Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 107

Thesis report 1: 14/02/12

Jyotsna Mishra | Msap | Xth sem | 070901162


1

Nehru center for performing arts, aims to provide the planned city of Chandigarh a traditional outlook. As
this Indian city lacks the local street culture , this performing art center aims to make people aware about the
Indian tradition and culture, and conserve it to educate the up-coming generation. It will also help promote
tourism of Chandigarh.

Cent er f o r pe r f o r mIn g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Introduction
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
2

The movement arts is vibrant, evolving.

Through the years, the art has evolved taking new shapes every time, converting and integrating through the passage of time. This gives to many
new forms of art. Art has survived many criticism as well appreciation in the test of time.

Today art is understood and appreciated by larger section of society. The Nehru center for performing arts at Chandigarh, attempts to be the
converging point and a national level platform for people who are interested in performing arts.

The site in Chandigarh is year marked at sector 34b by the Chandigarh development authority, this will be developed to cater to the surrounding
population and beyond.

The project focus on developing into a center that caters primarily to the performing arts, providing with space, infrastructure, knowledge recourse
and acting as a magnet to those practicing or interested in art. A potential attempt will be made to promote learning and interest towards the arts
through observation, interaction and practice.
Mr Rakeshwar Katoch, a theatre buff, said: “The city has a potential to emerge as a major cultural centre in the North. All art forms need the support
of the state and neighbouring state governments need to get together with the UT Administration to form a common action plan for the promotion of
art and culture.
Sanjeev Singh Bariana
Tribune News Service

The future of performing arts will be shaped by many factors, but perhaps none is more important than the future structure of demand. The size and
shape of the market for performing arts has changed over time, reflecting shifts in demand that are stimulated by technological change as well as
social, demographics and economic trends in society.

Cent er f o r pe r f o r mIn g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra justification
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
3

Justification :
Justification of support for both capital and revenue funding has included one or more of the following reasons:

 Cultural: to safeguard an aspect of cultural heritage; continuity of art forms, display of performing skills and sustaining national, local or ethnic
traditions; to retain and improve an existing stock of facilities and established companies for the performing arts, or to provide new facilities to
ensure cultural opportunities.

 Economic: direct employment of staff and performers; benefits to secondary businesses such as poster and programme printing and material
supply; a widening of the tourist and conference market which, in turn, brings money into the town or city; an attraction to encourage
relocation, and location of organizations, institutions, industry and commerce in an area with subsequent employment benefits.

 Educational: to cultivate an appreciation of the art forms through the exposure of audiences to examples; to form part of an educational
programme for schoolchildren, students and those in adult education.

 Prestige: international, national, regional, city or town comparison; re-enforcement of regional identity emphasizing dispersal from
metropolitan focus.

 Quality of life: performing arts as acceptable complementary activities to work and domestic obligations as a positive use of leisure time
which enriches life culturally and also socially.

 Regeneration: part of a wider programme to revitalize an existing city or town centre or to assist in the formation of a new community, to
attract industry, commerce, institutions, housing, and so on.

 Cultural Democracy: to stimulate and foster participation in the performing arts by all sections of a community, defined locally, as a creative
activity .

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Justification
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
4

Aim:
Developing a performing art center at Chandigarh, Punjab, which facilitates, practice, teaching, research, display and appreciation of various art forms.

Objective:
 To provide leadership on a national level as India’s premier performing arts, research and training centre through the presentation of Indian and
international art forms, the promotion of excellence and the preservation of India’s rich cultural heritage.
 Development of a performing arts center providing the required areas and infrastructure to be able to display and promote the art. Designing a self
integrated and flexible space, and also ensure constant activity at the center, involving the community and public.

Project Outline:

 Performing art center at Chandigarh, Punjab shall be a center for research, understanding and promotion of the performing arts. It shall cater to all
forms of performing arts stressing upon dance, theater and music also including the contemporary art form. It will also have a research center for
music and dance form. Provision for accommodation for a limited number of people will also be included in design.

 Focus on multiple use of one space, convertible spaces mostly for community and public interaction. Landscape plays an important role in making the
planning and resolving the circulation, so it will be designed accordingly.The project envisages the creation of an environment for the arts, meant
exclusively for the arts and not for any one exclusive art. It is therefore meant to encourage in a broad sense all kinds of artistic pursuits.

 From an architectural point of view the building will be planned in order to create an environment befitting the nature of the activities related to the
arts and their promotion. Apart from the functional spaces, therefore the creation of an ample amount of space for the interpretation of art by the
sensitive art- lover and the interaction between the people interested in the arts is envisaged. The mood and the ambiance of the built space will be
conductive for the reflecting over subjects and missing over art of the solitary thinker’s mind. The architecture will be sensitive to art and yearn to be
an extension of it.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra SYNOPSIS
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
5

 From the functional point of view the building will be designed to house the facilities required for the staging and presentation of various
disciplines of performing arts.

 Through the years, the art has evolved taking new shapes every time converting and branching out to give birth to new forms. The art has survived
all test of time, and today it is appreciated and understood in all its forms by a larger section of people. Today people recognise the value and
scope of performing arts, and more than a type of means of entertainment people are taking it up as a subject to study and research.

 The performing arts center at chandigharh, punjab attempts to be the converging point for all interested in the performance arts and a source for
information.

 The site is in the heart of chandigharh, a planned city by architect le corbusier, and it is a flat tarrain, it lies in sector 34 B.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra SYNOPSIS
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
6
Performing Arts:
The performing arts are those forms art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artist's own body, face, and presence as a medium,
and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some physical art object . The term "performing arts"
first appeared in the English language in the year 1711.

Performing arts

Minor forms Major forms Genres


• Magic • Theater – • Drama
• puppetry contemporary, folk • Tragedy Music is an art form whose medium is sound and silence. Its
• Dance – classical, • Comedy common elements are pitch ( which governs melody and harmony),
folk, contemporary • Tragicomedy rhythm (and its associated concepts; tempo, meter, and articulation),
• Music- classical, • Romance dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture. The word
folk, • Satire derives from Greek μουσική (mousike; "art of the Muses").
contemporary • Epic
• Opera • lyrics The creation, performance, significance, and even the definition of
• Circus music vary according to culture and social context. Music ranges from
strictly organized compositions (and their recreation in performance),
through improvisational music to aleatoric forms. Music can be
divided into genres and subgenres, although the dividing lines and
relationships between music genres are often subtle, sometimes open
to individual interpretation, and occasionally controversial. Within
"the arts", music may be classified as a performing art, a fine art, and
auditory art.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Performing a r t
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
7
Theatre Dance
Theatre is the branch of the performing arts concerned with acting out Dance (from Old French dancier, perhaps from Frankish) generally
stories in front of an audience using combinations of speech, gesture, refers to human movement either used as a form of expression or
music, dance, sound and spectacle—indeed any one or more elements presented in a social, spiritual or performance setting.
of the other performing arts. In addition to the standard narrative
Dance is also used to describe methods of non-verbal communication (see
dialogue style of plays, theatre takes such forms as plays, musicals,
body language) between humans or animals (bee dance, mating dance),
opera, ballet, illusion, mime, classical Indian dance, kabuki,
motion in inanimate objects (the leaves danced in the wind), and certain
mummers' plays, improvisational theatre, stand-up comedy,
music genres.
pantomime, and non-conventional or art house theatre.
Choreography is the art of making dances, and the person who does this is
called a choreographer.
Definitions of what constitutes dance are dependent on social, cultural,
aesthetic artistic and moral constraints and range from functional
movement (such as folk dance) to codified, virtuoso techniques such as
ballet. In sports, gymnastics, figure skating, and synchronized swimming
are dance disciplines while martial arts "kata" are often compared to
dances.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Performing a r t
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
8
Performing Arts in India:

