirk JACOBS
Professor in sociology ULB

The research leading to these results has received under the


European Union's Seventh Framework Programme, Grant
Agreement 215863, EURISLAM project (2009-2012).
Technical fiche (1)
• SURVEY Total Belgium N=1191
• Data-collection in 2011 (TNS Dimarso & GERME-ULB)
• Standardized questionnaire focussing on socio-cultural attitudes
• Computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI)
• Part of six-country study EURISLAM (FP7 EU funded), coordination by
Amsterdam University
• In each country a control sample of the ethnic majority group (target
n=385)
• In each country a targeted sample of people with Muslim background
(Moroccan, Turkish, Pakistani or Ex-Yugoslav origin, target n per group 250
or 150)
• Goal: strike a balance between cost-effectiveness, minimal sample size
requirements and information on all ethnic groups in our six participating
countries
• Transparency: the dataset and codebook can be downloaded from the
DANS archive: dx.doi.org/10.17026/dans-xx7-5x27
Technical fiche (2)
« Muslim » samples constituted through double procedure:

(1) Use of onomastic method (name recognition) of digital phone book


records (both land lines as cellular phones) aimed at identifying people
of Moroccan, Turkish, Pakistani and Ex-Yugoslav origin

(2) Polling agency and research group contacts and screens constituted
samples whether they are of the aforementioned national origins and
were themselves Muslims or of Muslim descent

When needed, use of trained multilingual interviewers (national languages


plus Arabic, Turkish, Urdu, Bosnian & Albanian)
Technical fiche (3)
Table 1: Sample sizes for Muslim groups and ethnic majority non-Muslim
comparison group

BE

National majority 388


Ex-Yugoslavian 152
Turkish 253
Moroccan 254
Pakistani 144

N 1191
Technical fiche (4)
Table 2: Response rates Belgium

BE
National majority
Numbers dialed 1946
Successful interview 19,8%
Refusal 32,2%
Incorrect number / Screened out / No contact 56,2%
Response rate (eligible contacts) 45,1%
Ex-Yugoslavian
Numbers dialed 749
Successful interview 15,6%
Refusal 32,2%
Incorrect number / Screened out / No contact 52,2%
Response rate (eligible contacts) 32,7%
Technical fiche (4)
BE
Turkish
Numbers dialed 1247
Successful interview 20,5%
Table 2: Refusal 35,2%
Response rates
Belgium Incorrect number / Screened out / No contact 44,3%
(continued) Response rate (eligible contacts) 36,8%
Moroccan
Numbers dialed 2247
Successful interview 11,4%
Refusal 29,8%
Incorrect number / Screened out / No contact 58,8%
Response rate (eligible contacts) 27,6%
Pakistani
Numbers dialed 1247
Successful interview 7,3%
Refusal 23,2%
Incorrect number / Screened out / No contact 69,4%
Response rate (eligible contacts) 24%
“In Belgian public debate Islam is talked about
mostly in a too negative way ”

(Eurislam-survey, Belgium, 2011)

Majority Yugoslav Turkish Moroccan Pakistani


group origin origin origin origin

Agree 16,4% 20,8% 20,9% 38,2% 23,5%


strongly

Agree 45,6% 39,6% 52,3% 32,9% 40,2%

Disagree 33,1% 29,2% 20,1% 19,9% 29,5%

Disagree 4,9% 10,4% 6,7% 8,9% 6,8%


strongly

100% 100% 100% 100% 100%


“In Belgian public debate Islam is talked
about mostly in a too negative way”
(EURISLAM Survey, data collection 2011, )
“It makes no difference whether you are a Muslim
or a non-Muslim, in times of crisis everyone should
stick together ”

(Eurislam-survey, Belgium, 2011)

Majority Yugoslav Turkish Moroccan Pakistani


group origin origin origin origin

Agree 47,8% 72,7% 44,4% 76,7% 65,5%


strongly

Agree 44,4% 26% 51,6% 19,4% 29,6%

Disagree 6,8% 0,7% 3,6% 3,6% 2,8%

Disagree 1% 0,7% 0,4% 0,4% 2,1%


strongly

100% 100% 100% 100% 100%


“It makes no difference whether you are a
Muslim or a non-Muslim, in times of crisis
everyone should stick together”
(EURISLAM Survey, data collection 2011, )
“Our society would do better if Muslims and non-
Muslims took more action together”

