Force and Motion for Grade 3
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Force and Motion for Grade 3
fitted to Science CGp

© All Rights Reserved

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Submitted by:

Edyrah Riayn R.

Ramos

Submitted to:

Dianne O. De Villa

FORCES & MOTION

FORCES

&

MOTION

FORCES &

MOTION

What is a Force?

A force is a push or pull

acting on an object that

changes the motion of the

object.

PUSH PULL

Forces and Motion

Types of Forces

Contact Force – Forces that act

through direct contact between two

objects

Applied Forces, Friction

act over distances

Gravity, Electromagnetic Force (EMF)

Types of Forces

FRICTION

It is the kind of force that stops or slows

things down.

{It prevents us from slipping or falling

down}

FRICTION

Friction between the tires

of a car & the road.

bottom of your sneakers &

the ground.

GRAVITY

It is the force that pull

objects down towards the

earth.

As the mass of the

object becomes larger, the

force of gravity becomes

stronger.

APPLIED FORCES

a force that is applied to

an object by a person or

another object. If a person

is pushing a desk across

the room, then there is an

applied force acting upon

the object.

Motion

What is motion?

A change in the position of an

object over time.

How do you know something

is in motion or has moved?

You use a reference point!

A stationary (not moving) object

such as a tree, street sign, or a

line on the road.

Motion

What is motion?

A change in the position of an Did

object over time. the

beaver

How do you know something move?

is in motion or has moved?

You use a reference point!

A stationary (not moving) object

such as a tree, street sign, or a

line on the road.

MOTION

What causes an object to move?

A FORCE!

ALL motion is due to forces acting on

objects!

What is a force?

A push or a pull

FORCE

MOTION

The total combination of

the forces (opposites –

and same direction +)

acting on an object is

called NET FORCE.

YES!

Example: Gravity is

Can more than pulling you down to

Earth, the ground is

one force act on supporting you, and

an object at the your legs moving you

forward as you run

same time? during Physical

#3 Education.

#1

#2

Position, Direction, and

Speed

Force and Motion

How do objects move?

Up and down

Round and

motion Back and forth

Straight line round motion Zigzag

motion

Ex. See saw motion Ex. Merry go motion

Ex. Swing

round

Position

location relative to another object

(the reference point).

Example “above”, “below”,

“beside”, “behind”, “ahead of”

The distance

plus the distance from the other

(length)

object.

from the

reference

point

changes

1st Law - Objects at rest

If an unbalanced

force acts on an

object at rest the

object will move in

the direction of the

force.

A stronger force

(push or pull) will

make it move faster.

Point of Reference

A stationary location in which the motion is

measured.

Point of reference is something

that is considered fixed and used

as a comparison. Motion very

dependent on point of reference

Direction

Direction of motion is the

course or path that an object

is moving and can be

determined by reading a

compass using the terms

“north”, “south”, “east”, or

“west.”

Direction can also be described using the

terms “right”, or “left,” “forward,” or “toward”

relative to another object, or “up”, or “down”

relative to Earth.

The direction of the force:

Swinging the golf club to the Kicking the ball to the front

right

.

The direction of the force:

Pushing the cart wheel to the Kicking the ball to the front

left.

.

Speed

A measure of how fast an object is

moving.

Objects move at different speeds.

Things may move in different ways.

An object may move in a straight path. •

It may move in a curved path.

It may go in a circle

It may even move in a zigzag.

Pushing the table to the right.

Pulling the drawer out.

Pushing the stroller to the left.

Balanced and Unbalanced

forces

Mrs. E

April 27

Forces and Motion

Unbalanced forces change the rate

and direction of the motion of

objects.

Several forces can act on an object

at the same time.

Sometimes forces are balanced

which means that they are equal in

strength but opposite in direction.

Balanced forces do not change the

motion of objects only unbalanced

forces cause changes in motion.

An unbalanced force is one that does

not have another force of equal

magnitude and opposite direction off-

setting it.