History of Classical Dances

In its truest sense, Indian classical dance is an expression of life,


involving the body as well as the emotions. Indian Dance is based on
texts from Sanskrit, an ancient Indian language – also thought to be the
mother of not only Indian languages but also modern European
languages. Indian classical dance is one of the oldest dance traditions Nataraja – the divine dancer
associated with any of the world’s major religions. It has evolved with
the concepts of self and world. According to Hindu mythology, the The origin of Indian dance can be traced back to Bharata Muni (a
Taandav (the frenzied dance performed by Lord Shiva, in grief after his learned saint) who lived between the 1st and 2nd century and
consort Sati’s tragic demise) symbolises the cosmic cycles of creation composed a magnum opus on dance, which is known to the world as
and destruction, birth and death. His dance is therefore the dance of the Natya Shastra. In ancient times, dance was not merely a form of
Universe, the throb of eternal life. An interesting parallel may be seen in entertainment. On the contrary it was considered a medium of
modern physics, which depicts that the cycle of creation and destruction instruction of morality, good values, and scriptures and the
is not only reflected in the turn of seasons and in the birth and death of expression of reality.
living creatures but also in the life cycle of inorganic matter.
Natya Shastra serves as a common text for all the varieties of Indian
Nataraja (literally the king of dancers) or Lord Shiva in a graceful classical dance forms. It contains elaborate details on various types
dancing pose is worshipped all over India, by classical dancers, and also a of postures, mudras or hand movements depicting different
collector’s item for connoisseurs of art. meanings, besides the construction of a stage, the art of make-up
and lastly the orchestra. All dance forms make ample use of the nine
basis rasas or emotions – hasya (joy and happiness), krodha (anger),
bibhatsa (disgust), bhaya (fear), vira (courage),
karuna
(compassion), adbhuta (wonder) and shanta (serenity).

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Performing a r t s in india
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
9

Natya Shastra further divides classical dance into nritya- the rhythmic This was possibly the reason behind the
elements, nritya- the combination of rhythm and expression, and of devadasis (literally: servants of the deity), the earliest
origin
finally, natya – comprising the dramatic elements embedded in the performers of the classical Indian dances. They were supposed to
dance recital. To appreciate natya or dance drama, an individual needs pursue the dance forms devotedly and excel in them. At the
to possess sound knowledge, understanding and appreciation of Indian outset, devadasis were respectable women and highly talented
legends and mythology and folklore. Hindu deities like Vishnu, artists hailing from the highest strata of the society. They lived and
Krishna, Shiva and Lakshmi, Rama and Sita are commonly depicted in danced only in the temple premises – their vocation enjoying
these dances. Each dance form also draws inspiration from stories great religious prestige. It was only much later
depicting the life and traditional beliefs of the Indians. the devadasis condescended to perform in royal courts, in the
that
presence of the elite and the nobility.
Ancient Indian history reveals that several centuries before Christ,
India's art forms of dance, music and theatre were fairly well- A devadasi not only performed on all festive occasions, but also
advanced. The performing arts, i.e. dance and music reached the acme had to be present for the daily rituals, connected with the deity.
of their glory, during the reign of the Chola dynasty in Southern India. She was paid from temple funds; moreover the temple supplied
the food grains for her and her family. To render a realistic touch a
Dance forms were nurtured with a purpose in the sacred premises of
devadasi was ceremonially wedded to the deity. She was
temples. Temple dancing was imbued with the idea of taking art to the
consecrated to her lord and thus out of bounds for mortals.
people, and conveying a message to the masses. The temple rituals
necessitated the physical presence of mortal women (instead of the
ornate, carved figures of heavenly damsels, apsaras) to propitiate the
gods. The allegorical view of dance, used for the purpose of the
pleasing the devas, was gradually transformed into a regular, service
(with deep religious connotations) in the temples of the medieval
times.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Performing a r t s in india
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
10
Dance forms in India:
A land of contrast and variety
India is about extremes, vastness, intensity and paradox - all are qualities that describe this ancient culture. The sharp peaks of the Himalayas, the
sweltering heat of the great Indian plain, the delicious cool of Kashmir, arid deserts and monsoons in the tropical southwest- all these contrasts and
many others are commonplace in India. Tiny villages where the slow pace of life remains the same as in centuries past are connected to teeming urban
centres by dirt roads that seemingly stretch to the horizon. Culturally too, India is teeming with variety. There are several subcultures thriving within the
composite Indian culture. This variety and diversity impart to the Indian culture. This variety and diversity impart to the Indian culture a mystical
dimension and rich spirituality.
There are many types of dance in India, from those which are deeply religious in content to those which are danced on more trivial happy
occasions. Classical dances of India are usually always spiritual in content, although this is often true also of Folk dances.
Kathakali

Kathakali literally means story-play and is an elaborate dance depicting the victory of truth over falsehood. A Striking
feature of Kathakali is the use of elaborate make-up and colourful costumes. This is to emphasize that the characters
are super beings from another world, and their make-up is easily recognisable to the trained eye as satvik or godlike,
rajasik or heroic, and tamasik or demonic.

Mohini Attam
The theme of Mohini attam dance is love and devotion to god. Vishnu or Krishna is most often the hero. The
spectators can feel his invisible presence when the heroine or her maid details dreams and ambitions through circular
movements, delicate footsteps and subtle expressions. Through slow and medium tempos, the dancer is able to find
adequate space for improvisations and suggestive bhavas or emotions.

The basic dance steps are the Adavus which are of four kinds: Taganam, Jaganam, Dhaganam and Sammisram. These
names are derived from the nomenclature called vaittari. The Mohini attam dancer maintains realistic make-up and
adorns a simple costume, in comparison to costumes of other dances, such as Kathakali. The dancer is attired in a
beautiful white with gold border Kasavu saree of Kerala, with the distinctive white Jasmin flowers around a French
bun at the side of her head.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Performing a r t s in india
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
11
Bharata Natyam
Bharata Natyam dance has been handed down through the centuries by dance
teachers (or gurus) called nattuwanars and the temple dancers, called devadasis. In
the sacred environment of the temple these families developed and propagated their
heritage. The training traditionally took around seven years under the direction of the
nattuwanar who were scholars and persons of great learning. The four great
nattuwanars of Tanjore were known as the Tanjore Quartet and were brothers named
Chinnaiah, Ponnaiah, Vadivelu and Shivanandam. The Bharata Natyam repertiore as
we know it today was constructed by this talented Tanjore Quartet.

Kuchipudi
The dance drama that stil exists today and can most closely be associated with the
Sanskrit theatrical tradition is Kuchipudi which is also known as Bhagavata Mela
Natakam. The actors sing and dance, and the style is a blend of folk and classical.
Arguably this is why this technique has greater freedom and fluidity than other dance
styles.

Bhagavata mela natakam was always performed as an offering to the temples of


either Merratur, Soolamangalam, Oothkadu, Nallur or Theperumanallur.

Kathak
This north Indian dance form is inextricably bound with classical Hindustani music,
and the rhythmic nimbleness of the feet is accompanied by the table or pakhawaj.
Traditionally the stories were of Radha and Krishna, in the Natwari style (as it was
then called) but the Mughal invasion of North India had a serious impact on the
dance. The dance was taken to Muslim courts and thus it became more entertaining
and less religious in content. More emphasis was laid on nritya, the pure dance aspect
and less on abhinaya (expression and emotion).

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Performing a r t s in india
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
12

Odissi
Odissi is based on the popular devotion to Lord Krishna and the verses of the Sanskrit play Geet Govinda are
used to depict the love and devotion to God. The Odissi dancers use their head, bust and torso in soft flowing
movements to express specific moods and emotions.

The form is curvaceous, concentrating on the tribhang or the division of the body into three parts, head, bust
and torso; the mudras and the expressions are similar to those of Bharatnatyam. Odissi performances are
replete with lores of the eighth incarnation of Vishnu, Lord Krishna. It is a soft, lyrical classical dance which
depicts the ambience of Orissa and the philosophy of its most popular deity, Lord Jagannath, whose temple is
in Puri. On the temple walls of Bhubaneshwar, Puri and Konark the dance sculptures of Odissi are clearly
visible.

Manipuri
This dance style was originally called jogai which means
circular movement. In ancient texts it has been compared to the
movement of the planets around the sun. It is said that when
Krishna, Radha and the gopis danced the Ras Leela, Shiva made
sure that no one disturbed the beauty of the dancing. Parvati, the
consort of Lord Shiva also wished to see this dance, so to please
her he chose the beautiful area of manipur and re-enacted the
Ras Leela. Hundreds of centuries later, in the 11th century,
during the reign of Raja Loyamba, prince Khamba of the
Khomal dynasty and Princess Thaibi of the Mairang dynasty re-
enacted the dance and it became known as Lai-Haraoba, the most
ancient dance of Manipur.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Performing a r t s in india
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
13

Forms of music in India:


The music of India includes multiple varieties of folk, popular, pop, classical music and R&B. India's classical music tradition, including Carnatic and
Hindustani music, has a history spanning millennia and developed over several eras. It remains fundamental to the lives of Indians today as sources of
spiritual inspiration, cultural expression and pure entertainment. India is made up of several dozen ethnic groups, speaking their own languages and
dialects having distinct cultural traditions.
The two main traditions of classical music are Carnatic music, found predominantly in the peninsular regions, and Hindustani music, found in the
northern and central regions.