(Eurislam-survey, Belgium, 2011)

Majority Yugoslav Turkish Moroccan Pakistani


group origin origin origin origin

Agree 36,5% 67,8% 39,8% 68,9% 61,3%


strongly

Agree 52,8% 28,9% 55% 26,8% 35,2%

Disagree 8,8% 2% 4,4% 3,5% 0,7%

Disagree 1,8% 1,3% 0,8% 0,8% 2,8%


strongly

100% 100% 100% 100% 100%


“Our society would do better if Muslims and
non-Muslims took more action together”
(EURISLAM Survey, data collection 2011)
“We can learn a lot from Western culture”

(Eurislam-survey, Belgium, 2011)

Majority ex-Yugoslav Turkish Moroccan Pakistani


group origin origin origin origin
(« we can (« we can (« we can (« we can (« we can
learn a lot learn a lot learn a lot learn a lot learn a lot
from Muslim from Western from from from
culture ») culture ») Western Western Western
culture ») culture ») culture »)

Agree 10,6% 39,2% 8,9% 40,5% 25,2%


strongly
Agree 44,2% 45,3% 46,3% 44% 63,6%
Disagree 33,3% 11,5% 37% 8,7% 9,1%
Disagree 11,9% 4,1% 7,7% 6,7% 2,1%
strongly
100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
“We can learn a lot from Western culture”
(EURISLAM Survey, data collection 2011, Question asked to
majority group “We can learn a lot from Muslim culture”)
“Western countries are trying to destroy Islam”
(question for majority group: “Immigrants are trying to destroy Western culture”)

(Eurislam-survey, Belgium, 2011)

Majority Yugoslav Turkish Moroccan Pakistani


group origin origin origin origin

Agree 10,7% 5,5% 11,7% 13,8% 12,3%


strongly

Agree 27,2% 22,8% 40,4% 21,5% 31,2%

Disagree 45% 33,8% 33,8% 31,7% 40,6%

Disagree 17% 37,9% 14,2% 32,9% 15,9%


strongly

100% 100% 100% 100% 100%


“Western countries are trying to destroy Islam”
(question for majority group: “Immigrants are trying to
destroy Western culture”)
(EURISLAM Survey, data collection 2011 )
“People in the West have no respect of Muslim
values” (question for majority group: “Muslims have no respect of
Western values”)

(Eurislam-survey, Belgium, 2011)

Majority Yugoslav Turkish Moroccan Pakistani


group origin origin origin origin

Agree 11,1% 4,8% 10,7% 17,5% 8%


strongly

Agree 29,6% 24,8% 41,6% 24% 21,7%

Disagree 47,8% 38,6% 36,9% 37% 52,2%

Disagree 11,6% 31,7% 10,7% 21,5% 18,1%


strongly

100% 100% 100% 100% 100%


“People in the West have no respect of Muslim
values” (question for majority group: “Muslims have no respect
of Western values”)

(EURISLAM Survey, data collection 2011)


“The way people live in the West and how Muslims
live don’t go together”

(Eurislam-survey, Belgium, 2011)

Majority Yugoslav Turkish Moroccan Pakistani


group origin origin origin origin

Agree 11,7% 15% 18,8% 11,2% 17%


strongly

Agree 36,3% 30% 42,4% 27,3% 33,3%

Disagree 43,9% 35% 28,6% 36,1% 41,5%

Disagree 8,1% 20% 10,2% 25,3% 8,1%


strongly

100% 100% 100% 100% 100%


“The way people live in the West and how
Muslims live don’t go together”
(EURISLAM Survey, data collection 2011)
Perceived difference between Muslims and non-Muslims on the
role of religion in society: the impact of discursive and political
opportunity structures in Western Europe

