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FORCES & MOTION

Submitted by:

Edyrah Riayn R.
Ramos
Submitted to:

Dianne O. De Villa
FORCES & MOTION
FORCES
&
MOTION
FORCES &
MOTION
What is a Force?
A force is a push or pull
acting on an object that
changes the motion of the
object.
PUSH PULL
Forces and Motion
Types of Forces
 Contact Force – Forces that act
through direct contact between two
objects
 Applied Forces, Friction

 Long Range Forces – Forces that can


act over distances
 Gravity, Electromagnetic Force (EMF)
Types of Forces
FRICTION
It is the kind of force that stops or slows
things down.
{It prevents us from slipping or falling
down}

It is caused when two objects rub together.


FRICTION
Friction between the tires
of a car & the road.

Friction between the


bottom of your sneakers &
the ground.
GRAVITY
It is the force that pull
objects down towards the
earth.
As the mass of the
object becomes larger, the
force of gravity becomes
stronger.
APPLIED FORCES
a force that is applied to
an object by a person or
another object. If a person
is pushing a desk across
the room, then there is an
applied force acting upon
the object.
Motion
 What is motion?
 A change in the position of an
object over time.
 How do you know something
is in motion or has moved?
 You use a reference point!
 A stationary (not moving) object
such as a tree, street sign, or a
line on the road.
Motion
 What is motion?
 A change in the position of an Did
object over time. the
beaver
 How do you know something move?
is in motion or has moved?
 You use a reference point!
 A stationary (not moving) object
such as a tree, street sign, or a
line on the road.

MOTION
What causes an object to move?

 A FORCE!
 ALL motion is due to forces acting on

objects!
 What is a force?
 A push or a pull

FORCE
MOTION
The total combination of
the forces (opposites –
and same direction +)
acting on an object is
called NET FORCE.

YES!
Example: Gravity is
Can more than pulling you down to
Earth, the ground is
one force act on supporting you, and
an object at the your legs moving you
forward as you run
same time? during Physical
#3 Education.
#1
#2
Position, Direction, and
Speed
 Force and Motion
How do objects move?
Up and down
Round and
motion Back and forth
Straight line round motion Zigzag
motion
Ex. See saw motion Ex. Merry go motion
Ex. Swing
round
Position

 The position of an object is its


location relative to another object
(the reference point).
 Example “above”, “below”,
“beside”, “behind”, “ahead of”
 The distance
plus the distance from the other
(length)
object.
from the
reference
point
changes
1st Law - Objects at rest
 If an unbalanced
force acts on an
object at rest the
object will move in
the direction of the
force.
 A stronger force
(push or pull) will
make it move faster.
Point of Reference
 A stationary location in which the motion is
measured.
 Point of reference is something
that is considered fixed and used
as a comparison. Motion very
dependent on point of reference
Direction
 Direction of motion is the
course or path that an object
is moving and can be
determined by reading a
compass using the terms
“north”, “south”, “east”, or
“west.”
 Direction can also be described using the
terms “right”, or “left,” “forward,” or “toward”
relative to another object, or “up”, or “down”
relative to Earth.
The direction of the force:

Swinging the golf club to the Kicking the ball to the front
right
.

 Pulling the drawer out.  Tossing a coin upward


The direction of the force:

Pushing the cart wheel to the  Kicking the ball to the front
left.
.

 Pulling the drawer out.  Tossing a coin upward


Speed
 A measure of how fast an object is
moving.
 Objects move at different speeds.

 Speed is how fast something moves.

 Both of theses objects are moving

Which one is moving faster?


Things may move in different ways.
 An object may move in a straight path. •
 It may move in a curved path.
 It may go in a circle
 It may even move in a zigzag.

The direction of the force:


 Pushing the table to the right.
 Pulling the drawer out.
 Pushing the stroller to the left.
Balanced and Unbalanced
forces
 Mrs. E
 April 27
 Forces and Motion
Unbalanced forces change the rate
and direction of the motion of
objects.
 Several forces can act on an object
at the same time.
 Sometimes forces are balanced
which means that they are equal in
strength but opposite in direction.
 Balanced forces do not change the
motion of objects only unbalanced
forces cause changes in motion.
 An unbalanced force is one that does
not have another force of equal
magnitude and opposite direction off-
setting it.
 Rate of motion is the speed of the object
or how fast or slow the object is moving.
 Unbalanced forces can change the rate
or direction of motion of an object in
different ways:
Newton’s Second Law of
Motion
 Newton discovered the idea of a Force
 He found the Force is proportional to
the Acceleration of an object (more
Force = more Acceleration)
 He found the Force is proportional to
the mass of the object (more mass =
more force needed).
Newton’s Second Law of
Motion
 Moving objects accelerate when an
unbalanced force (F) acts on them. The
stronger the force, the greater the
acceleration (a). Also, the greater the
mass (m) the greater the force required
to change the motion.
 Force = mass x acceleration
 F = ma
Newton’s Second Law of
Motion
 Force is a Vector Quantity and
therefore has magnitude and
direction.
 The direction of the force is the same
as the direction of the acceleration.
S.I. Unit For Force

