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Principles of Assessment

McMillan, 1997

Principle 1. Set clear and


appropriate learning targets.

Learning targets include:


what the students should know
be able to do
Principles of Assessment
Principle 1. Set clear and
appropriate learning targets.

Mueller (2000) distinguishes between and among


four sources of learning targets.
1. Mission Statement – is a brief and broad statement
that serves as a focal point to initiate development as
well as a check for progress.
Philippine School produces students who are effective
communicators, collaborators, and problem solvers.
Principles of Assessment
Principle 1. Set clear and
appropriate learning targets.

Mueller (2000) distinguishes between and among


four sources of learning targets.
2. Goals – flesh out the mission statement, but still broadly
define expectations for students.
Develop effective communication among students.
Principles of Assessment
Principle 1. Set clear and
appropriate learning targets.

Mueller (2000) distinguishes between and among


four sources of learning targets.
3. Standards – tend to be content-specific to one or a few
grade levels and one content area. These may be
written at the level of a unit.
Use appropriate expressions in communicating with others.
Principles of Assessment
Principle 1. Set clear and
appropriate learning targets.

Mueller (2000) distinguishes between and among


four sources of learning targets.
4. Objectives – are the most specific statements that are
typically written at the level of the lesson plan with one
or more objectives for each lesson. (cognitive,
psychomotor and affective domains)
Use courteous expressions in talking with other people.
Principles of Assessment
Principle 1. Set clear and
appropriate learning targets.
BROAD

NARROW
Principles of Assessment
Principle 2. Use appropriate assessment methods
by matching targets with methods.

Hmmm…paper and
pen, performance
or task based?
How shall I assess
them?
Principles of Assessment
Principle 2. Use appropriate assessment methods
by matching targets with methods.

A. OBJECTIVE TESTS
A or B?
Selected response types A,B, C, or D?
Column A and
Binary choice Column B?
Multiple choice
Matching type
Principles of Assessment
Principle 2. Use appropriate assessment methods
by matching targets with methods.

A. OBJECTIVE TESTS
Fill in the
Simple Supply blanks with
the correct
Gap-fill or completion type form of the
Short answer response type verb.
Principles of Assessment
Principle 2. Use appropriate assessment methods
by matching targets with methods.

B. ESSAY Restricted type


Extended type
Write a
paragraph
about…
Principles of Assessment
Principle 2. Use appropriate assessment methods
by matching targets with methods.

C. PERFORMANCE TYPE

Let me
Product-oriented see…Aha! I’ll
ask them to
Process-oriented present a
reader’s
theater.
Principles of Assessment
Principle 2. Use appropriate assessment methods
by matching targets with methods.

D. ORAL QUESTIONING

Oral examinations

Interviews
Principles of Assessment
Principle 3. Establish test validity.
Validity refers to the extent to which the test measures
what it is supposed to measure.
Test validity is tied to the purposes for
which an assessment is used.
The content of the tests should match
the teacher's educational objectives and
instructional emphases.
The test items should represent the full
range of knowledge and skills that are
the primary targets of instruction.
Principles of Assessment
Principle 3. Establish test validity.
Validity refers to the extent to which the test measures
what it is supposed to measure.
WAYS OF ESTABLISHING TEST VALIDITY

Face validity – examining the physical attributes of


the test
Content validity – examining the extent to which the
test measures the area of interest
Instructional validity – examining the extent to which
the test measures the instructional objectives
Principles of Assessment
Principle 3. Establish test validity.
Validity refers to the extent to which the test measures
what it is supposed to measure.
WAYS OF ESTABLISHING TEST VALIDITY

Criterion-related validity – examining the extent to


which the test is related to some other valued
measures
Construct validity – examining the extent to which a
test can measure an unobservable trait or behavior.
It could be determined through theoretical analysis,
and statistical procedures.
Principles of Assessment
Principle 4. Ensure test reliability.
Reliability refers to the extent to which a test is dependable,
stable, and consistent when administered to the same
individuals on different occasions.
WAYS IN ESTABLISHING TEST RELIABILITY

1. Test-retest – test of stability


2. Parallel forms – test of equivalence
3. Split-half – test of internal consistency
4. Kuder-Richardson – test of internal
consistency
Principles of Assessment

Principle 5. Ensure fairness and equity.

1. Provide all students with


equal opportunity to
demonstrate achievement.
2. Present the content of the
assessment and the scoring
criteria much ahead of time.
Principles of Assessment

Principle 5. Ensure fairness and equity.

3. The assessment procedures and


scoring rubrics should be free of
extraneous factors which
unnecessarily confuse or
inadvertently cue student
responses.
4. Avoid all forms of bias in language,
assessment tasks, and procedures.
5. Avoid teacher stereotypes
Principles of Assessment
Principle 6. Stress positive consequences of the
test.