Dirk JACOBS
Corinne TORREKENS

The research leading to these results has received under the


European Union's Seventh Framework Programme, Grant
Agreement 215863, EURISLAM project.
How different or similar do you think [most people of Belgian origin / Muslims
living in Belgium] are compared to you in how they think about the role of
religion in society?
How different or similar do you think [most people of English origin / Muslims
living in the UK] are compared to you in how they think about the role of
religion in society?
How different or similar do you think [most people of Dutch origin / Muslims
living in the Netherlands] are compared to you in how they think about the role
of religion in society?
How different or similar do you think [most people of French origin / Muslims
living in France] are compared to you in how they think about the role of
religion in society?
How different or similar do you think [most people of German origin / Muslims
living in Germany] are compared to you in how they think about the role of
religion in society?
How different or similar do you think [most people of Swiss origin / Muslims
living in Switzerland] are compared to you in how they think about the role of
religion in society?
How different or similar do you think Muslims are compared to you in how they
think about the role of religion in society?
How different or similar do you think the majority groups members are
compared to you in how they think about the role of religion in society?
Gap between the proportion of Muslims seeing similarities and the proportion of
the majority group seeing similarities
More results from EURISLAM to be found in special issue « The Socio-Cultural
Integration of Muslims in Western Europe: comparative perspectives », Journal
of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Volume 42, Issue 2, 2016 (availabe since
March 2016)

http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/cjms20/42/2
http://germe.ulb.ac.be
http://eurislam.eu
Islam, médias et bien-être social en Europe
20 septembre 2012, Genève

L’intégration socioculturelle des


musulmans en Europe: identification,
acceptation et distance intergroupe
perçue
Dirk JACOBS
Université Libre de Bruxelles
Gender

Blue = male
Green = female

Overall, equilibrated
samples for
gender

For ex-Yugoslave
and Pakistani
groups more
men
Born in country
Blue = born
outside of
country
Green = born in
country of
residence

Pakistani in UK
more often home
grown
Generation
Blue = born
outside of
country
from parents
who never
lived in
receiving
society
Green = born
outside of
country
from parents
who
migrated to
receiving
society
Yellow = born
in country
Nationality of country of residence
NL DE CH UK BE FR

Ex-Yugoslavian
86,8% 39,1% 41,8% 70,7% 78,4% 77,3%

Turkish
83,2% 33,2% 46,2% 78,8% 88,7% 60,8%

Moroccan
93,2% 75,4% 52,4% 39,9% 82,7% 68,5%

Pakistani
90,1% 69,8% 56,6% 81,2% 76,9% 66,9%

Rate of state citizens lowest in Switzerland


Nationality of country of residence
In paid work
NL DE CH UK BE FR

National majority 55,6% 50,4% 63,7% 64,1% 56,2% 54,3%


Ex-Yugoslavian 49,7% 64,5% 74,3% 42% 62,1% 60,7%
Turkish 60,4% 48,6% 60,9% 39,2% 52% 46,4%
Moroccan 63,2% 63,1% 68,7% 41,9% 58% 47,1%
Pakistani 50,7% 41,1% 63,8% 50,4% 44,9% 50,3%
Employment sector
NL DE CH UK BE FR
National majority
Employee 79,4% 82,7% 89,3% 87,9% 88,5% 88,8%
Own business 15,4% 8,7% 9,4% 6% 6,9% 9,2%
Freelance (interim) 5,1% 6,6% 1,2% 6% 4,6% 1,9%
Ex-Yugoslavian
Employee 90,7% 80% 92,9% 81% 85,3% 85,7%
Own business 6,7% 15,8% 6,5% 12,7% 8,4% 13,2%
Freelance (interim) 2,7% 4,2% 0,5% 6,3% 6,3% 1,1%
Turkish
Employee 74,8% 82,1% 88,9% 71,1% 73,7% 81,9%
Own business 23,8% 13,8% 7,2% 13,4% 16,5% 16,4%
Freelance (interim) 1,3% 3,3% 3,9% 15,5% 9,8% 1,7%
Moroccan
Employee 88,6% 87% 89,1% 88,7% 68,9% 89,3%
Own business 9,5% 6,2% 9,9% 8,1% 11,5% 10,7%
Freelance (interim) 1,9% 6,2% 1% 3,2% 19,6%
Pakistani
Employee 58,4% 70,8% 89,1% 82,5% 50% 79,5%
Own business 40,3% 18,5% 9,3% 8,7% 43,9% 20,5%
Freelance (interim) 1,3% 9,2% 4,1% 8,7% 6,1%
Language competencies

