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DESIGN OF TRUSS ROOF

Chapter 7

University of Engineering & Technology, Taxila


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Different forces in member due to applied load
types

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TABLE OF FORCES

There are three important points to be considered while


calculating the member forces:

1. Panel load multiplied with unit load forces gives the


member forces by the principle of superposition.

According to this principle, which is applicable for


elastic structures, if a unit load is applied on a truss
and the force in any member is calculated as F; then if
we apply another unit load simultaneously at the same
point, the force in the member will be 2F.
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Similarly, this member force will be 3F for three unit
loads or P x F if P times unit loads are applied.

2. Effects of various types of loads are to be added while


calculating member forces.

Vertical and inclined loads on the truss cannot be


added directly because of different lines of action of
each.

However, separate member forces due to vertical and


inclined loads have the same direction (along the
member longitudinal axis) and hence can be
algebraically added together.
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3. Probability of occurrence of various loads in a load
combination and corresponding load factors (factor of
safety) are also applied during these calculations.

In case only dead, live and wind loads are acting on a


truss, following combinations may be investigated:

1. 1.2D + 1.6Lr + 0.65W

(Wind effect is small and may be ignored especially


suction is present throughout)

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2. 1.2D + 0.5Lr + 1.3W
Wind towards the Right
Wind towards the left

3. 0.9D + 1.3W
Wind towards the Right
Wind towards the Left

For the roof design, the first (gravity) or second (wind)


load combination is critical. It is to be noted that the
downward wind load is to be considered in the second
combination.
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The third combination is critical for reversal of forces
and hence is evaluated for upward wind pressures.

In case the wind load has two values, one downward


and one upward, the downward value should be used
for the second combination and the upward value
should be used for the third combination.

It would be unreasonable to include full wind and full


snow (or live load) stresses together in a single
combination.

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Similarly, when the wind is blowing at its full strength,
the live load intensity may be reduced.

The second combination reflects the condition when


most severe windstorm is blowing and hence the live
load intensity may be reduced to 0.5/ 1.6 or 0.31 times
its maximum intensity, showing less probability of
occurrence of full live load together with wind.

The third combination represents an unoccupied


building subjected to the heaviest wind.

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The negative sign with the wind forces only indicates
that the combination is critical when the wind is
producing member forces opposite in sense to that
produced by the dead loads.

The design forces may be calculated by entering the


values into a Table of Forces as in Table 7.2.

The first four columns of this table are directly taken


from the unit load analysis of the truss while columns 5
to 9 are calculated using the first four columns and the
algebraic values of the panel loads, already determined.
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(1)
Member No.

(2)
Unit gravity load member force

(3)
Member force due to unit Wind load on hinge
side

(4)
Member force due to unit wind load on roller side

(5)
(1.2PD+1.6PL) x Col.2

(6)
(1.2 PD + 0.5 PL) x Col.2
+ 1.3 Pww x Col.3
+ 1.3 PwL x Col.4

(7)
(1.2 PD + 0.5 PL) x Col.2
+ 1.3 P ww x Col.4
+ 1.3 PwL x Col.3

(8)
(0.9 PD) x Col.2
+ 1.3 P ww x Col.3
Sample Table of Forces

+ 1.3 PwL x Col.4


(9)

(0.9 PD) x Col.2


+1.3 P ww x Col.4
+1.3 PwL x Col.3
(10)

Maximum factored tension


(Tu)
(11)

Maximum factored
Compression (Pu)
(12)

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Remarks
After getting the values in these columns, the maximum
factored tension and compression may be found out and
entered in the next two columns.

Usually tension is represented by positive sign and


compression by a negative sign in columns 2 to 4 and
hence maximum tension is defined as the maximum
positive value and maximum compression as the
minimum value (maximum negative answer) in
columns 5 to 9.

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The remarks column is used to describe the type of the
member for design such as pure tension member, pure
compression member, member under reversal of
stresses and zero force member.

A computer spreadsheet may conveniently be used to


construct such a table.

The truss members may now be selected by using the


procedure given in earlier chapters and connections
may be designed by the methods outlined in the coming
chapters.
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Unit Gravity Loads

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(1)
Member No.