Rate of motion is the speed of the object

or how fast or slow the object is moving.

Unbalanced forces can change the rate

or direction of motion of an object in

different ways:

Newton’s Second Law of

Motion

Newton discovered the idea of a Force

He found the Force is proportional to

the Acceleration of an object (more

Force = more Acceleration)

He found the Force is proportional to

the mass of the object (more mass =

more force needed).

Newton’s Second Law of

Motion

Moving objects accelerate when an

unbalanced force (F) acts on them. The

stronger the force, the greater the

acceleration (a). Also, the greater the

mass (m) the greater the force required

to change the motion.

Force = mass x acceleration

F = ma

Newton’s Second Law of

Motion

Force is a Vector Quantity and

therefore has magnitude and

direction.

The direction of the force is the same

as the direction of the acceleration.

S.I. Unit For Force

1N = 1kg m/s2

accelerate 1 kg of mass at a rate of

1 m/s2.

Net Force

object. The Net Force is the amount of

force that is left after adding all the forces

on the object.

Balanced Forces

Balanced Forces are forces that are

equal and opposite so that they

cancel out.

10 N East 10 N West

Net Force = +10 N + -10 N = 0

Unbalanced Forces

Unbalanced Forces are forces that when

added do not cancel out and cause a

change in the motion of the object.

30 N East 10 N West

Fnet = +30 N + -10 N = +20 N East

Inertia

Inertia measures the tendency of an object

to resist changes in motion.

Galileo came up with the idea of inertia

change

Mass measures how much inertia an

Newton’s First Law of

Motion (Law of Inertia)

If no unbalanced forces act on a moving

object, then the object will continue to

move with a constant velocity (constant

speed in a straight line). If an object is

at rest it will stay at rest.

Newton took his concept of forces and

combined it with Galileo’s idea of inertia

Equilibrium

If the Net Force acting on the object is

zero

FNET = 0 a = 0

The object is either stationary (v = 0) or

traveling with a constant velocity

(v = constant)

Free Body Diagram (FBD)

acting on a single object. A FBD has all

the forces labeled with their magnitude

and direction as well as the motion of the

object.

Mass and Weight

possess. Mass does not change with

location.

body (such as a planet) exerts on another

object.

Weight

Newtons.

Weight = Mass x Acceleration due to

Gravity (Newton’s 2nd law)

W = mg

Weight does change with location!

(“g” will change with location)

Solving Net Force Problems

forces and the acceleration of the object)

2. Use the following Equations to solve for

the unknown

FNET (x-direction) = max

FNET (y-direction) = may

f = Fn

Microgravity

weightlessness experienced in freefall.

(All objects are falling at the same rate)

Apparent Weight is the weight a scale

gives you but may change if are not in

equilibrium.

Friction

Friction causes moving objects to

slow down.

Friction produces heat.

Friction

stationary surfaces in contact.

2. Sliding Friction – occurs when one

surface slides over another.

3. Rolling Friction – occurs when a

rounded surface rolls over another.

Ways to Reduce Friction

Lubricants - produce a smooth layer

between the surfaces

Sanding the Surfaces – smooth the

surfaces

Friction and Newton’s Laws

Friction causes an acceleration (slowing

down the motion of an object)

Friction always acts parallel to the

surface in the opposite direction of

motion

Calculating the Frictional Force

1. Forces acting between the

surfaces (Normal Force)

2. Nature of the surfaces

(Coefficient of Friction)

Calculating the Frictional Force

perpendicular to the surface and

away from the surface

The Normal Force (FN) is usually

y-direction

Calculating the Frictional Force

how rough/smooth the surfaces are

Rough Surfaces – High value of

> 0.5

Smooth Surface – Low value of

< 0.5

Calculating the Frictional Force

the coefficient of friction and the

normal force

Frictional force = (Coefficient of

Friction) x (Normal Force)

f = FN

Air Resistance

gravity is the only force acting on an

object (Assume No Air Resistance)

Air Resistance – The force the air

applies on a moving object. It

attempts to slow down falling objects

(similar to friction)