 The Unit for Force is a Newton (N)


 1N = 1kg m/s2

 A Newton (N) is defined as the

amount of force required to


accelerate 1 kg of mass at a rate of
1 m/s2.
Net Force

 When Multiple forces are acting on an


object. The Net Force is the amount of
force that is left after adding all the forces
on the object.

 Net force (FNET) = Resultant Force (FR)


Balanced Forces
Balanced Forces are forces that are
equal and opposite so that they
cancel out.
10 N East 10 N West
 
Net Force = +10 N + -10 N = 0
Unbalanced Forces
Unbalanced Forces are forces that when
added do not cancel out and cause a
change in the motion of the object.
30 N East 10 N West
 
Fnet = +30 N + -10 N = +20 N East
Inertia
Inertia measures the tendency of an object
to resist changes in motion.
 Galileo came up with the idea of inertia

 Objects do not want their motion to

change
 Mass measures how much inertia an

object has (More mass = More inertia)


Newton’s First Law of
Motion (Law of Inertia)
 If no unbalanced forces act on a moving
object, then the object will continue to
move with a constant velocity (constant
speed in a straight line). If an object is
at rest it will stay at rest.
 Newton took his concept of forces and
combined it with Galileo’s idea of inertia
Equilibrium

 First Condition for Equilibrium


 If the Net Force acting on the object is

zero
FNET = 0 a = 0
 The object is either stationary (v = 0) or
traveling with a constant velocity
(v = constant)
Free Body Diagram (FBD)

 A diagram that looks at all the forces


acting on a single object. A FBD has all
the forces labeled with their magnitude
and direction as well as the motion of the
object.
Mass and Weight

Mass is amount of matter that an object


possess. Mass does not change with
location.

Weight is the gravitational force that a large


body (such as a planet) exerts on another
object.
Weight

 Weight is a Force! It is measured in


Newtons.
 Weight = Mass x Acceleration due to
Gravity (Newton’s 2nd law)
 W = mg
 Weight does change with location!
(“g” will change with location)
Solving Net Force Problems

1. Make a Free Body Diagram (Label all


forces and the acceleration of the object)
2. Use the following Equations to solve for
the unknown
 FNET (x-direction) = max
 FNET (y-direction) = may
 f = Fn
Microgravity

 Microgravity is the illusion of


weightlessness experienced in freefall.
(All objects are falling at the same rate)
 Apparent Weight is the weight a scale
gives you but may change if are not in
equilibrium.
Friction

 Friction resists motion.


 Friction causes moving objects to
slow down.
 Friction produces heat.
Friction

1. Static Friction – occurs between


stationary surfaces in contact.
2. Sliding Friction – occurs when one
surface slides over another.
3. Rolling Friction – occurs when a
rounded surface rolls over another.
Ways to Reduce Friction

 Use wheels or rollers


 Lubricants - produce a smooth layer
between the surfaces
 Sanding the Surfaces – smooth the
surfaces
Friction and Newton’s Laws

Friction is a force (Newton’s laws apply)


Friction causes an acceleration (slowing
down the motion of an object)
Friction always acts parallel to the
surface in the opposite direction of
motion
Calculating the Frictional Force

Friction depends on:


1. Forces acting between the
surfaces (Normal Force)
2. Nature of the surfaces
(Coefficient of Friction)
Calculating the Frictional Force

 Normal Force (FN) – Force that acts


perpendicular to the surface and
away from the surface
 The Normal Force (FN) is usually

found by summing the forces in the


y-direction
Calculating the Frictional Force

 Coefficient of Friction () – describes


how rough/smooth the surfaces are
 Rough Surfaces – High value of
> 0.5
 Smooth Surface – Low value of 
< 0.5
Calculating the Frictional Force