Hindustani music
(Main article: Hindustani classical music)

Hindustani music is an Indian classical music tradition that goes back to Vedic times around 1000 BC.
It further developed circa the 13th and 14th centuries AD with Persian influences and from existing
religious and folk music. The practice of singing based on notes was popular even from the Vedic times
where the hymns in Sama Veda, a sacred text, were sung as Samagana and not chanted. Developing a
strong and diverse tradition over several centuries, it has contemporary traditions established primarily
in India but also in Pakistan and Bangladesh.

In contrast to Carnatic music, the other main Indian classical music tradition originating from the
South, Hindustani music was not only influenced by ancient Hindu musical traditions, historical Vedic
philosophy and native Indian sounds but also enriched by the Persian performance practices of the
Mughals. During the Medieval age especially in the Mughal era various Gharana became famous due
to excellence and class in type of musics like raga, almost all from the lineage of Tansen one of the
navratna of Mughal Emperor Akbar. Classical genres are dhrupad, dhamar, khyal, taranay sadra..

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Performing a r t s in india
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
14

Carnatic music
(Main article: Carnatic music)

The present form of Carnatic music is based on historical developments that can be traced to the 15th
- 16th centuries AD and thereafter. However, the form itself is reputed to have been one of the gifts
bestowed on man by the gods of Hindu mythology. It is one of the oldest musical forms that continue
to survive today.

Carnatic music is melodic, with improvised variations. It consists of a composition with improvised
embellishments added to the piece in the forms of Raga Alapana, Kalpanaswaram, Neraval and in the
case of more advanced students, Ragam Tanam Pallavi. The main emphasis is on the vocals as most
compositions are written to be sung, and even when played on instruments, they are meant to be
performed in a singing style (known as gāyaki). There are about 7.2 million ragas (or scales) in
Carnatic Music, with around 300 still in use today.

Purandara Dasa is considered the father of carnatic music. Sri Tyagaraja, Sri Shyama Shastryand Sri
Muthuswami Dikshitarare considered the trinity of carnatic music and with them came the golden
age in carnatic music in the 18th-19th century

Noted artists of Carnatic Music include MS Subbulakshmi, Ariyakudi Ramanuja Iyengar (the father
of the current concert format), Semmangudi Srinivasa Iyer,TN Seshagopalanand more recently
Sanjay Subrahmanyan TM Krishna Bombay Jayashri etc.

Every December, the city of Chennai in India has its six week-long Music Season, which has been
described as the world's largest cultural event. It has served as the foundation for most music in South
India, including folk music, festival music and has also extended its influence to film music in the
past 100–150 years or so.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Performing a r t s in india
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
15

Theater in India: Traditional Indian theatre


The earliest form of the theatre of India was the Sanskrit theatre. It Kutiyattam is the only surviving specimen of the ancient Sanskrit
began after the development of Greek and Roman theatre and before the theatre, thought to have originated around the beginning of the
development of theatre in other parts of Asia. It emerged sometime Common Era, and is officially recognised by UNESCO as a
between the 2nd century BCE and the 1st century CE and flourished Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. In
between the 1st century CE and the 10th, which was a period of relative addition, many forms of Indian folk theatre abound. Bhavai (strolling
peace in the history of India during which hundreds of plays were players) is a popular folk theatre form of Gujarat, said to have arisen in
written. With the Islamic conquests that began in the 10th and 11th the 14th century CE. Jatra has been popular in Bengal and its origin is
centuries, theatre was discouraged or forbidden entirely. Later, in an traced to the Bhakti movement in the 16th century. Another folk
attempt to re-a India as one of the means of entertainment. As a diverse, theatre form popular in Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Malwa region
multi-cultural nation, the theatre of India cannot be reduced to a single, ofMadhya Pradesh is Swang, which is dialogue-oriented rather than
homogenous trend. movement-oriented and is considered to have arisen in its present form
in the late 18th - early 19th centuries.
Yakshagana is a very popular theatre
art in Karnataka and has existed under
different names at least since the 16th
century. It is semi-classical in nature
and involves music and songs based on
carnatic music, rich costumes,
storylines based on the Mahabharata
and Ramayana It also employs spoken
dialogue in-between its songs that
gives it a folk art flavour. Kathakali is a
form of dance-drama, characteristic
of Kerala, that arose in the 17 th
century, developing from the temple-
art plays Krishnanattam and
Rananattam.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Performing a r t s in india
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
:
16

Metropolitan centre:

Metropolitan centres are traditionally the main focus of cultural activity within a country, with a concentration of companies and facilities for the
performing arts, their organization, creative activity and education of performers, management and production staff. Such centres benefit from the
major concentration of population and national focus of transportation networks.
There are several categories as follows:

Opera house
National subsidized professional resident company in repertory or repertoire and visiting comparable companies of international standard providing
large-scale opera productions. Such a facility may be exclusively for opera or combined with ballet.

Ballet/dance theatre
National subsidized professional resident company as described under opera house, but exclusively for ballet and dance.

Concert hall
Classical orchestral and choral music, jazz and pop/ rock music, with the leading subsidized professional orchestras and groups. Either housing a
resident orchestra for their exclusive or seasonal use, or a touring facility hired by promotional organizations including the orchestras and groups.

Recital room
Medium- and small-scale classical orchestral and choral music, jazz and pop/rock music also with readings such as poetry. Either housing a resident
orchestra for a season or, more often, hosting touring companies and groups.

Experimental music workshop


Facility for the development of new forms of music with a prevailing concentration on electronics and amplification.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
17
Commercial theatre
Drama and musical productions usually initiated by the management or promoting organization with long runs over several mont hs. Such theatres
usually present new plays and musicals and originate the new productions.
They may also be initiated by the subsidized sector and transferred to the commercial theatre.

Arena
Facilities for the presentation of very large-scale pop/ rock concerts and other spectacles covering opera, music and musicals, hired by commercial
organizations who initiate and promote groups and companies as one-off events or part of a tour.

Drama theatre
National subsidized professional resident drama company in repertory, or repertoire and visiting companies of national and international standard,
producing new and established works.

Small- and medium-scale drama theatre


Small theatres presenting new plays and experimental productions, with or without subsidy to supplement revenue, relying on low overheads and
benefiting from a large catchment area from which audiences are attracted.

Other categories
● Universities and Colleges including Schools of Music and Drama, providing theatres and concert halls for their own and public use
● Open-air auditoria for seasonal concerts and drama productions
● Informal external spaces for street theatre, music and entertainments
● Theatres with restrictions on company (e.g. Youth Theatre) and audience (e.g. club theatres with restricted membership)
● One-off events including stadium concerts and festivals.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
18
Entrance foyer
The entrance foyer may be required to accommodate the following:

●ticket check if at entrance, and not at points of entry into the auditorium
●information in the form of leaflets and other handouts describing productions and events, notice boards providing information on events and,
possibly, a reception/information desk
●circulation and waiting area
●seating (desirable for ambulant disabled)
●directional signage directing the public to the various facilities (consider carefully colour, size and type face for clarity and for the visually
impaired and elderly)
●supervision: some consideration needs to be given to oversee the entrance area by the staff in order to offer assistance and exercise control
●exhibition and display: space for temporary exhibitions or wall display; display cases for merchandise and crafts
●access to box office, crèche, cloakrooms, toilets and sales, as well as meeting rooms and other public facilities
The public needs to be able to easily identify visually the main circulation routes to the auditorium and other public facilities from the
entrance
foyer.