Language compentency (% rarely + never problems with


national language)

NL DE CH UK BE FR
Ex-Yugoslavian
66,9% 75,4% 73,3% 70,7% 64,0% 69,4%
Turkish
60,3% 55,2% 72,1% 76,4% 53,7% 71,6%
Moroccan
73,2% 78,9% 89,8% 77,1% 85,1% 77,5%
Pakistani
74,2% 57,2% 65,1% 93,6% 63,3% 73,7%
Identification
Identification with host society
National identification by Muslims (and a control group of the national majority)
in Europe (% strongly + very strongly)
NL DE CH UK BE FR

National majority
84,2% 78,7% 79,5% 85,6% 77,2% 83,0%
Ex-Yugoslavian
60,5% 47,5% 49,2% 15,5% 56,3% 59,0%
Turkish
50,0% 11,2% 34,7% 17,2% 24,8% 38,5%
Moroccan
66,3% 44,5% 63,1% 33,1% 58,0% 42,7%
Pakistani
68,2% 33,0% 60,5% 22,6% 60,7% 63,2%
- Striking finding: identification low for Turks in Germany
- Caveat in UK the question was « identification with England », which
creates a bias
Identification with host society
National identification by Muslims in Europe (OLS)
Ref: B Std. β t Sig.
France/Majority Error • Men identify more than
(Constant) 4,219 0,088 47,943 0,000 women
United Kingdom -0,473 0,046 -0,154 -10,244 0,000 • Higher educated identify
Belgium -0,140 0,048 -0,042 -2,903 0,004 more than lower
Netherlands 0,142 0,050 0,041 2,866 0,004 educated
Germany -0,387 0,047 -0,122 -8,265 0,000 • People in employment
Switzerland -0,003 0,047 -0,001 -0,054 0,957 have higher
Ex-Yugoslavian -0,877 0,045 -0,267 -19,402 0,000 identification
Turkish -1,311 0,044 -0,450 -29,708 0,000
• Older people identify
Pakistani -0,735 0,050 -0,216 -14,622 0,000
less with host society
Moroccan -0,765 0,047 -0,240 -16,273 0,000
Male 0,031 0,028 0,013 1,072 0,284 • People with strong
Age -0,003 0,001 -0,041 -3,277 0,001 religious identification
Education in years 0,021 0,004 0,064 5,377 0,000 identify less with host
(Self)employed 0,111 0,029 0,046 3,796 0,000 society
Religious
identification -0,026 0,013 -0,027 -1,984 0,047
Religious identification
Religious identification (OLS) • measured with a 5 point scale (« not at
Ref: B Std. β t Sig. all » to « very strongly » identifying with
France/Majority Error one’s religion or philosophy of life)
(Constant) 2,633 0,080 32,913 0,000
• least religious identification in UK and the
United Kingdom -0,211 0,045 -0,066 -4,657 0,000
Netherlands
Belgium 0,002 0,048 0,001 0,039 0,969
Netherlands -0,263 0,049 -0,074 -5,397 0,000 • all Muslim ethnic minority groups have
Germany 0,000 0,046 0,000 0,000 1,000 stronger religious identification than non-
Switzerland -0,022 0,046 -0,007 -0,475 0,635 Muslim majority group
Ex-Yugoslavian 0,702 0,044 0,207 16,130 0,000
Turkish 1,319 0,040 0,437 32,865 0,000 • higher educated, being in a job, being
male leads to less religious identification
Pakistani 1,670 0,045 0,473 37,381 0,000
Moroccan 1,475 0,042 0,447 34,851 0,000
Male -0,187 0,028 -0,075 -6,694 0,000
Age 0,007 0,001 0,084 7,092 0,000
Education in
years -0,017 0,004 -0,051 -4,535 0,000
(Self)employed -0,110 0,029 -0,044 -3,837 0,000
Feelings of acceptance
Feelings of acceptance by Muslims in Europe as fellow citizens (OLS)