 The frictional force is the product of


the coefficient of friction and the
normal force
 Frictional force = (Coefficient of
Friction) x (Normal Force)
 f =  FN
Air Resistance

 Free Fall – The situation where


gravity is the only force acting on an
object (Assume No Air Resistance)
 Air Resistance – The force the air
applies on a moving object. It
attempts to slow down falling objects
(similar to friction)
Air Resistance and
Terminal Velocity
 Terminal Velocity – The maximum
speed a falling object reaches when
dropped from rest
 An object reaches terminal velocity
when the force of gravity is balanced
with the force of air resistance
Air Resistance and
Terminal Velocity
1. An object is dropped and at first the force
of gravity (W) is much greater than the
force of Air Resistance (FAR)
W >> FAR
2. The force of Air Resistance (FAR)
increases as the speed of the falling
object increases
Air Resistance and
Terminal Velocity
3. Eventually the force of Air
Resistance is equal and opposite
to the force of gravity and the Net
Force acting on the falling object is
zero.
W = FAR Therefore FNET = 0
Air Resistance and
Terminal Velocity
4. Since the Net Force acting on the
object is zero, the object continues to
fall but falls the rest of the way at a
constant velocity (Newton’s First
Law). This velocity is called the
Terminal Velocity!
Air Resistance and
Terminal Velocity
FNET = 0 and F = ma
therefore ay = 0
Object falls with a constant velocity
(Terminal Velocity)
Note: Terminal Velocity can be a
Maximum or a Minimum!
Periodic Motion and
Simple Harmonic Motion
 Periodic Motion - motion that repeats
back and forth through a central position
 Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) – periodic
motion where the Force is proportional to
the displacement from the equilibrium
position (F  d)
Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

 In Simple Harmonic Motion the Net Force


at the equilibrium position is zero. When
the object moves away from the
equilibrium position a Restoring Force
pulls the object back.
 As “d”  then “F” 
 Examples; Spring, Pendulum
Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

 Objects in SHM can be described with


two quantities.
 Period (T) – the time needed to complete
one cycle of motion
 Amplitude (A) – is the maximum distance

the object moves from the equilibrium


position
Springs

 Hooke’s Law – the Force of a Spring is


proportional to the distance from the
equilibrium position
 FS = kd
 FS = Restoring Force of the Spring
 d = displacement from the equilibrium position
 k = spring constant for that particular spring
Period of a Spring

 To find the period of a spring (TS) in


simple harmonic motion:
 TS = 2(m/k)1/2 (Square Root)

 m = mass of the spring


 k = spring constant
Pendulums

 A Pendulum is a mass attached to a string


or wire of length (L) that swings back and
forth through the equilibrium position
 A pendulum swinging through small
angles is an example of SHM
Pendulums

 Gravity is the restoring force and is


proportional to the distance away from the
equilibrium position
 The components of gravity change as the
pendulum moves back and forth resulting
in Fg  d
Period of a Pendulum

 The Period of a Pendulum (TP) can be


found with;
 TP = 2 (L/g)1/2 Square Root

 The Period of the Pendulum depends


only on the length and the acceleration
due to gravity (Not the mass)
Resonance

 Resonance is increasing the amplitude of


vibration by adding a small force at
regular time intervals
 Examples: Swing (Pendulum), and Sound
Newton’s Third Law of Motion

States: Every Action has an equal and


opposite Reaction.
 Forces always come in pairs!

 Action-Reaction Forces always occur


between two objects.
Four Fundamental Forces of
Nature
1. Gravity – Force of attraction between any
two masses. Weakest of the fundamental
forces but acts over the largest
distances.
2. Electromagnetic Force (EMF) – force
between charged particles. Stronger than
gravity but does not reach as far. (Like
charges repel, opposite charges attract)
Four Fundamental Forces of
Nature
3. Strong Nuclear Force – Force of
attraction between subatomic particles
inside the nucleus. Strongest force in
Nature but only acts inside the nucleus
(shortest distance). Holds the atom
together.
Four Fundamental Forces of
Nature
4. Weak Nuclear Force – is the force
observed in the radioactive decay of
some elements

Unification Theory – This theory looks to


unify all the fundamental forces to a
single unified force.
Forces on Ropes and Strings

 Tension (T) – is the force acting along a


rope or wire.
 Tension always acts away from the object
along the rope.
 Newton’s Third Law applies to Tension
when looking at two objects.
 Only One Tension needs to be drawn on a
Free Body Diagram
Motion
 What is motion?
 A change in the position of an Did
object over time. the
beaver
 How do you know something move?
is in motion or has moved?
 You use a reference point!
 A stationary (not moving) object
such as a tree, street sign, or a
line on the road.
 What causes an object to move?
A FORCE!
 ALL motion is due to forces acting on

objects!
 What is a force?
A push or a pull

FO
RC
E MOTION
The total combination of
the forces (opposites –
and same direction +)
acting on an object is
called NET FORCE.