Offices and associated areas


The following staff may require individual offices; with each office being 12–15M2:
●Platform/stage manager
●Assistant platform/stage manager
●Secretary
●Chief technician
●Master carpenter
●Property master
● Wardrobe mistress/master
In addition electricians, and platform/stage hands and including flymen (if appropriate) require changing rooms: allow 3M2 per person. Stage
hands for opera, musicals, dance and drama productions, if seen within a performance will require make-up provision and to change into
costumes. Showers should be available to stage hands and flymen, off their changing rooms. A separate toilet can be located at platform/stage
level, suitable for wheelchair users.
Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
19

Foyer
The foyer provides the means of access to all parts of the auditorium and should have facilities for the public to sit, talk, walk about and meet
friends. These social aims can include also a legitimate level of self-display from formal promenading to a general awareness of those attending a
performance. The floor area is related to the capacity of the auditorium: allow a minimum of 0.6M2 per person for all the foyer areas, excluding
toilets, cloakroom and vertical circulation.

Public entrance
The front entrance provides the main access into, and egress from, the
building for the public. The entrance should be located along the main
access route and be clearly visible: the public should be aware of the
entrance by its location and signage. The entrance gives information
about the attitude of the management towards the public and can be
welcoming or intimidating, exclusive or embracing, clear or obscure.

Requirements for public entrance areas include:


●Access and parking: Provision for passengers to alight at the main entrance by taxi, car or coach, with a discrete lay by or service road, especially
if it is a large building complex, and close proximity to parking.
● External display: Name of the building and/or company as an illuminated external sign; posters and advertising material; current and
future attractions on adjustable signs or electronic signs; banners and flags. The building itself, suitably artificially lit when dark, is also an
external display.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
20

Canopy: Provision of shelter at the main entrance from inclement weather with a protective cover over, and across, the line of doors. A
canopy is a useful device for gathering together pedestrian routes and dropping-off points if dispersed (Figure 13.2).
●Entrance doors and lobbies: Two lines of doors reduce noise and draught penetration into the foyer; automatic doors are essential for
wheelchair users. The distance between the lines of doors should be a minimum of 2 M: several pairs of doors

Parking:

Landscaping:

Integration of all the spaces can be achieved by landscape, built form- such as
connecting corridors, pergolas, pavement design etc.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
21

Signage's :
Standard signage's used for the building services, the signage's should reflect the cultural theme of
the
design it should be placed in such a manner that people need not ask which direction to go.

Art gallery :
The gallery may be designed as a formal interior essentially for pictures, or
less formal and specific, allowing exhibitions to be created for the space. Live
Art should be considered, as should the use of gallery space for recitals,
drama performances and so on, in which case the acoustic characteristics of
the space would require particular attention. The whole of the gallery can be
the foyer space to the auditorium, with refreshment areas, toilets, etc.
off the gallery, thus making the gallery the focus of the public spheres.

A display can be provided within the foyer associated with a performance or


conference, exhibitions of local interest, sponsors’ material and
art-related displays, on walls or screens. Security can be covered by the
general provision in the building.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
22

Library :

•Area required for a simple reading/work place is 2.5 m2


For a PC or individual work place > 4.0 m2 is needed
• fire precaution
•Installation of book security system will prevent theft of book, by
giving electronic lock up.
•The more efficient method is to have linked areas which as large as
possible without change in level.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
23
Toilets:
Legislation provides a guide to the minimum provision: this is usually inadequate especially for women.
A general guide to the minimum requirements is as follows:
Men WCs minimum of 2 for up to 500 males, then one for each additional 500.
Urinals minimum of 2 for up to 100 males, then one for each additional 100.
Wash basins one for each WC plus one for each five urinals.
Women WCs minimum of 2 for up to 75 females, then one for each additional 50.
Wash basin one for each WC.
Also consider powder shelves, long mirrors and sanitary towel dispensers and
disposal in women’s toilets and provision for changing nappies
Allow for handdrying facilities: either electric warm air dryers, roller towels
or paper towels with containers for disposal.
Separate toilet or toilets for disabled persons, containing 1 WC and 1 wash basin
in each toilet, are essential provision.
Toilets should be located off the main circulation near the entrance lobby and also
at each level of and
Auditorium the foyer in a multi-levelformats
platform/stage auditorium.

The relationship between the auditorium [the audience] and the platform/stage [the performance] is a fundamental requirement. The selected
format affects the experience for both audience and performers, seating capacity and auditorium size and shape, from which follows the general
arrangement of the building.
The relationship may be summarized as either the proscenium format or open stage format: the proscenium format is as if the performance is
seen through a window’ or hole in the wall and there is a clear division between audience and performers; the open stage formats follow the
concept of the auditorium and platform/ stage being within a single volume with the seating confronting, partially surrounding or wholly
surrounding the platform/stage.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
24

Predominant types of production:


The following relationships accommodate a predominant type of production in purpose-built facilities.
Compatible secondary uses may be included in the brief but they do not require any physical adaptation of the auditorium and platform/stage, or only
require a modest level of flexibility.
For orchestral and choral classical music in a concert hall or recital room, there are three broad categories: the audience focused towards the orchestra
and choir on the platform, with or without choir stalls, in a single direction; the audience on three sides, semi-surrounding the platform; the audience
surrounding the platform .

Types of single direction relationship include the:


● rectangular box;
● variations on the rectangular box;
● fan-shaped auditorium.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
25

Open stage forms:

The open stage forms may be classified into five broad categories:
● End stage: the audience focused towards the stage within a rectangular box: the stage at the narrow end, with stage and audience in the same space.
● Fan-shaped: the stage is encircled by the audience by 90°. This level of encirclement allows the performer to command the audience and for the
performer to be seen against a scenic background by the audience.
● Thrust stage: with the audience on three sides, semi-surrounding the stage.
● Theatre-in-the-round: the audience surrounds the performance. Entrances by the performers are through the audience. Acoustically the performer
needs to project to the whole audience in every direction, which implies a limit to the maximum distance from stage to rear row.
● Traverse stage: the audience either side of the stage.

Multi-purpose formats:

As opposed to an auditorium and platform/stage for a predominant type of production in a purpose-built facility, the brief may refer to more than
one type of production to be accommodated within a single format.
Also productions may require combination with non-performing arts activities. Each of the alternative uses will require specific provisions to be
made in its design and equipment; in platform/stage space; in orchestra space and modification of acoustics; in scenery storage and workshops; in
stage lighting and sound. While some degree of flexibility can be accommodated at reasonable cost and with success, there is a limit to the
multiplicity of use. Apart from design difficulties, the cost of providing for the different requirements and of operating a multi-purpose form may
become disproportionately high. The success of a multi-purpose format depends upon the compatibility of the various activities and the designer
must be rigorous in the assessment of the activities.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
26

The viewer:

• The horizontal angle of polychromatic vision is generally 40 degree without eye movements.

• The horizontal angle to the projector screen at witch distortion on the screen becomes substantially intolerant is 60 degree measured to the far
side of the projected image .
LOCATION OF AUDIENCE
• Audience will not choose a location beyond a line proximity 100 degree to the curtain at the side of the proscenium .
DESIRABILITY OF LOCATIONS BY AUDIENCE
• Judged by the ability to recognize shapes, and confirmed by free audience, choice of seats, the following are the desirable locations:
A – front center B- middle center C-middle side
D-front side E-rear center F-rear side

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
27

BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (actor/performer)


ACTION SPACE
Check in , get mails and messages. 1) vestibule – min 50sqft
equipments- bulletin board.
telephone booth
2) door mans booth – min 30
softy
equipments- counter, mail
Dress for performance box, small
1) dressing deck ,key rack
room-50sqft/person
-put makeup and costume location – near stage
equipments- clothes, costume hanger, shoe racks, make up table
30’’ wide, 18’’ deep,18’’wide mirror, one lavatory each
1/ 4ppl in large dressing room.
2) makeup room – 300sqft(min)
equipments- makeup table/ benches, chair on 2 sides, lights on
face.
Wait for call to stage 1) green room-50 sqft/person (min)
-stage manager checks cast location- near stage
equipments- lounge, furniture,
tables, full length mirror, call
system outlet.
2) stage anterroom – alternate to green room – 150 sqft
equipments- chair and benches
Go to stage location- near proscenium without lounge aspects.
-enter and perform leave the set 1) passage of min. wifth 1.5m no stair only ramp for
level change.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
28

ACTION SPACE
Quick change 1) dressing room – min 50sqft/ actor
space for dresser to help actor
location- immediate to the stage.