B Std. Error β t Sig. • Women feel more


Ref: France/Moroccan accepted than men
• Higher educated and
(Constant) 3,452 0,154 22,442 0,000 people holding a job feel
United Kingdom -0,638 0,072 -0,175 -8,839 0,000 more accepted
Belgium -0,057 0,068 -0,017 -0,832 0,406
Netherlands -0,163 0,069 -0,049 -2,343 0,019 • Older people feel slightly
Germany -0,414 0,065 -0,135 -6,356 0,000 less accepted than
Switzerland 0,034 0,067 0,011 0,516 0,606 younger people
Ex-Yugoslavian 0,113 0,057 0,039 1,969 0,049 • People with strong
Turkish -0,347 0,052 -0,131 -6,629 0,000 religious identification
Pakistani 0,110 0,058 0,036 1,878 0,060 feel less accepted
Male -0,162 0,041 -0,066 -3,977 0,000 • People with bridging
Age -0,007 0,002 -0,074 -4,593 0,000 social capital feel more
Education in years accepted
0,006 0,005 0,020 1,218 0,223
• Those who experienced
(Self)employed 0,156 0,041 0,063 3,795 0,000
hostility by majority
Religious identification
-0,069 0,018 -0,063 -3,774 0,000 group feel less accepted
Bridging social capital
0,062 0,005 0,191 11,336 0,000
Experienced hostilities
-0,283 0,041 -0,110 -6,933 0,000
Acceptance of Muslims as fellow citizens
Acceptance of Muslims as fellow citizens by majority group (OLS)
B Std. β t Sig.
Ref: France • No gender or age
Error
effect
(Constant) 3,439 0,197 17,422 0,000 • Higher educated and
United Kingdom -1,208 0,082 -0,539 -14,762 0,000 those holding a job
Belgium have more
-0,479 0,092 -0,172 -5,220 0,000
acceptance
Netherlands -0,218 0,098 -0,072 -2,233 0,026
• People with bridging
Germany -0,402 0,091 -0,154 -4,433 0,000 social capital are
Switzerland -0,195 0,088 -0,074 -2,208 0,027 more accepting
Male 0,033 0,048 0,017 0,693 0,489 • People having
Age -0,002 0,002 -0,042 -1,502 0,133 experience hostility
Education in years 0,019 0,008 0,060 2,337 0,020 by Muslims are less
(Self)employed accepting
0,076 0,052 0,038 1,468 0,142
Religious • UK citizens least
identification -0,001 0,020 -0,001 -0,053 0,957 accepting, French
Bridging social most accepting
capital 0,058 0,014 0,114 4,279 0,000
Experienced
hostilities -0,188 0,069 -0,067 -2,734 0,006
Attitudes concernant les
contacts intergroupes
How would you feel about having neighbours from the outgroup
BELGIUM Pleasant Unpleasant
Would not make a
difference
National majority 2,6% 7,9% 89,5%
Yugoslavian 10,0% 0% 90,0%
Turkish 22,4% 2,7% 74,9%
Moroccan 17,2% 0% 82,8%
Pakistan 15,0% 1,4% 83,7%
How would you feel about having a boss from the outgroup

Would not make a


Pleasant Unpleasant
difference
National majority 0,8% 18,1% 81,1%
Yugoslavian 7,2% 1,3% 91,4%
Turkish 11,1% 8,7% 80,2%
Moroccan 6,7% 1,6% 91,7%
Pakistan 11,0% 4,1% 84,9%
How would you feel about your family members marrying a member
of the outgroup
Would not make a
Pleasant Unpleasant
difference
National majority 2,1% 23,9% 74,0%
Yugoslavian 4,7% 20,3% 75,0%
Turkish 8,8% 44,4% 46,8%
Moroccan 11,9% 30,0% 58,1%
Pakistan 5,4% 32,7% 61,9%
How would you feel about having neighbours from the outgroup
UK Pleasant Unpleasant
Would not make a
difference
National majority 2,3% 16,6% 81,0%
Yugoslavian 10,0% 0,7% 89,3%
Turkish 43,6% 0,8% 55,6%
Moroccan 48,0% 0% 52,0%
Pakistan 16,0% 0,8% 83,2%
How would you feel about having a boss from the outgroup