YES!
Example: Gravity is
Can more than pulling you down to
Earth, the ground is
one force act on supporting you, and
an object at the your legs moving you
forward as you run
same time? during Physical
#3 Education.
#1
#2
Position, Direction, and
Speed
 Force and Motion
Position
 The position of an
object is its location
relative to another
object (the reference
point).
 Example “above”,
“below”, “beside”,
“behind”, “ahead of”
plus the distance
from the other object.
 The distance (length)
from the reference
point changes when
the object moves.
Point of Reference
 A stationary location in which the motion is
measured.
Direction
 Direction of motion is
the course or path that
an object is moving
and can be determined
by reading a compass
using the terms
“north”, “south”,
“east”, or “west.”
 Direction can also be
described using the
terms “right”, or
“left,” “forward,” or
“toward” relative to
another object, or
“up”, or “down”
relative to Earth.
Speed

 A measure of how fast an object


is moving.
1st Law - Objects at rest
 If an unbalanced
force acts on an
object at rest the
object will move in
the direction of the
force.
 A stronger force
(push or pull) will
make it move faster.
Balanced and Unbalanced
forces
 Mrs. E
 April 27
 Forces and Motion
Unbalanced forces change the rate
and direction of the motion of
objects.
 Several forces can act on an object
at the same time.
 Sometimes forces are balanced
which means that they are equal in
strength but opposite in direction.
 Balanced forces do not change the
motion of objects only unbalanced
forces cause changes in motion.
 An unbalanced force is one that does
not have another force of equal
magnitude and opposite direction off-
setting it.
 Rate of motion is the speed of the object
or how fast or slow the object is moving.
 Unbalanced forces can change the rate
or direction of motion of an object in
different ways:
Sir Isaac Newton
 Sir Isaac Newton (1642 -
1727) was an English
scientist who made great
contributions to physics,
optics, math and
astronomy. Among
elementary and middle-
school students, he is
best known for his Three
Laws of Motions and the
Universal Law of
Gravitation. Have you
heard the story about an
apple dropping on
Newton's head?
Newton’s 1st Law – Object at rest

 An object at rest tends to


stay at rest, and an object
in constant motion tends to
stay in motion, unless acted
upon by an unbalanced force.
1st Law - Objects at rest
 If an unbalanced
force acts on an
object at rest the
object will move in
the direction of the
force.
 A stronger force
(push or pull) will
make it move faster.
Newton’s 2nd law – unbalanced
forces

 The unbalanced force on an


object is equal to the mass
of the object multiplied by
its acceleration: F = m x a
2nd Law - Object in Motion
 If an object is
moving, an
unbalanced force
will change the
motion of the object
in different ways
depending on how
the force is applied.
The unbalanced
force may speed up
the object, slow it
down, make it
change directions,
or stop it.
Objects in Motion

 If the force is applied in the same


direction as the object is moving, the
object will speed it up.
 If the force is applied in the opposite

direction as the object is moving, the


object will slow it down or stop it.
 If the force is applied to the side of

the moving object, the object will


turn.
Newton’s 3rd law – opposite but
equal
 All forces occur in pairs, and these two
forces are equal in strength and opposite in
direction.
Balanced Forces
 A balanced force is one in which the net
force equals ZERO.
 Do you think there will be any motion?
 NO!
 Examples:
400 Newtons400 Newtons

50
50 N
N
Unbalanced
Forces
 An unbalanced force is one in which the net
force is greater than zero.
 Do you think there will be any motion?
The air resistance
 YES! will negate 2 N of
 Examples: gravitational force
which will leave
48N of net force
pushing the sky
divers to the 2 N
ground. 50
25 Newtons 40 Newtons N
The force produced by the blue team
is greater than that of the purple
team. So the net force is 15N that
would tip the ropes direction to the
Only an _______________
force can change the motion of
an object.
 Example: Your dog can
cause you to move if
he pulls with enough
force.
 Hisforce is greater than
the force you’re using to
stay in place
What would happen if an
unbalanced force acted on an
object that’s already in motion?
 It will change the
speed or direction
of the object.
 Example: Your
little brother is
riding his tricycle.
You run up behind
him and give him a
push.
 Your force adds to
the existing force
causing him to
speed up.
Unbalanced forces can act in
the same direction.
 Example: You’re pushing a cabinet across the room
with a force of 15 N. You’re friend is pulling with a
force of 10 N.
 What is the NET FORCE?