Waltz for curtain calls 1) green room , stage anteroom

Removal costume 1) shower- adjoining each


dressing room 1/6 actor

Confer with stage manager/ director 1) green room with adjoining kitchenette.

Check out and leave theater 1) vestibule and stage entrance

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
29

A LOADING PLATFORM
DELIVERY DOCK

B LOADING DOOR
STOCK ROOM

RECEIVING AND
C SHIPPING SPACE
CRATE STORAGE
CARPENTER SHOP

D
STORAGE SPACE
PAINT SHOP REPAIR SHOP

E SCENERY SPACE
STORE ROOM

FLOW CHART FOR SCENERY

Sequence e ABCDE for commercial


theater EFGHDE for self contained
theater

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
30

BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (musician )


ACTION SPACE
Check in , get mails and messages. 1) vestibule – min 50sqft
equipments- bulletin board.
telephone booth
2) door mans booth – min 30
softy
equipments- counter, mail
Prepare for performance box, smallroom
1) musician deck–,key rackmin
300sqft
-tune instruments and practice location – at basement level near pit , large instrument are usually kept
in the pit
equipments- locker or cloth racks ,chair , music cabinet, call system
outlet.
Go to pit 1) passage – direct large door allow carrying instruments.
2) orchestra pit -10sqft for musician
-100sqft for grand piano
-50 sqft tympana
width from stage figured on per person basis / depth should be kept
so
Probable steps or platform to be set over orchestra pit that musicians are below audience sight line .
1) conductor must see stage.
2)singer and orchestra must see conductor.
3) elevated orchestra pit floor- featured orchestra as a part of
performance , adds floor for seating if brought to auditorium level
Leave pit and leave theater makes forestage when required.
lavatories and toilets same as for actors, dressing room with lavatory and
shower for the conductor.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
31

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
32

BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (stage hand )


ACTION SPAC
Entrance theater check in
E
Stage entrance and vestibule

Change clothes and go to stage Locker room according to number of men


Equipment – individual lockers, chair benches and phone
Location – in basement near stage, serves as stage hands lounge, direct
to either side of stage

Work the show Locker room


equipment-lounge furniture , adjoining toilets

Clean up and leave Locker room ,shower 1per 4 people

Treatment of accidents First aid room – 50 sqft min.


Equipments – surgical table, stools., sink and hot water facilities.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
33

BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (stage manager )


ACTION SPAC
Checking in , getting mails and messages
E
Use stage hands locker room

Manage the show Stage managers desk- on stage near proscenium on working side.
Equipments- calls, phone, monitor, moving stage control etc.
Work the show Locker room
equipment-lounge furniture , adjoining toilets

Care of scripts, use sheets etc. Office min 50sqft

BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (scenery )


ACTION SPAC
Brought to theater
E
Loading door-8’ X 12’ / 2.5m x 3.6m located at side ear , rear of the
stage
Loading platform- width of 2 vans
Stored pending set up Receiving space- 200sqft min,
Equipments – pipe frame at right angles to wall optional for stacking
Scenery / clear wall and floor space.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
34

BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (scenery )


ACTION SPAC
Set up
E
Stage equipment for flying , rolling and sinking scenery

Repairing Repair shop- 300sqft(min)


Equipments –work bench, tools for working.

Dismantling and transportation Receiving space, loading door

BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (properties)

ACTION SPAC
E
Brought to theater and unpacked Loading door – 6’x8’ / 1.83m x 2.5m
Separate from scenery door, adjacent to loading platform - 100sqft

Fitted to set of scenery , stored on stage (floor / rack / shelves) Operated during show, repaired, struck and transported.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
35

BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (lighting equipments )


ACTION SPAC
Brought to theater
E
Loading door

Unpacked Receiving space – 100 sqft


Additional space for properties, create storage when empty
Location – alley /loading platform

Installed Lighting equipment may be placed in any position on stage , above


stage , in slots in auditorium ceiling or in front of balcony and boxes.

Operated, dismantled, taken out.

BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (sound apparatus)


With less bulky by 75%, essentially the same lighting equipments.

BACKSTAGE OPERATION: (costume)


Brought to theater – loading door- property door
Passage of – 5ft /1.5m clear width, no stairs, use ramp when needed Wardrobe room – 120 sqft(min)

Equipment – costume hanger 12ft liner, ironing board

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
36
Auditorium design:
The three-dimensional volume of an auditorium is conditioned by the limitations set by all members of the audience able to hear and see a
performance, and for the performers to be able to command the audience. Seating density, floor rake and seating layout are covered by legislation
to ensure a satisfactory means of escape in case of fire, and by an appropriate level of comfort for the audience. Performance organization requires
lighting, sound and broadcasting positions within the auditorium and a view of the whole performance area from control rooms.

Aural limitation Visual limitation

Aural limitations Visual limitations:


There are limits to the distance There are visual limitations that determine the maximum distance from the
across which speech, singing and performance area beyond which the audience is unable to appreciate the
music can be clearly heard in an performance adequately and for the performers to command an audience.
auditorium, without the assistance of The distance to the furthest seat varies according to the type and scale of
amplification, and this has a bearing production:
●In order to discern facial expression – essential with drama – the
on the maximum distance from
performance to the rear row of seats. maximum distance from the point of command on the stage should not
Beyond these limits the lack of exceed 20 M. The point of command is the geometric centre of an open
audibility gives the audience less stage or the setting line of a proscenium stage.
than the basic requirement to clearly
●For opera and musicals, discerning facial expressions is less critical and
hear a performance. The distance
varies according to type of the distance to the rear row can be 30 M.
production. Other factors include the
●For dance, the audience needs to appreciate the body and feet of the
articulation of the spoken work by
an actor or the sound quality, dancers, and also to discern facial expressions: the maximum distance
including loudness, from a musical from the point
instrument. of command on the stage should not exceed 20M.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
37

Auditorium acoustics:
The acoustic performance of the auditorium is a critical design requirement and needs to be considered as part of the initial brief. Acoustic
performance refers to the quality of the sound – music or speech – heard by each member of the audience, and also the performers on the
platform/stage. Design considerations for the acoustics of an auditorium, when the sound is not amplified, include:
●Type of production: each type has its own requirements with different characteristics for music and speech.

● Shape and size of the auditorium: the extent to which the audience surrounds the platform/stage;
seating capacity; number and depth of balconies; rake of the seating; for concerts, the proportion of length to width and height to width; for
opera, dance and musicals, the location of the orchestra pit; location of performance lighting and sound equipment and lighting bridges.

●Setting for the performance: such as permanent architectural setting,


within audience, proscenium stage and so on.

●Volume of the auditorium: calculated as the number


in the audience multiplied by a ratio of volume
to person, according to the type of production:
3.4M3 per person for music and 9M3 per person for
speech within the auditorium enclosure: for opera
the ratio is between 7M3 and 8M3 per person.

●Reverberation time: the difference in time between


direct sound to each member of an audience and
the reflected sound from all surfaces of the
auditorium,
which requires to be short for speech and long for
music

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
38
Seating layout:
The seating layout in an auditorium depends mainly on the selection of format – the relationship between audience and performance – and the visual
and aural limitations associated with a particular type of production as well as the number of levels and sightlines. Other aspects which influence the
layout, and thereby condition seating capacity, include factors in the following sections.
Design of the individual auditorium seat
The design aim is to provide an appropriate standard of comfort during a performance. The range of human body dimensions is wide, while a single,
or restricted, size of seat is normally provided. Also tolerance levels vary between generations and indeed between different performing arts: the
young can tolerate simple seating found less comfortable by older age groups,
whereas those attending concerts of classical music appear to expect a level of comfort higher than those at a drama performance. The dimensions of
a seat are generally based on a median characteristic of the anticipated users, which varies by age and also by nationality.
Minor variation is achieved by the upholstery and adjustment of the back and seat pan material when the seat is occupied: otherwise the seat selection
is a common size within the whole, or part of, the auditorium layout. Probably the best that can be achieved is in the order of 90 per cent of the
audience within an acceptable range of comfort.

Other factors include:

● Acoustics: upholstery must satisfy the acoustic


requirements, usually the level of absorbency when
unoccupied; this is especially the case with music.
● Ventilation/heating: for air supply or extract under a
seat, space should be allowed in the floor or riser to
receive a grille.
● Upholstery: thickness of padding should provide
comfort and avoid fatigue, but should not encourage
excessive relaxation; the material of the
padding and finish must satisfy fire regulations.
For choice of type of seat .