Tests should motivate students to


learn.
They should also promote and
encourage effective teaching.
Principles of Assessment
Principle 7. Consider practicality and efficiency in
the choice of assessment strategy.

The teacher needs to be


familiar with the method.
Consider the ease in
administering the exam, the
scoring and the interpretation
of the test.
Consider time requirement
and cost in administering the
exam.
Principles of Assessment
Principle 8. Ethics

Refers to questions of right or


wrong
Will any physical or
psychological harm come to
any one as a result of the
assessment or testing?
Test results are confidential
results
Roles of Assessment in Making Instructional
Decisions

Placement Evaluation – assesses


student’s entry behaviours. It determines
the knowledge and skills he possesses
which are necessary at the beginning of
instruction in a given subject area.

Diagnostic Evaluation – detects student’s


learning difficulties, which somehow are not
revealed by formative tests.
Roles of Assessment in Making Instructional
Decisions

Formative Evaluation – gives the


students feedback regarding his
performance in achieving instructional
objectives. It determines learning errors
that need to be corrected and provides
reinforcement fot successful performance.

Summative Evaluation – determines the


extent to which objectives of the instruction
have been attained and is used for assigning
grades/marks.
P-E-R-F-O-R-M-A-N-C-
E Hmmm….Why
performance-based?
What is that?
The Cognitive Shift

COGNITIVE
BEHAVIORAL
The Cognitive Shift
LEARNERS

Construct knowledge
environment
Active, not
passive
The Cognitive Shift
SCOPE of ASSESSMENT

Integrated assessment
The Cognitive Shift
BELIEFS about KNOWING

Application of
skills and
knowledge.
The Cognitive Shift
EMPHASIS of INSTRUCTION

Attention to metacognition.
Why do I
What shall often have
I do next? problems
How is this solving
done? this?
The Cognitive Shift
FREQUENCY of ASSESSMENT

Authentic, real life, meaningful.


On-going...
The Cognitive Shift
WHO IS ASSESSED?

Group process skills on


collaborative tasks.
Multi-skills
The Cognitive Shift

Are we going to
make that big leap
from the traditional
to the non-
traditional?
Balanced Assessment

Traditional Performance Portfolio

BALANCED

ASSESSMENT
Balanced Assessment

TARGETS METHODS

CONGRUENCE

ASSESSMENT
Balanced Assessment
Program
WHAT TO ASSESS?
Domains of Learning

COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE

PSYCHOMOTOR
Balanced Assessment

Traditional Performance Portfolio

Paper and pen Demonstrating Collecting evidence


testing the skills of learning

Cognitive Psychomotor Affective


Balanced Assessment
Traditional Performance Portfolio

Paper and pen Demonstrating Collecting evidence


testing the skills of learning

Cognitive Psychomotor Affective

KNOWLEDGE SKILLS AFFECTS


Balanced Assessment
Program
WHAT TO ASSESS?

Learning targets

Lesson objectives
Course goals
Competencies
Balanced Assessment
Program
WHAT TO ASSESS?
All domains of Verbal-linguistic
intelligence Logical mathematical
Social interpersonal
Intrapersonal
Natural
Existential
Bodily-kinesthetic
Musical
Visual-spatial
Balanced Assessment
Program
WHAT are the STRATEGIES?

Use different types of


assessment strategies.
Paper and pen test
Performance assessment
Portfolio assessment
Balanced Assessment
Program
WHAT are the STRATEGIES?

Use varied and well-


constructed tool for
assessment.
Balanced Assessment
Program
WHAT are the STRATEGIES?

Use tools with varying levels of


difficulty from easy average
to difficult levels.
• Use a variety of test formats
• Assess all levels of behavior
Balanced Assessment
Program
WHAT are the STRATEGIES?

Assess all levels of behavior

Cognitive
1. Knowledge 5. Synthesis
2. Comprehension 6. Evaluation
3. Application
4. Analysis
Balanced Assessment
Program
WHAT are the STRATEGIES?

Assess all levels of behavior

Affective
1. Receiving
2. Responding
3. Valuing
4. Organization
5. Characterization
Balanced Assessment
Program
WHAT are the STRATEGIES?

Involve others in making


decisions on the
assessment procedures.
Balanced Assessment
Program
WHAT are the STRATEGIES?

Get ideas from authentic


sources of information.
Balanced Assessment

TARGETS METHODS

CONGRUENCE

ASSESSMENT
Balanced Assessment

TARGETS METHODS

CONGRUENCE

HOW?
ASSESSMENT
LEADER:
Lean Anthony Glori

MEMBERS:
Rosalyn Cannu
Elynor Confidente
Jovie Biyong
Karen Malenab
Marie Kris Batalla
Angelo Madiz