 What direction is the cabinet moving?


When two
forces move
in the same
direction
the forces
are
combined. 15N 10 N
Here the
Unbalanced forces can act in
opposite directions.
 Example: Two dogs are tugging on a rope.
One dog pulls with a force of 20N and the
other pulls with a force of 25N.
 What is the NET FORCE?
Wh
 What direction is the rope moving? opp en yo
u h
the osing ave
obj d ir f o r
ect ectio ces,
m ov n th
t e
dire he sa es is i
ctio me n
larg n as
er the
for
ce.

20 Newtons 25 Newtons
Motion and Force
Motion: A change in the position of an object over time. A
reference point enables a person to determine that something
has moved or changed position.
*Remember Benny the beaver, we knew he moved because he
got closer to our tree, the reference point.
ALL motion is caused by a force or forces.

Force: A force is a push or pull on an object causing a change


in speed or direction.
NET FORCE: The total combination of the forces acting on an
object is called NET FORCE.
Opposites forces will take away from each other(counteract
their force due to opposing direction); the larger forces newton's
are always above the smaller forces newton's 50N- 40N= 10 N
net force. Forces moving in the same direction will be added
together; 50N + 40 N= 90N net force
Balanced and Unbalanced
Forces
A Balanced Force: is a force in
which the net force equals ZERO
and there is NO MOTION.
300N of force opposing (-) 300N
of force= 0N
A BALANCED force with NO
MOTION

AN Unbalanced Force: is a force in Team


which the net force is GREATER
than (>) Zero causing motion. B
400N of force opposing (-) 300N
of force= 100N an UNBALANCED
force with MOTION going in the
direction of the greater force in
this case to the left or toward
team A.
*Special information to remember about
Unbalanced Forces

Unbalanced forces can act in


the same direction. IF the
forces are combining their
efforts the Newton Force is
combined (+) as well.
Unbalanced forces can be
demonstrated if two people
lift a couch or push a
cabinet from the same side.
Newton’s 3 Laws of
1 Law of Motion:
st

Motion
Things that are still stay still and
things that are moving keep moving
with a steady speed unless a force of
some kind pushes or pulls on them.
2nd Law of Motion:
When a force acts (pushes or pulls) on
an object, it changes the object’s speed
or direction (in other words it makes
the object accelerate).
The bigger the force, the more the
object accelerates.
3rd Law of Motion:
When a force acts on an object, there’s
equal force (called a reaction) acting in
the opposite direction. This law is
Newton’s 3 Laws of
1 Law of Motion:
st

Motion
Things that are still stay still and things that are
moving keep moving with a steady speed unless a force
of some kind pushes or pulls on them.
 Newton’s 1st Law: The Law
of Inertia
 An object at rest will remain
at rest, unless acted upon by
an unbalanced force

 An object in motion will


continue moving, in the same
direction, at the same speed,
unless an unbalanced force
acts on it.
Inertia
 Inertia is the
50 mph
tendency of objects
to resist a change in
motion. 50 mph
 Example: seatbelts!
 REMEMBER: Brain Pop
Mass and Inertia
 If a car is going 50
kilometers
per hour and it comes to a
sudden stop, the people
inside continue moving 50
kilometers per hour unless
a
force prevents their
forward
motion through the Which is why WE
windshield wear SEATBELTS!!
Newton’s 3 Laws of
2 Law of Motion:
nd

When a Motion
force acts (pushes or pulls) on an object, it
changes the object’s speed or direction (in other words
it makes the object accelerate).
The bigger the force, the more the object accelerates.
Mass
 The mass of an object affects its’ inertia.
 Objects with more mass have more inertia
than an object with a smaller mass.
 It’s harder to make a large object move or change
the speed and direction of it when it’s moving.
Another Example
Train v. Car: Which will take longer to

accelerate to 60 mph? Why?
Newton’s 3 Laws of
3 Law of Motion:
rd

When a Motion
force acts on an object, there’s
equal force (called a reaction) acting in the
opposite direction. This law is sometimes
written that “actions are equal and
opposite.”