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
39

Seating density
Density of seating can vary (Figure 12.20): seats with arms and
a tippable seat can occupy an area as small as 500 mm wide,
and less with seats without arms, with a row to row dimension
of 760 mm, but can be as large as 750 mm wide by 1400 mm.
This is a variation from 0.38M2 to 1.05M2, with these
examples, and the increased dimensions means fewer seats
within a given area and reduces the seating capacity. The
minimum dimensions laid down by legislation offer a low
standard of comfort for the audience. Comfort needs to be
considered, especially knee room, and these dimensions should
not be taken as the norm. Social cohesion of the audience may
be lost if the space standards are too high, with the performer
being less aware of the grouping and more the individuals.

Travel distance
The evacuation from each level of the auditorium within a limited period of time is required in case of a fire. For traditional seating the travel
distance is 18 M measured from the gangway: for continental seating, 15 M from any seat. The aim is to evacuate the audience of each level within
2.5 minutes.
Exit numbers
At least two separate independent exits must be provided from each level within the auditorium. The exits should be located with sufficient
remoteness from each other to allow alternative directions of escape. The number of exits per level are two for each level within an auditorium with
the seating capacity up to 500: an additional exit is required for every further 250 seats as
defined by legislation. Egress in case of emergencies should follow the natural flow of movement from the
seats away from the platform/stage.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
40

Exit widths
The exit widths are laid down by regulations. The base calculation is 45 persons per minute per unit width of 520–530 mm. The minimum total
exit widths required are outlined

Exit route
The exits from the auditorium must lead directly to a place of safety. The exit route must be the same width as the exit and be a consistent
width avoiding bottlenecks. The exit doors from the auditorium, any doors within the route and the final exit doors must open in the
direction of egress. Staircases within the route are subject to the following conditions: the maximum number of steps, 16: the minimum
number, 2; tread/riser to be 275 – 180, as a recommended ratio, and consistent.
Ramps should be at a pitch of 1.15, in lengths of 10 m maximum with intermediate platforms. Exit routes for wheelchair users are required
to be on the flat or ramped if there is a change of level, and may be required to be separate from the other routes. Routes are to be enclosed
by fire-resistant material within the building.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
41

Circulation within auditorium:


Audience entry points into the auditorium from the foyer can be at the rear or sides of the seating, or within
the banks of seating, and should be related to the gangway positions While gangways are primarily calculated
as part of the escape route in case of fire, they also act as circulation routes through the auditorium, with
possible additional gangways, from the audience entry points to the particular row and seat. Access through
banks of raked seating –
vomitories – remove seats, and thereby reduce the potential seating capacity .A threshold
space at the entry points for ticket checks, programme sales and for members of the audience to orientate
themselves should be considered.

Gangways for use by wheelchair users require to be flat or ramped: the pitch should not exceed 1.15 for a
ramp with a maximum distance of 10 M. Beyond 10 M, the regulations require a flat platform, which in a
large auditorium may be inconvenient as it may break the line of the seating banks. Permission will be
necessary to have a continuous ramp. For a wheelchair user moving from a ramped gangway to a flat
platform will require an intermediate ramp. Gangway widths are established through the regulations
covering fire escape from auditoria. The minimum width though is taken as 1100 mm unless used
by wheelchair users where the width increases to 1200mm.
Handrails will be required to a stepped gangway adjacent to an enclosing wall; to a stepped gangway if a
drop at the side; at landings, rear of rostra and where there is a drop of more than 600 mm; where the rake is
above 25° to a gangway the ends of the rows served
by the gangway may require a loop rail
Rails are usually 900 mm above the pitch line and 1200 mm above landings, with panels either solid or sub-
divisions which may require a 100mm maximum gap.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
42
Performers’ access through the auditorium
Performers may have access to the stage through the auditorium during a performance by way of:
● access along the gangways, with stepped access onto the stage if raised;
●access through vomitories exclusively for performers.
Details of a performers’ vomitory are shown in
The performers’ vomitory can be filled
to accommodate auditorium seating if not in use.

Wheelchair location within the seating


Regulations require a minimum number of places for
wheelchairs at each level, or 1/100th of the audience
capacity whichever is the greater. Wheelchair locations, as
discrete areas, can occur at the rear, front, side or within
the seating. Wheelchairs can be centrally positioned by
forming a bay off a cross gangway. The actual location will
be conditioned by the particular seating layout, the
convenient points of entry from the public areas and the
escape arrangements in the case of fire. Separate entrances
into the auditorium as well as escape routes should be
considered.
Choice of location within an auditorium is desirable,
covering each level and within different sections
of the seating. In the larger auditorium, placing the
wheelchair users in a single designated area should be
avoided.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
43

Broadcasting requirements
Television cameras
External broadcasting – television and radio – and recording in auditoria may be a requirement
especially in those buildings for the performing arts housing
or hosting national and regional professional companies. Television cameras require to be
located in the seating areas either in specific
locations, on platforms, or by displacing seats.

Sound control room


In large auditoria with amplified sound and/or sound
effects the sound control room may be located within
the seating area to benefit from being in the acoustic
volume of the auditorium.

Adaptation
In multi-purpose auditoria where different formats or
uses are combined then all or part of the raked seating
will require to be movable. This can be achieved
by forming a structure off a flat floor, and include

● Bleacher seating: Telescopic structure with tippable


upholstered seating with backs, able
retracted into the depth of a single and highest
row. The rows are straight and the extended structure
is a simple rectangular block, which places a
discipline on the seating layout.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
44

●Rostra: Complete raked units with either permanent or removable seats, on wheels or air pallets for ease of
movement into storage areas when not in use.
●Sectional rostra: A set of boxes able to be built up to form raked units with removable seats. The storage requirements
are less than complete rostra.
●Kit of parts: Scaffolding or equivalent set of components able to form raked levels to receive seating. This is the most
flexible system, it has efficient storage requirements, but is labour intensive.
●Hydraulic lifts: Mechanical method of raising sections of the flat floor to form a rake floor to receive
seating. Loose seats, secured in position when required for
Performances.
Sightlines: seated audience
For the whole of the audience to have an uninterrupted view of the performance and its setting over the heads in front
and clear of overhangs,
the section and plan of the auditorium needs to conform to certain limitations set by vertical and horizontal sightlines.

Vertical sightlines
Vertical sightlines may be calculated by establishing:
Lowest and nearest point of sight on the platform/ stage for the audience to
see clearly. The platform/stage height, when raised, can range from 600 to
1100 mm above the lowest level of the auditorium and point can be the
leading edge, or setting line for the performance, at or above the
platform/stage level. If a forestage is part of the proscenium or end stage
formats then point needs to relate to the forestage. If an orchestra pit is
included between stage and seating then point may be regarded as the
conductor’s head. With a symphony orchestra in a concert hall, the ability to
see each musician at the front of the stage (who partially masks the other
musicians) may not be critical and point P may be taken as over 600 mm
above the platform level at the front edge.
Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
45

Horizontal sightlines:
Horizontal sightlines are to be considered only with a
proscenium stage and possibly end stage and platforms
for classical and choral music. Given a particular
performance area, sightlines will limit the width
of seating that can be provided in the auditorium.
Conversely the sightlines from the side seats restrict
the amount of the performance area that can be used.
The narrowest dimension of the proscenium opening,
if adjustable, should be taken as the basis of the
calculations.
Each member of the audience should have a direct
view of the performance focused towards the centre
of the performance area. Curved or angled rows
direct the focus of the audience towards the centre.
The curved rows radiating from the circular stage of a
Greco-Roman theatre is a clear and simple example
of this form with the geometry emanating from a single
point. With a proscenium stage the geometry of Without head movement the arc to view the whole
of the performance area on plan is 40° from the eye.
the performance area varies from the setting out point
An acceptable degree of head movement is debatable,
of the seating; the audience should be contained
where the seat is focused away from the stage, as
within a 130° angle peripheral spread of vision
from the performer at the point of command on the with side galleries, requiring the head to be turned by
the member of the audience .
performance area for opera, dance, musicals and
Drama.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
46