(2)
Unit gravity load member force

(3)
Member force due to unit Wind load on hinge
side

(4)
Member force due to unit wind load on roller side

(5)
(1.2PD+1.6PL) x Col.2

(6)
(7)
(8)
Sample Table of Forces

(9)
(10)

Maximum factored tension


(Tu)
(11)

Maximum factored
Compression (Pu)
(12)

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Remarks
Unit Wind Load on Hinge Side

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Unit Wind Load on Roller Side

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If Panel wind load is negative = Suction

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Pww

Pww= +ve (1.2PD+0.5PL) X COL. 2


+ 1.3 PWW X COL. 3
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Pww Pwl

Pww= +ve (1.2PD+0.5PL) X COL. 2


Pwl = -ve + 1.3 PWW X COL. 3
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Load Combination in Column No 6

Pww Pwl

Pww= +ve (1.2PD+0.5PL) X COL. 2


Pwl = -ve + 1.3 PWW X COL. 3
+ 1.3 PWL X COL. 4
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Pww Pwl

Pww= +ve (1.2PD+0.5PL) X COL. 2


Pwl = -ve + 1.3 PWW X COL. 3
+ 1.3 PWL X COL. 4
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(1)
Member No.

(2)
Unit gravity load member force

(3)
Member force due to unit Wind load on hinge
side

(4)
Member force due to unit wind load on roller side

(5)
(1.2PD+1.6PL) x Col.2

(6)
(1.2 PD + 0.5 PL) x Col.2
+ 1.3 Pww x Col.3
+ 1.3 PwL x Col.4

(7)
(8)
Sample Table of Forces

(9)
(10)

Maximum factored tension


(Tu)
(11)

Maximum factored
Compression (Pu)
(12)

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Remarks
Load Combination in Column No 7

Pwl Pww

Pww= +ve (1.2PD+0.5PL) X COL. 2


Pwl = -ve + 1.3 PWW X COL. 4
+ 1.3 PWL X COL. 3
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(1)
Member No.

(2)
Unit gravity load member force

(3)
Member force due to unit Wind load on hinge
side

(4)
Member force due to unit wind load on roller side

(5)
(1.2PD+1.6PL) x Col.2

(6)
(1.2 PD + 0.5 PL) x Col.2
+ 1.3 Pww x Col.3
+ 1.3 PwL x Col.4

(7)
(1.2 PD + 0.5 PL) x Col.2
+ 1.3 P ww x Col.4
+ 1.3 PwL x Col.3

(8)
Sample Table of Forces

(9)
(10)

Maximum factored tension


(Tu)
(11)

Maximum factored
Compression (Pu)
(12)

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Remarks
Load Combination in Column No 8

Pww Pwl

Pww= -ve (0.9PD) X COL. 2


Pwl = -ve + 1.3 PWW X COL. 3
+ 1.3 PWL X COL. 4
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(1)
Member No.

(2)
Unit gravity load member force

(3)
Member force due to unit Wind load on hinge
side

(4)
Member force due to unit wind load on roller side

(5)
(1.2PD+1.6PL) x Col.2

(6)
(1.2 PD + 0.5 PL) x Col.2
+ 1.3 Pww x Col.3
+ 1.3 PwL x Col.4

(7)
(1.2 PD + 0.5 PL) x Col.2
+ 1.3 P ww x Col.4
+ 1.3 PwL x Col.3

(8)
(0.9 PD) x Col.2
+ 1.3 P ww x Col.3
Sample Table of Forces

+ 1.3 PwL x Col.4


(9)
(10)

Maximum factored tension


(Tu)
(11)

Maximum factored
Compression (Pu)
(12)

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Remarks
Load Combination in Column No 9

Pwl Pww

Pww= -ve (0.9PD) X COL. 2


Pwl = -ve + 1.3 PWW X COL. 4
+ 1.3 PWL X COL. 3
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(1)
Member No.

(2)
Unit gravity load member force

(3)
Member force due to unit Wind load on hinge
side

(4)
Member force due to unit wind load on roller side

(5)
(1.2PD+1.6PL) x Col.2

(6)
(1.2 PD + 0.5 PL) x Col.2
+ 1.3 Pww x Col.3
+ 1.3 PwL x Col.4

(7)
(1.2 PD + 0.5 PL) x Col.2
+ 1.3 P ww x Col.4
+ 1.3 PwL x Col.3

(8)
(0.9 PD) x Col.2
+ 1.3 P ww x Col.3
Sample Table of Forces

+ 1.3 PwL x Col.4


(9)

(0.9 PD) x Col.2


+1.3 P ww x Col.4
+1.3 PwL x Col.3
(10)

Maximum factored tension


(Tu)
(11)

Maximum factored
Compression (Pu)
(12)

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Remarks
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Design Assignment No 2:
(1) Find the Truss Member Forces
for Your Data &
(2) Draw the Table of Forces
Time Allowed: 2 weeks
Due Dates:24/07/2015
Section B:
Sections A, C and D:
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