Would not make a


Pleasant Unpleasant
difference
National majority 0,5% 12,0% 87,5%
Yugoslavian 8,8% 4,1% 87,2%
Turkish 36,5% 4,4% 59,0%
Moroccan 27,0% 35,1% 37,8%
Pakistan 12,0% 0,8% 87,1%
How would you feel about your family members marrying a member
of the outgroup
Would not make a
Pleasant Unpleasant
difference
National majority 0,5% 25,1% 74,4%
Yugoslavian 20,1% 14,6% 65,3%
Turkish 19,8% 19,4% 60,9%
Moroccan 41,9% 43,2% 14,9%
Pakistan 7,7% 13,8% 78,5%
How would you feel about having neighbours from the
NETHERLANDS outgroup
Would not make a
Pleasant Unpleasant
difference
National majority 1,0% 11,8% 87,2%
Yugoslavian 6,5% 1,4% 92,0%
Turkish 10,8% 0,4% 88,8%
Moroccan 9,2% 0,4% 90,4%
Pakistan 20,4% 1,4% 78,2%
How would you feel about your family members marrying a
member of the outgroup
Would not make a
Pleasant Unpleasant
difference
National majority 1,1% 28,1% 70,8%
Yugoslavian 3,7% 12,5% 83,8%
Turkish 3,6% 22,3% 74,1%
Moroccan 3,3% 23,0% 73,8%
Pakistan 4,0% 28,6% 67,5%
How would you feel about having neighbours from the
FRANCE outgroup
Would not make a
Pleasant Unpleasant
difference
National majority 5,4% 3,8% 90,8%
Yugoslavian 11,0% 0,7% 88,3%
Turkish 15,4% 1,2% 83,4%
Moroccan 11,7% 3,1% 85,2%
Pakistan 23,8% 0,7% 75,5%
How would you feel about your family members marrying a
member of the outgroup
Would not make a
Pleasant Unpleasant
difference
National majority 3,9% 13,7% 82,4%
Yugoslavian 4,9% 18,2% 76,9%
Turkish 10,2% 29,4% 60,4%
Moroccan 8,8% 39,4% 51,8%
Pakistan 11,5% 30,2% 58,3%
How would you feel about having neighbours from the outgroup
GERMANY Would not make a
Pleasant Unpleasant
difference
National majority 5,3% 9,5% 85,3%
Yugoslavian 18,8% 1,2% 80,1%
Turkish 11,1% 1,6% 87,4%
Moroccan 12,1% 0% 87,9%
Pakistan 9,3% 1,9% 88,8%
How would you feel about having a boss from the outgroup

Would not make a


Pleasant Unpleasant
difference
National majority 0,5% 21,4% 78,0%
Yugoslavian 12,6% 4,3% 83,1%
Turkish 4,4% 3,6% 92,1%
Moroccan 9,4% 3,9% 86,6%
Pakistan 3,2% 4,5% 92,3%
How would you feel about your family members marrying a member
of the outgroup
Would not make a
Pleasant Unpleasant
difference
National majority 1,6% 29,3% 69,1%
Yugoslavian 8,0% 22,3% 69,7%
Turkish 5,3% 30,5% 64,2%
Moroccan 6,8% 25,3% 67,9%
Pakistan 2,7% 43,0% 54,4%
How would you feel about having neighbours from the outgroup
SWITZERLAND
Would not make a
Pleasant Unpleasant
difference
National majority 3,2% 9,3% 87,5%
Yugoslavian 8,5% 1,2% 90,3%
Turkish 12,0% 0% 88,0%
Moroccan 15,6% 0,7% 83,7%
Pakistan 16,7% 0,7% 82,7%
How would you feel about having a boss from the outgroup

Would not make a


Pleasant Unpleasant
difference
National majority 2,0% 16,5% 81,6%
Yugoslavian 6,1% 4,1% 89,8%
Turkish 8,1% 1,2% 90,7%
Moroccan 9,0% 0,7% 90,3%
Pakistan 10,7% 2,7% 86,6%
How would you feel about your family members marrying a member
of the outgroup
Would not make a
Pleasant Unpleasant
difference
National majority 3,5% 22,0% 74,5%
Yugoslavian 5,3% 19,8% 74,9%
Turkish 8,8% 13,7% 77,5%
Moroccan 9,0% 30,6% 60,4%
Pakistan 8,4% 21,0% 70,6%
Distance intergroupe perçue
Perceived distance to out-group with regard values taught to
children
Perceived distance to outgroup regarding values taught to children
(score “% quite similar + %very similar”) for different countries