Ventilation
The experience of enjoying a performance is influenced Ventilation supply rates of air relate to the need to
by the quality of the ventilation in the auditorium, provide fresh air at a rate of change to achieve suitable
and the avoidance of draughts, stuffiness and comfort conditions: rates are subject to legislation
noise of mechanical ventilation. Health needs include expressed as a minimum of fresh air supply per
respiration while comfort needs include maintaining person, including a proportion of recycled conditioned
body heat, control of airborne contamination and air. Air change rates appear to vary according
removal of odours. There is also the cost of the ventilation to the authoritative body.
and associated questions about heating which The basic principle of mechanical ventilation lies
can contribute significantly to the running costs. with bringing air into an auditorium, with air which is
The approach to the ventilation of an auditorium fresh, clean and at a similar temperature, achieving a
reflects its size and shape (number of balconies in particular), number of air changes per hour when the auditorium is
level of flexibility (different audience/performance occupied. This is complemented by the extract of air to
relationships), the type of construction of achieve the air changes. There are different locations for
the auditorium enclosure and external climate conditions. the introduction of air into an auditorium and for the
The initial design decisions lie with defining the extraction of air.
noise criterion and number of air changes per hour to
be achieved in the auditorium. The acceptable level of
noise can vary according to performing art: for drama
the level can be NR25 while for orchestral music the
level may be required to be much lower at NR20. For
recording, the level would be even lower with a recommended
NR15. This criteria refers to the background
noise level and not the quality of the sound as experienced
by members of an audience.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
47
Lighting:
Lighting within the auditorium covers the following:
●Performance lighting Lighting positions within the auditorium at ceiling level, on side and rear walls, balcony fronts and at low level within the
seating; the lighting direction is towards the platform/stage with clear projection; each position requires ease of access for technicians to change and
adjust, with lighting bridges at ceiling level and ladder access to wall locations; follow spotlights require a location at the rear of
the auditorium or from a lighting bridge at ceiling lighting is an integral part of the staging of all types of production, except orchestral and choral
music, and is subject to changes within a performance controlled by operatives at the rear of the auditorium . The tradition for orchestral and choral
music is for the platform to be illuminated during the performance with a general and fixed level of lighting: however this may be changing
with, say, follow spotlights as an increasingly common feature.

Auditorium lighting: For illumination of circulation routes and seating areas for the audience to move around the auditorium, read programmes, and
so on; decorative lighting emphasizing architectural features within the auditorium. Auditorium lighting is usually dimmed and out during the actual
performance for all types of production except for classical and choral music, where the tradition is to dim the lights only.
●Emergency lighting: An illumination of the circulation routes within the auditorium during a performance, with the luminaires located at ceiling
level or/and at a low level incorporated into the design of the gangways; exit signs and emergency directions at points of egress in the auditorium;
lighting of the auditorium at times of emergency.

Working lights: general illumination of the auditorium for cleaning and maintenance as a separate system during times when the auditorium is
not used for performance and rehearsals.
● Director’s desk lighting: supply of power within the auditorium to serve temporary location of director’s desk during rehearsals. This is not
usually applicable for classical music.
● Cue lights: at entry points into the auditorium.
● Blue lights: areas within the auditorium which will be accessed during the performance by technicians and performers require lighting but at
a low level with a blue light to avoid distraction to the audience. This covers lighting bridges and entry points into the auditorium.
Ease of access is required to service all luminaires.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
48
Sound equipment:

The sound equipment described in the following sections may be required to be incorporated into
the auditorium design. Control rooms for performance sound, broadcasting and recording are
discussed under Performance Organization

Sound reinforcement:

Location of loudspeakers for the amplification of


music, voices or special effects, especially for those
performances relying on amplification such as musicals
and pop/rock concerts. The aim is to locate the
main loudspeaker to distribute sound across the whole
of the audience and can be:
●over the platform/stage along the setting line or
above the proscenium opening
●at the sides of the platform/stage as the traditional
position for pop/rock/jazz concerts (often touring
groups providing their own equipment)
●various positions within the auditorium to supplement
main loudspeakers and for sound effects on
side and rear walls, ceiling to auditorium and balconies
and, possibly, under the floor. Location
requires an uninterrupted line from speakers to
members of the audience.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
49
Public address
Loudspeakers may be required within the auditorium for announcements to the audience as a separate system.
Rehearsals
Loudspeakers may be required, usually located at the rear of the auditorium, for use during rehearsals on the stage, so that the director located in the
auditorium can communicate with the performers on the stage. This requirement tends not to be applicable for orchestral and choral music rehearsals,
or for small auditoria.

Broadcasting and recording


Consideration should be made of provision within the auditorium for television and radio transmission and for video, film and tape recording of a
performance. Spatial requirements, beyond camera and operator locations, are nominal and mainly include access for cables and equipment.

Aids for the hard of hearing


To assist the hard of hearing, consider the applications of one of the following:
● induction loop: magnetic field transmission looped around auditorium
● infra-red system: modulated light signals, radiated from a number of sources
● hard-wired: cable within floor trunking connected to panel in seat.

Fire protection
The enclosing walls and floors of the auditorium should be fire-resistant as should the doors and other openings in the walls. Other aspects to be
considered,include:
● non-combustibility of materials including finishes and seating
● detector system: smoke detectors in auditorium and associated voids
● extinguishers: hose-reels, portable extinguishers; automatic sprinkler systems will not be allowed over seating areas
● alarms: connected to automatic detector system and central indicator panel and, possibly, direct link to local fire station; alarms should be
visual
(flashing light) in auditorium and not audible.
Fire precautions should be discussed with the local fire authority and fire insurers

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
50

Structure:
A large span structure will be required, capable of carrying shaped ceiling, lighting bridges and ventilation ducts. Floors will be sloped, raked, dished
or, if a multi-purpose auditorium, flat. Balconies introduce additional long spans able to carry heavy loads. For sound insulation purposes the
auditorium walls will have to be substantial, which suggests load-bearing construction.

Ceiling zone:
The ceiling and ceiling zone are mainly determined by functional needs and include the following requirements:
●Acoustic requirements: Profiled reflector panels and possible adjustable diffusers to ensure distribution of sound over the whole seating area.
For non-amplified music the reflectors will need to be suspended over the platform as well.
●Lighting requirements: Access and supporting framework for performance lighting, ‘house’ lighting and also working lights and emergency
lights.
●Ventilation requirements: Air ducts and plenums, diffusers, noise attenuation and monitoring equipment, supporting hangers and means of access
for servicing.
● Production requirements: For opera, dance, musicals and drama, a grid and pulley suspension system for flying or suspending scenery over
forestage, including access by technicians.
● Fire control requirements: Alarm system in voids;
fire dampers in ducts.
Seating capacity:
The maximum capacity within an auditorium depends on the selection of format and the aural and visual limitations set by the type of
production. Other influences on the calculation include, levels, sightlines, acoustics, circulation and seating density, as well as the size and
shape of the platform/stage (to be described in the following section). To maximize the seating capacity within these limitations, sightlines
may be compromised so that, say, 10 per cent of the audience experiences 90 per cent of the performance area. This is a debatable issue
mainly associated with the proscenium format, where, to achieve an intimate character in the auditorium, a desire to provide
perfect sightlines for everyone may have to be overridden. The actual seating capacity depends on the ability to attract audiences which may
be less than the possible maximum. Also the potential peak demand could exceed the selected capacity on a particular evening: the aim
though should be to spread attendance across less popular days, or extend performances over a longer period of time rather than increase the
capacity over a short duration.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
51
Safety curtain:
In case of fire on the stage, traditionally it is necessary to separate
the stage areas from the auditorium, with the proscenium opening
being closed by a safety curtain. The normal form of safety curtain
is a rigid type which is suspended immediately behind the
proscenium opening, running between side tracks and dropping
onto the stage front from the flytower The safety curtain can be on
the straight line of the stage separating the orchestra pit, as part of
the auditorium from the stage, or on the line of the rail to the
orchestra pit so that when the pit is exchanged for an apron stage it
is accommodated within the stage area. If there is a curved or
angled pit rail then the safety curtain should follow the same line.
The safety curtain tends to be obligatory for auditoria with a
seating capacity over 500, as outlined in the building regulation.
The need for a safety curtain is historically-defined, based on pre-
electric lighting and extensive use of combustible materials on the
stage. The continued use of the traditional barrier of the safety Access to the stage: performers
curtain to separate the stage volume from the auditorium has been The door leading from the dressing rooms for the performers should be
questioned. Alternatives include a sprinkler system along the line of located down stage of the prompt side (PS) as the primary point of entry to
a proscenium opening and/or controlled smoke extract within the the stage, with a cross-over behind the stage, and at least a second point of
stage volume as well as away from the stage in the auditorium. entry on the non-PS side. All entrances to the stage require lobbies as sound
and light locks. The entrances should be located so as to leave a maximum
amount of clear wall space. Access is also required to the sub-stage by
performers from both sides of the performance area and possibly also from the
auditorium, which may require steps at the side of the front of the stage.
With opera, there are a large number of performers including principals,
chorus and dancers: separate access points should be considered for each
group.
.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
52
Orchestra pit: opera, musicals, dance:
The orchestra for opera, musicals and dance is in a pit between the stage and the audience. The limiting factor is for the co nductor to be seen by both the
singers and dancers on the stage and the musicians. The audience requires to hear a balance of singers and
orchestra, especially for opera. Amplification in musicals makes this requirement less of a necessity. Allow 1.3M2 average per player, 5M2 for the piano,
10M2 for tympani and percussion and 4M2 for the conductor. The actual production will have specific
orchestral requirements with variation in the size and composition of the orchestra. The conductor’s eye level must not be lo wer than stage level when
seated on a high stool.