Air Resistance and

Terminal Velocity

Terminal Velocity – The maximum

speed a falling object reaches when

dropped from rest

An object reaches terminal velocity

when the force of gravity is balanced

with the force of air resistance

Air Resistance and

Terminal Velocity

1. An object is dropped and at first the force

of gravity (W) is much greater than the

force of Air Resistance (FAR)

W >> FAR

2. The force of Air Resistance (FAR)

increases as the speed of the falling

object increases

Air Resistance and

Terminal Velocity

3. Eventually the force of Air

Resistance is equal and opposite

to the force of gravity and the Net

Force acting on the falling object is

zero.

W = FAR Therefore FNET = 0

Air Resistance and

Terminal Velocity

4. Since the Net Force acting on the

object is zero, the object continues to

fall but falls the rest of the way at a

constant velocity (Newton’s First

Law). This velocity is called the

Terminal Velocity!

Air Resistance and

Terminal Velocity

FNET = 0 and F = ma

therefore ay = 0

Object falls with a constant velocity

(Terminal Velocity)

Note: Terminal Velocity can be a

Maximum or a Minimum!

Periodic Motion and

Simple Harmonic Motion

Periodic Motion - motion that repeats

back and forth through a central position

Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) – periodic

motion where the Force is proportional to

the displacement from the equilibrium

position (F d)

Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

at the equilibrium position is zero. When

the object moves away from the

equilibrium position a Restoring Force

pulls the object back.

As “d” then “F”

Examples; Spring, Pendulum

Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

two quantities.

Period (T) – the time needed to complete

one cycle of motion

Amplitude (A) – is the maximum distance

position

Springs

proportional to the distance from the

equilibrium position

FS = kd

FS = Restoring Force of the Spring

d = displacement from the equilibrium position

k = spring constant for that particular spring

Period of a Spring

simple harmonic motion:

TS = 2(m/k)1/2 (Square Root)

k = spring constant

Pendulums

or wire of length (L) that swings back and

forth through the equilibrium position

A pendulum swinging through small

angles is an example of SHM

Pendulums

proportional to the distance away from the

equilibrium position

The components of gravity change as the

pendulum moves back and forth resulting

in Fg d

Period of a Pendulum

found with;

TP = 2 (L/g)1/2 Square Root

only on the length and the acceleration

due to gravity (Not the mass)

Resonance

vibration by adding a small force at

regular time intervals

Examples: Swing (Pendulum), and Sound

Newton’s Third Law of Motion

opposite Reaction.

Forces always come in pairs!

between two objects.

Four Fundamental Forces of

Nature

1. Gravity – Force of attraction between any

two masses. Weakest of the fundamental

forces but acts over the largest

distances.

2. Electromagnetic Force (EMF) – force

between charged particles. Stronger than

gravity but does not reach as far. (Like

charges repel, opposite charges attract)

Four Fundamental Forces of

Nature

3. Strong Nuclear Force – Force of

attraction between subatomic particles

inside the nucleus. Strongest force in

Nature but only acts inside the nucleus

(shortest distance). Holds the atom

together.

Four Fundamental Forces of

Nature

4. Weak Nuclear Force – is the force

observed in the radioactive decay of

some elements

unify all the fundamental forces to a

single unified force.

Forces on Ropes and Strings

rope or wire.

Tension always acts away from the object

along the rope.

Newton’s Third Law applies to Tension

when looking at two objects.

Only One Tension needs to be drawn on a

Free Body Diagram

Motion

What is motion?

A change in the position of an Did

object over time. the

beaver

How do you know something move?

is in motion or has moved?

You use a reference point!

A stationary (not moving) object

such as a tree, street sign, or a

line on the road.

What causes an object to move?

A FORCE!

ALL motion is due to forces acting on

objects!

What is a force?

A push or a pull

FO

RC

E MOTION

The total combination of

the forces (opposites –

and same direction +)

acting on an object is

called NET FORCE.

YES!

