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SRTA Winter school (2019)


Airplane Aerodynamics
Introduction Results
After 800 iterations the calculation has converged , The Courant number has been
In this poster we describe the complete process of modeling and simulation of steadily ramped up during the calculation by the solution steering algorithm.
computational fluid dynamics (CFD) problems that occur in engineering practice. We focus The residuals have converged to low values and the drag and lift monitors are no
mainly on the simulation of the airflow around the aircraft. The fluid flow simulations are longer changing.
obtained with the licensed CFD software package ANSYS.
Furthermore, we present a way of analyzing the results and some of the interesting outputs
of the simulations and following analysis. The CFD simulations were performed on the
computational model of airplane.
From theoretical point of view the fluid dynamics is described by the equations for pressure,
density, components of velocity and thermodynamical quantities based on conservation
laws. The solver included in software like ANSYS is nothing more than a solver of these
equations. In our computations we consider the steady-state problem . We use the solver
based on the Implicit. In order to get realistic solutions, we have to consider the turbulence.
Therefore it is required to choose the suitable turbulence model.
The whole computational process contains several steps. Taking into account the problem
of external aerodynamics we start with the definition of the geometry of the domain
occupied by the fluid flow. The domain has to be fulfilled with a suitable computational grid
containing hexahedras or tetrahedras in general. Further the boundary conditions should be Streamlines
set, the solver options chosen and physical properties given. The results of the computation
are then analyzed. We are interested about the drag and lift coefficients, the velocity
streamlines and the pressure distribution.
This was just a brief description of the problem and the computational process. In following
paragraphs we expand the introduced subjects.


The physical problem of fluid flow is described by the Navier-Stokes equations. These
general equations can be simplified by specific assumptions. In our case we consider a
steady-state incompressible flow. The system for steady-state incompressible flow contains
a continuity equation for incompressible flow and a steady flow momentum equation. We Pressure Contours
search the velocity field and the kinematic pressure, i. e. pressure divided by the density.
The density is constant by the assumption of incompressibility. We take into account the
turbulence. For thesimulation of turbulent flows the formulation of the Navier-Stokes
equations is modified.ANSYS solver uses one of the known approaches, the time-averaged
equations the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS), supplemented with
turbulence models.

Modeling Methodology
• External Flow over aircraft wing .
• Size: 2M cells.
• Steady-state Density-based solver.
Velocity Vectors
• Models: k-omega model(SST) & energy equation.
• Assume Implicit solver.
• Assume Air is an Ideal gas.
• Assume Viscosity is Sutherland by using Three Coefficient Method .
• For compressible flows, the solver needs to use the absolute values in the
calculation, therefore, with compressible flows, it is sometimes convenient to set
the operating pressure to zero, and input/output ‘absolute’ pressures. In this project we presented the CFD computations with the aid of ANSYS. All the
• The pressure-far-field boundary is applicable only when using the ideal-gas law. shown results were made for the simulation of the fluid flow round the aircraft.
• It is important to place the far-field boundary far enough from the object of we have shown one practical task, when we were interested about the drag and lift
interest. coefficients on the outer hull of the aircraft. The practical part was preceded by a brief
• For example, in lifting airfoil calculations, it is not uncommon for the far-field introduction to the theory of CFD simulations and the description of the solver and the
boundary to be a circle with a radius of 20 chord lengths. solver settings. In description of the computational process we focused on the pre-
• This workshop will compare CFD with wind-tunnel test data therefore we need to processing part including the mesh generation
calculate the static conditions at the far-field boundary.
• We can calculate this from the total pressure, which was atmospheric at 101325 Pa Approximated Drag Coefficient
Approximated Lift Coefficient 0.03
with a Mach number of 0.7 in the test.
• The wind tunnel operating conditions for validation test data give the total
temperature as 𝑇0 = 311 K.
• Set the following to represent a chord length of 1m with unit depth:
– Reference length = 1m
– Reference depth = 1m
• Abdelrahman Mostafa Yossef
– Reference area = 1m2 • Abdelrahman Mamdouh Elzorba
– These are not updated from the farfield conditions • Mohamed Ihab Elmessery
• Change the gradient method to Green-Gauss Node Based
• Omar Mohamed Bakr
• Set the number of iterations to 800
• Osama Shawky Mohamed

Universities and Research Center District, New Borg El-Arab, Egypt. ‫ جمهورية مصر العربية‬- ‫ برج العرب الجديدة‬- ‫حي الجامعات ومراكز البحوث‬
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