DE CH UK BE
National majority 29,9% 39,9% 22,7% 39,8%
Ex-Yugoslavian 58,0% 60,8% 37,2% 60,4%
Turkish 26,9% 37,6% 32,3% 27,9%
Moroccan 52,2% 39,6% 34,8% 50,6%
Pakistani 45,5% 47,6% 56,1% 45,4%

- The lower the percentage, the higher the perceived cultural difference
- Majority group often perceive more distance than Muslim groups
Perceived distance to out-group with regard to division of
labour in the household
Perceived distance to outgroup regarding division of labour in
household (score “% quite similar + %very similar”) for different
countries

NL DE CH UK BE FR
National majority
18,7% 11,5% 18,1% 5,9% 12,9% 24,0%
Ex-Yugoslavian
60,9% 54,9% 62,6% 33,8% 55,7% 60,3%
Turkish
47,2% 29,8% 40,5% 32,5% 30,6% 43,2%
Moroccan
52,1% 60,8% 59,0% 37,8% 59,0% 48,0%
Pakistani
40,8% 40,0% 55,6% 19,8% 43,4% 49,6%

- The lower the percentage, the higher the perceived cultural difference
- Majority group often perceive more distance than Muslim groups
Perceived distance to out-group with regard to the role of
religion in society
Perceived distance to outgroup regarding role of religion in society
(score “% quite similar + %very similar”) for different countries

NL DE CH UK BE FR

National majority
28,8% 16,2% 22,3% 7,0% 16,5% 29,8%
Ex-Yugoslavian
48,8% 48,5% 50,0% 34,7% 53,4% 56,0%
Turkish
29,1% 14,0% 29,3% 27,6% 16,2% 25,5%
Moroccan
26,6% 31,6% 40,5% 24,3% 31,8% 26,8%
Pakistani
28,4% 22,5% 35,5% 15,4% 28,3% 36,3%

- The lower the percentage, the higher the perceived cultural difference
- Majority group often perceive more distance than Muslim groups
(smaller in France and the Netherlands)
Perceived distance to out-group with regard to sex before
marriage
Perceived distance to outgroup regarding sex before marriage
(score “% quite similar + %very similar”) for different countries

DE CH UK BE
National majority group 15,7% 24,9% 5,2% 20,3%
Ex-Yugoslavia group 43,0% 53,4% 36,4% 37,9%
Turkish group 10,9% 24,8% 21,6% 8,1%
Moroccan group 33,2% 34,3% 45,6% 22,1%
Pakistani group 17,1% 25,9% 11,3% 17,7%

- The lower the percentage, the higher the perceived cultural difference
- Majority group often perceive more distance than Muslim groups
Perceived distance to out-group with regard to freedom of
speech
Perceived distance to outgroup regarding freedom of speech
(score “% quite similar + %very similar”) for different countries

NL DE CH UK BE FR
National majority group 38,5% 32,1% 38,7% 17,3% 32,2% 45,7%
Ex-Yugoslavia group 53,3% 67,2% 67,9% 43,7% 70,0% 69,3%
Turkish group 43,5% 39,3% 42,5% 40,6% 32,1% 53,0%
Moroccan group 49,2% 64,7% 74,5% 46,6% 63,1% 56,1%
Pakistani group 36,7% 55,7% 64,1% 35,4% 53,5% 57,5%