Example: Gravity is

Can more than pulling you down to

Earth, the ground is

one force act on supporting you, and

an object at the your legs moving you

forward as you run

same time? during Physical

#3 Education.

#1

#2

Position, Direction, and

Speed

Force and Motion

Position

The position of an

object is its location

relative to another

object (the reference

point).

Example “above”,

“below”, “beside”,

“behind”, “ahead of”

plus the distance

from the other object.

The distance (length)

from the reference

point changes when

the object moves.

Point of Reference

A stationary location in which the motion is

measured.

Direction

Direction of motion is

the course or path that

an object is moving

and can be determined

by reading a compass

using the terms

“north”, “south”,

“east”, or “west.”

Direction can also be

described using the

terms “right”, or

“left,” “forward,” or

“toward” relative to

another object, or

“up”, or “down”

relative to Earth.

Speed

is moving.

1st Law - Objects at rest

If an unbalanced

force acts on an

object at rest the

object will move in

the direction of the

force.

A stronger force

(push or pull) will

make it move faster.

Balanced and Unbalanced

forces

Mrs. E

April 27

Forces and Motion

Unbalanced forces change the rate

and direction of the motion of

objects.

Several forces can act on an object

at the same time.

Sometimes forces are balanced

which means that they are equal in

strength but opposite in direction.

Balanced forces do not change the

motion of objects only unbalanced

forces cause changes in motion.

An unbalanced force is one that does

not have another force of equal

magnitude and opposite direction off-

setting it.

Rate of motion is the speed of the object

or how fast or slow the object is moving.

Unbalanced forces can change the rate

or direction of motion of an object in

different ways:

Sir Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (1642 -

1727) was an English

scientist who made great

contributions to physics,

optics, math and

astronomy. Among

elementary and middle-

school students, he is

best known for his Three

Laws of Motions and the

Universal Law of

Gravitation. Have you

heard the story about an

apple dropping on

Newton's head?

Newton’s 1st Law – Object at rest

stay at rest, and an object

in constant motion tends to

stay in motion, unless acted

upon by an unbalanced force.

1st Law - Objects at rest

If an unbalanced

force acts on an

object at rest the

object will move in

the direction of the

force.

A stronger force

(push or pull) will

make it move faster.

Newton’s 2nd law – unbalanced

forces

object is equal to the mass

of the object multiplied by

its acceleration: F = m x a

2nd Law - Object in Motion

If an object is

moving, an

unbalanced force

will change the

motion of the object

in different ways

depending on how

the force is applied.

The unbalanced

force may speed up

the object, slow it

down, make it

change directions,

or stop it.

Objects in Motion

direction as the object is moving, the

object will speed it up.

If the force is applied in the opposite

object will slow it down or stop it.

If the force is applied to the side of

turn.

Newton’s 3rd law – opposite but

equal

All forces occur in pairs, and these two

forces are equal in strength and opposite in

direction.

Balanced Forces

A balanced force is one in which the net

force equals ZERO.

Do you think there will be any motion?

NO!

Examples:

400 Newtons400 Newtons

50

50 N

N

Unbalanced

Forces

An unbalanced force is one in which the net

force is greater than zero.

Do you think there will be any motion?

The air resistance

YES! will negate 2 N of

Examples: gravitational force

which will leave

48N of net force

pushing the sky

divers to the 2 N

ground. 50

25 Newtons 40 Newtons N

The force produced by the blue team

is greater than that of the purple

team. So the net force is 15N that

would tip the ropes direction to the

Only an _______________

force can change the motion of

an object.

Example: Your dog can

cause you to move if

he pulls with enough

force.

Hisforce is greater than

the force you’re using to

stay in place

What would happen if an

unbalanced force acted on an

object that’s already in motion?

It will change the

speed or direction

of the object.

Example: Your

little brother is

riding his tricycle.

You run up behind

him and give him a

push.

Your force adds to

the existing force

causing him to

speed up.

Unbalanced forces can act in

the same direction.

