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Means balance.

It also mean no acceleration


on the body or zero.
Balance –means that the magnitude are equal
but in opposite direction.
Factors affecting the stability of an object.
1. Weight
2. Area of the base
3. Location of the CG
Stable
→ the CG of an object is at its lowest possible
position
Unstable
→ the CG is at its highest possible position and
can easily be topped down
Neutral
→ the CG is neither lowered nor raised when
the object is slightly disturbed and roll from
one side to the other
FIRST CONDITION
The vector sum of all forces acting on the
object must be zero. Then according to
Newton’s Second Law of Motion, the objects
acceleration is zero. If at rest, the object
remains at rest ; if moving, its motion
continues unchanged.
SECOND CONDITION
For the object to be rotationally stable, the
forces must act on it in a way that prevent it
from rotating, tipping or falling over.
 If an object is in equilibrium in one
dimension, the forces in one direction
must equal the forces in the opposite
direction.
ΣF+ direction = ΣF- direction
Mechanics is the study of forces and its effect
on object.

Branches of Mechanics:

Statics is the study of forces acting or a body


at rest.

Dynamics is the study of the motion of bodies


and the effects of forces in producing motion.
Static Equilibrium is a condition in which all
forces acting on a body are balanced causing
the body to remain motionless.
Balance means that the magnitudes are equal
but moving in opposite directions.
Net Force = FN – W = 0
Concurrent Forces is forces that act at a
common point and produced no change in the
body’s motion.
First Condition of Equilibrium is the sum of all
the forces acting on the x-axis is ZERO and
the sum of all the forces acting on y-axis is
ZERO.
In symbols: ΣFx = 0 and ΣFy = O.
Steps in solving the problem:
1. Draw the vector diagram of each
2. Find the x and y component
3. Apply the first condition of equilibrium
NOTE: apply sign of direction
Example: Find Tension in Ropes A and B.

300 600 B
By
B A
A Ay
300 600 300 600
Ax Bx

400 N 400 N

1. Draw free-body diagram. Next we will find


2. Determine angles. components of each
3. Draw/label components. vector.
T

W
1203 N
T
X Y
T T cos 90 T sin 90

W= (1203N) (1203N)
1203N (cos 90) (-sin 90)

TOTAL F x 0 F y 0

F x  Fx1  Fx 2  ...
W
0  t cos 90 1203N cos 270 1203 N
00
T
X Y
T T cos 90 T sin 90

W= (1203N) (1203N)
1203N (cos 90) (-sin 90)

TOTAL F x 0 F y 0

F y  Fy1  Fy 2  ...
0  t sin 90  (1203N )(  sin 90)
W
0  t (1)  1203N (1) 1203 N
0  t 1203N
1203N  t
49˚
T1
T2

W
610 N
X Y
T1
T1
T2 49˚ T2
W=
610N
TOTAL

W
610 N
50˚ 50˚
T1 T2

W
310 N
X Y T1 T2
T1
T2 50˚ 50˚
W=
310N
TOTAL

W
310 N
A B
X Y
30˚ 50˚

TOTAL W
5270 N
Statics deals with bodies in equilibrium and by
equilibrium, is meant the absence of Net Force. When
the net force equals to 0, the forces are in equilibrium
that these forces are concurrent.
Torque is an applied force that tends to cause an
object to rotate or that turns or tends to turn an
object.
Torque comes from the Latin word “torquerre” which
means “to twist”.
Torque is equal to the product of force and its
moment arm.
= F x l

where:  → torque ; F → Force ; l → Moment Arm or


Lever Arm
 TORQUE = force x lever arm
 T – torque (Nm) l – lever arm (m)
 F – force (N)
 Lever arm – is the perpendicular distance
from the point of rotation to the point where
the force act.
 This means that the net torque around the
center of the mass is ZERO. So that if the
torque at the center is ZERO, then the object
does not rotate around any point.
 ΣT = 0, analogous to the first
condition. THE SUMMATION OF ALL
TORQUE (moment/rotation) IS EQUAL
TO ZERO.
 ΣTCLOCKWISE = ΣTCOUNTER CLOCKWISE
Static Equilibrium

When a body is at rest and all forces applied


on the body cancel each other then it is said
to be in static equilibrium.
 Example. A girl weighing 225N sits at one
end of the seesaw 4m long. If a boy sits
opposite her 1.5 m away from the fulcrum,
they balance each other. What is the weight of
the boy? Disregard the weight of the seesaw.
 A rigid bar 2.8 m long is pivoted at point O,
1.2m from one end where a 20N weight is
hang. What weight at the opposite end of the
bar will produce equilibrium? What force is
exerted at the pivot? Disregard the weight of
the bar.
1. Brent is 62 kg and Brian is 42 kg. They sit at
opposite ends of a seesaw 8 m long. Where
should Charby sit whose weight is 22 kg so
that the seesaw is balance at the center?
What is the force exerted at the fulcrum?
SEATWORK:
3. A 70 kg father and a 50 kg mother are at opposite
ends of a seesaw 6m long. Where should their 25 kg
child sit so that the seesaw is balanced at the center?
Disregard the weight of the seesaw. Note mass x
9.8m/𝒔𝟐 = N
4. Paul and Oscar carry a load weighing 450N on a pole
between them. The pole is 1m long. If the load is placed
0.3m from Paul, find the force exerted by each boy.
5. A lady weighing 176N sits at one end of the seesaw
7m long. If a man sits opposite her 2.8m away from the
fulcrum, they balance each other, what is the weight of
the man?