- The lower the percentage, the higher the perceived cultural difference
- Majority group often perceive more distance than Muslim groups
Perceived distance out-group
Perceived distance out-group (OLS)
Ref: B Std. β t Sig. • The higher a regression
France/Majority Error coefficient, the higher the
(Constant) 8,895 0,221 40,233 0,000 perceived distance
United Kingdom 1,148 0,107 0,199 10,752 0,000 • Perceived distance highest in
Belgium 0,763 0,110 0,124 6,959 0,000 UK, followed by the
Netherlands 0,846 0,115 0,131 7,363 0,000 Netherlands, Belgium,
Germany 0,670 0,106 0,116 6,317 0,000 Germany and lowest in
Switzerland and France
Switzerland 0,214 0,108 0,036 1,992 0,046
• Muslim groups preceive less
Ex-Yugoslavian -1,935 0,113 -0,313 -17,090 0,000
distance than the majority
Turkish -0,553 0,108 -0,103 -5,124 0,000 group
Pakistani -0,968 0,121 -0,152 -8,008 0,000 • Men perceive less distance
Moroccan -1,481 0,117 -0,250 -12,657 0,000 than women
Male -0,259 0,062 -0,057 -4,151 0,000 • Higher educated and people in
Age 0,006 0,002 0,041 2,868 0,004 a job perceive less distance
Education in years -0,037 0,009 -0,060 -4,261 0,000 • People with strong religious
(Self)employed -0,091 0,064 -0,020 -1,427 0,154 identification perceive more
Religious difference
identification 0,184 0,029 0,101 6,335 0,000 • Negative experiences lead to
Bridging social higher perceived distance
capital -0,099 0,010 -0,174 -10,399 0,000 • Bridging social capital leads to
Experience less perceived distance
hostilities 0,251 0,069 0,051 3,655 0,000
Progressiveness/Conservatism
Progressiveness (OLS)
Ref: B Std. β t Sig. • attitudes towards abortion, homosexuality
France/Majority Error and premarital sex
(Constant) 22,327 0,604 36,958 0,000
• women more progressive, younger people
United Kingdom -3,121 0,315 -0,148 -9,913 0,000
more progressive
Belgium -1,810 0,322 -0,081 -5,622 0,000 • higher educated and people holding a job
Netherlands 0,711 0,332 0,031 2,143 0,032 more progressive
Germany -1,494 0,311 -0,072 -4,805 0,000 • UK, Germany, Belgium and Switzerland
Switzerland -0,143 0,316 -0,007 -0,451 0,652 more conservative than France and the
Ex-Yugoslavian -8,084 0,332 -0,370 -24,365 0,000 Netherlands
Turkish -10,037 0,318 -0,516 -31,589 0,000 • all Muslim ethnic minority groups less
progressive
Pakistani -10,249 0,359 -0,441 -28,544 0,000
• strong religious identification more
Moroccan -9,221 0,346 -0,430 -26,680 0,000 conservative
Male -0,616 0,186 -0,038 -3,316 0,001 • people holding more bridging social capital
Age -0,023 0,006 -0,042 -3,497 0,000 tend to be more progressive
Education in years 0,171 0,026 0,077 6,660 0,000
(Self)employed 1,033 0,190 0,063 5,439 0,000
Religious
identification -1,520 0,085 -0,234 -17,883 0,000
Bridging social
capital 0,366 0,028 0,181 12,861 0,000
Bridging social capital
Bridging social capital (OLS) • measured through level of acquaintances
Ref: B Std. β t Sig. in the out-group
France/Majority Error
• all Muslim groups have more bridging
(Constant) 6,877 0,390 17,653 0,000 capital than the non-Muslim group
United Kingdom -0,161 0,169 -0,016 -0,957 0,339
Belgium 0,768 0,172 0,071 4,479 0,000 • more bridging capital among majority
Netherlands 2,514 0,176 0,221 14,252 0,000 group in the Netherlands, Belgium,
Germany 0,488 0,166 0,048 2,939 0,003 Germany and Switzerland and less in
Switzerland 0,426 0,168 0,041 2,539 0,011 France and the UK
Ex-Yugoslavian 4,563 0,169 0,419 27,007 0,000
• higher educated and people in
Turkish 4,232 0,156 0,446 27,078 0,000 employment have more bridging capital
Pakistani 4,658 0,177 0,416 26,370 0,000
Moroccan 5,065 0,170 0,486 29,873 0,000 • those who experiences hostility have
Male 0,390 0,098 0,049 3,997 0,000 nevertheless more bridging social capital
Age -0,003 0,003 -0,011 -0,901 0,368
Education in years 0,047 0,014 0,042 3,420 0,001
(Self)employed 0,425 0,099 0,053 4,289 0,000
Religious
identification -0,335 0,045 -0,105 -7,412 0,000
Experienced
hostilities 0,384 0,107 0,044 3,589 0,000
Perceived distance -0,241 0,023 -0,137 -10,399 0,000