Example: You’re pushing a cabinet across the room

with a force of 15 N. You’re friend is pulling with a

force of 10 N.

What is the NET FORCE?

When two

forces move

in the same

direction

the forces

are

combined. 15N 10 N

Here the

Unbalanced forces can act in

opposite directions.

Example: Two dogs are tugging on a rope.

One dog pulls with a force of 20N and the

other pulls with a force of 25N.

What is the NET FORCE?

Wh

What direction is the rope moving? opp en yo

u h

the osing ave

obj d ir f o r

ect ectio ces,

m ov n th

t e

dire he sa es is i

ctio me n

larg n as

er the

for

ce.

20 Newtons 25 Newtons

Motion and Force

Motion: A change in the position of an object over time. A

reference point enables a person to determine that something

has moved or changed position.

*Remember Benny the beaver, we knew he moved because he

got closer to our tree, the reference point.

ALL motion is caused by a force or forces.

in speed or direction.

NET FORCE: The total combination of the forces acting on an

object is called NET FORCE.

Opposites forces will take away from each other(counteract

their force due to opposing direction); the larger forces newton's

are always above the smaller forces newton's 50N- 40N= 10 N

net force. Forces moving in the same direction will be added

together; 50N + 40 N= 90N net force

Balanced and Unbalanced

Forces

A Balanced Force: is a force in

which the net force equals ZERO

and there is NO MOTION.

300N of force opposing (-) 300N

of force= 0N

A BALANCED force with NO

MOTION

which the net force is GREATER

than (>) Zero causing motion. B

400N of force opposing (-) 300N

of force= 100N an UNBALANCED

force with MOTION going in the

direction of the greater force in

this case to the left or toward

team A.

*Special information to remember about

Unbalanced Forces

the same direction. IF the

forces are combining their

efforts the Newton Force is

combined (+) as well.

Unbalanced forces can be

demonstrated if two people

lift a couch or push a

cabinet from the same side.

Newton’s 3 Laws of

1 Law of Motion:

st

Motion

Things that are still stay still and

things that are moving keep moving

with a steady speed unless a force of

some kind pushes or pulls on them.

2nd Law of Motion:

When a force acts (pushes or pulls) on

an object, it changes the object’s speed

or direction (in other words it makes

the object accelerate).

The bigger the force, the more the

object accelerates.

3rd Law of Motion:

When a force acts on an object, there’s

equal force (called a reaction) acting in

the opposite direction. This law is

Newton’s 3 Laws of

1 Law of Motion:

st

Motion

Things that are still stay still and things that are

moving keep moving with a steady speed unless a force

of some kind pushes or pulls on them.

Newton’s 1st Law: The Law

of Inertia

An object at rest will remain

at rest, unless acted upon by

an unbalanced force

continue moving, in the same

direction, at the same speed,

unless an unbalanced force

acts on it.

Inertia

Inertia is the

50 mph

tendency of objects

to resist a change in

motion. 50 mph

Example: seatbelts!

REMEMBER: Brain Pop

Mass and Inertia

If a car is going 50

kilometers

per hour and it comes to a

sudden stop, the people

inside continue moving 50

kilometers per hour unless

a

force prevents their

forward

motion through the Which is why WE

windshield wear SEATBELTS!!

Newton’s 3 Laws of

2 Law of Motion:

nd

When a Motion

force acts (pushes or pulls) on an object, it

changes the object’s speed or direction (in other words

it makes the object accelerate).

The bigger the force, the more the object accelerates.

Mass

The mass of an object affects its’ inertia.

Objects with more mass have more inertia

than an object with a smaller mass.

It’s harder to make a large object move or change

the speed and direction of it when it’s moving.

Another Example

Train v. Car: Which will take longer to

accelerate to 60 mph? Why?

Newton’s 3 Laws of

3 Law of Motion:

rd

When a Motion

force acts on an object, there’s

equal force (called a reaction) acting in the

opposite direction. This law is sometimes

written that “actions are equal and

opposite.”

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