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Social Relationship in

Middle and Late


Adolescence
Social Relationship
• Less intimate
• Lesser self disclosure but may still be exclusive and may
demand certain levels of loyalty
• e.g. fraternities, religious organizations, social clubs
Goleman's Social Intelligence
• Social Intelligence is rooted in the same neurological
connection as emotional intelligence.

cortex, amygdala, brain stem orbitofrontal cortex

• provides an immediate connection between thought, emotions


and behavior
• immediately calculates our feelings and thoughts about a
person and how that other person feels and thinks about us
Social Influence
• pertains to behavior, actions, attitude, concepts, ideas,
communications, wealth and other resources that bring about changes
in the belief, attitudes and/or behavior of persons as a result of the
action/s of another person. (Rashotte)

• usually conducted through the use of power whether this was done
authoritatively, coercively, suggestively or by giving rewards.
Varieties of Social Influence
by Herbert Kelman
1. COMPLIANCE- is when a person seems to agree and follows what
is requested or required of him or her to do or
believe in, but does not have necessarily have to
really believe or agree.
2. IDENTIFICATION- is when a person is influneced by someone he
or she likes or looks up to, like a movie star, social
celebrity or superhero
3. INTERNALIZATION- is when a person is able to own a certain
belief or act and is willing to make it known publicly
and privately
....other types of Social Influence
1. CONFORMITY
• change in behavior,belief or thinking to be like others.
• most common and pervasive form of social influence
• two varieties: informational conformity ( internalization);normative
compliance (compliance)
2. CONVERSION
• an individual wholeheartedly changes his or her thinking and beliefs, action
and attitudes to align with those members of a group.
3. MINORITY INFLUENCE
• bigger number of people are influenced by smaller number of people
4. REACTANCE
• there is willing rejection of social influence being exerted on an individual or
group.
• “non-conformity” ; reverse reaction
5. OBEDIENCE
• A person follows what someone tells him or her to do, although it may not
necessarity reflect the person's set of beliefs or values.
• stems from either respect or fear of the authority figure
6. PERSUASION
• Used by one person or group to influence another to change their beliefs,
actions or attitudes by appealing to reason.
Leadership &
Followership Theories
Leader
• head of the group of people by virtue of having great
strength and wisdom

• may have inherited a position of power even if


strength and wisdom were not part of this person's
virtue
Leadership
• The ability of a perosn in position of authority
to influence others to behave in such a manner
that goals are achieved.
• power is also annexed to leadership
Theories of Leadership
1. TRAIT THEORY
- defines leadership based on certain personality traits which are
generally suited for all leaders, such as decisiveness, persistence,high level of
self- confidence and assertiveness.
2. BEHAVIORAL THEORY
-presupposes that leadership is a learned behavior and that leaders are
defined accdg to certain types of behavior the exhibit.
3. PARTICIPATIVE THEORY
- the opposite of autocratic leader.
-participative leader involves other people to make common decsions
4. SITUATIONAL THEORY
- assumes that there is no one leadership style and that leadership
behavior is based on the factors present in a situation, and usually takes into
consideration how followers behave.
5. TRANSACTIONAL THEORY
- leadership involves a transaction or negotiation of resources or
position and usually employs reward and punishment.
6. TRANSFORMATIONAL THEORY
-involves a vision, whic a leader uses to rally support from followers
and the role of the leader is in motivating others to support the vision and
make it happen
Authentic Leadership (by Rob Goffee & Gareth Jones-
Why Should Anyone Be Led by You: What It Takes to be an Authentic Leader)
a. Leadership is Situational
 the leader's behavior will always be influenced by the situation.
 leader is able to assess the situation quickly, adjust to it and provide the
appropriate and necessary action to address it for the benefit of his followers.
b. Leadership is non-hierarchical
 exercise of leadership is not based on one's position in an organizational chart
alone, but also dependent on other factors such as characteristics, skills and even
connections.
c. Leadership is relational
 leaders and followers establish a relationship where their interest are mutually
met.
 the role of a leader in this relationship can vary from being a visionary to a
cheerleader.
 often desire to belong to a bigger entity like a community
 expectation of the followers to the leader is one who is genuine and authentic.
Critical Elements present in an
Aunthentic Leader --Goffee and Jones--
They walk their talk
Displays adjustability and flexibility
They have very high comfort being themselves, even if they come from
backgrounds different from those people they deal with
Leader- Member Exchange Theory
--LMX Theory--
States that a leader's effectiveness is measured by the quality of his
relationship with his followers, and different types of relationships can
evolve between leader and follower in a certain work situation.

There should be an exchange resources between leader and follower that


is meaningful and viewed by both parties as fair.
Heroic Leadership (Everyone is a leader and everyone gets a
chance to lead and be leaders in everything they do)

FOUR PRINCIPLES
 Self- awareness
 Ingenuity
 Love
 Heroism
FOUR ELEMENTS FOLLOWERS WANT
FROM A LEADER
AUTHENTICITY
leader is not afraid to show his/her weaknesses
SIGNIFICANCE
leader provides meaning or reason for followers to believe in
EXCITEMENT
leader provides motivation and inspiration to followers and excites them to
pursue their vision.
COMMUNITY
a leader buils a community of followers with whom they can associate.
According to Goffee and Jones, LEADERSHIP IS NOT FOR
EVERONE.
Leadership, they theorized, are for those who want to become leaders
and are ready to take on responsibilities of being one.
Leadership is not measured merely by its results but most importantly
on the way it provides meaning to the leadership cause.
According to Simon Sinek (2009), a leader inspires people and give them
something to believe in.
The most important question to ask first when leading is the reason or purpose
why followers are asked to act and behave in a certain way.
once the “why” is clearly established, the “ how” (the action that will make the
vision a reality) and the “what” (the outcome or result of the actions) will follow.
3 TYPES OF LEADER
 “why” type of leader- usually the visionary; believes that results can be
achieved
“how” type of leader - the realist; able to see how to work out a vison
 “what” type of leader- the builder; provides the details on how to get things
done