To minimize the gulf between stage and audience the pit can extend under the stage
front for a distance no greater than 2 M. The soffit of the overhang should reflect the
sound outward into the auditorium. For opera, the pit should be designed for a
maximum of 100 musicians: for musicals, 60; for dance, 60–90. The numbers could be
less with touring companies. The floor level of the orchestra pit should be adjustable,
between 2–3 m, below the stage level to suit the different requirements of the musicians
and directors. The fire separation between auditorium and stage
must be maintained including the entry point into the pit: access must be possible from
both ends. The orchestra pit requires its own independent ventilation system, locally
controlled. Lifts may be required to reduce the size of the pit, and its acoustics.
The orchestra pit requires acoustic treatment and working lights, as well as the socket
outlets for lighting to music stands.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
53

Relationship between public spaces


The functional relationships between the
various
public spaces are shown in.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
54
Conclusion

A complete theater unit :must :


1) Accommodate an audience
2) accommodate a performance
3) Bring audience and performance together in the most efficient way

A theater must have the following salient feature:


4) Interdependence of functions- optimizing the audience performance relationship in order to increase the appreciation of
audience towards the performance and also to encourage the performers to give their best effort.
5) Universality – functional requisites are identical irrespective of the origin of the building project .
6) Harmony between functions and architectural stage theatrical functions must be the primary determinants of the site, shape
and
arrangements of the parts of the theater building.
4) Appropriate selection of site- the site must be big enough to hold the theater and to provide access and outside audience landing
facilities.
5) Development of plan – shape and size of the stage and auditorium , acting area and orchestra pit according to the audience.
6) Variation in program- all production type must be chosen for performance in order to keep the theater running.
7) Variable house capacity- many designs are there which can varry the size of the auditorium as per the number of people and
production type.
8) Attractiveness of the house can generate potential audience.
9) Appropriate stage .
10) Storage facility( in order to maintain the efficiency of the theater)
11)Audience ( in order to grab audience it is essential that their seeing and hearing experience is highlighted to the maximum
level.
12) Other sourse of income – a theater might not always move in profit and because of this it requires alternate means of income
which can be acquired by means of exhibition, letting out of spaces etc.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Literature study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
:
KALA ACADEMY,
GOA
Selection as case study:
The academy deals with both eastern and western form of art. Spaces are planned especially for
teaching and practice of performing arts.
55

KALA ACADEMY,
GOA
LOCATION: Situated at Campal, Panaji along the banks of river Mandovi
Area has mixed land use with a military hospital across the
road, a cricket ground and a park on either side.
ARCHITECT: Charles Correa
BUILDING TYPE: Institution
SITE AREA: 6.3acres
SITE GRADIENT: Gentle Slope
INTRODUCTION:
• Venue of international film
festival of India.
• 1969 - prime institution for
promotion of art and culture in
Goa.
ACCESS:
• Regular buses connecting Panaji
and the academy are available.
• Dabolim airport, 35km
• Nearest railway station is
Madgao, 53 km.

LAYOUT:
• Four entries to the site.
• Boat jetty provided on the river
side.
• Coverage is about 40%
• Well defined pedestrianCandent er f o r pe r f o r mIn g a r t s
vehicular systems Thesis 2012
• Includes the cafeteria,Jyotsna
garden Mishra Case study
and amphitheatre. 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
56
BUILDING STYLE AND CHARACTER:
• Designed by ar. Charles correa.
• Importance to the process of moving through the spaces in a building.
• Built form has been kept low ranging from one to three floors.
• This is further enhanced by the use of parapet walls for upper floors, which
emphasize horizontally.
• The 'pergola 'above the entrance acts as an extension to the foyer of the
main
auditorium and amphitheatre.
• Use of coffer slabs and parapet walls
• Extensive use of specially designed seating

BUILDING LEVEL ZONING:


• Building is divided into three zones:
Public, Administration, Academic
• Provided at different levels so as to
avoid conflict between these zones
• Ground floor includes facilities like
Auditorium,
preview theater,
amphitheatre,
art gallery,
canteen etc,
where public
entry is invited
• First and second
floors - academic C ee nnt te er r f f oo r r pp ee r r f foo r r mm I I nn gg aar r t t ss
and administration Thesis 2012
facilities. Jyotsna Mishra Case study
• Circulation linked 070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
57

FACILITIES AT KALA ACADEMY

• D.M Kala mandir


• Open air theatre
• Mini OAT
• Black Box
• Rehearsal Room
• Art Gallery
• Meeting Room
• Guest Room
• Preview Theatre
• Cafeteria
• Library
• Teaching Studio
• Green Room
• Kitchen
• Administration
• Reception
• Lounge

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Case study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
58
D.M KALA MANDIR (A. C AUDITORIUM)
• Seating capacity – 1000 (1300 sq.m )
• Orchestra pit- 7.2 x 2.1 m
• Variety of acoustical conditions ranging from speech, plays to sitar recitals and orchestral arrangements
• Walls of the auditorium are painted illusions of an old goan theatre
• Stage is 80cm high from the first row.
• Raking height varies from 10-20 cm

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Case study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
59
MINI OPEN AIR THEATRE:
• Capacity-300 people.
• Used as an outdoor classroom and meeting space
• OAT seating has a tread of 85cm and rise of 45 cm depth.
• Farthest seat is 6m away and no amplication required.
• Two aisles run along either end. Width -120cm
• The steps have 15cm risers and 28 cm treads.
• Square shape stage is and has an area of 7.5 x 7.5 m

OPEN AIR AMPHITHEATRE:


• Seating capacity (no chair) - 2000
• Seating capacity (chair) - 1312
• Proscenium opening - 15m
• Depth from curtain line- 12m
• Amphitheatre is of double herringbone shape.
• Main entry from road main lobby and the restaurant area.
• Stage is raised at 75cm above the ground floor level(eye level of the first row)
• Lower Seat rise - 30 cm and tread of 100 cm
• Higher Seat rise of 45 cm
• Acoustics are good as the seats block out noise from the road side and the stage
blocks out noise from the river side

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Case study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
60
BLACK BOX:
• Seating capacity - 200.
• Area - 175 sq.m.
• Used for experimental productions, music concerts, meetings
and amateur performances.
• Also used as a recording studio.
• Control room and a green room provided.
• Black box lobby is also provided.

A
D
M
I
N
I
S
T
PREVIEW THEATRE:
• Capacity - 24. R
• Used during ‘IFFI’ for special screening. A
• Has got a jury room and projector room attached. T
• Particle board has been used for acoustical effect. I
O
N GALLERY:
ART
•: Running wall space - 30 x 1.50 mts
•• Carpet
A area of gallery – 90 sq.mts
d exhibits are displayed on the wall on four sides.
• The
m
• Lighting features are very normal no facility to hold a good exhibition.
i
• Adjustable cove lightings are used in gallery
n
i
s
Cent er for per f o rt m I n g a r t s
Thesis 2012 r
Jyotsna Mishra a Case study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP t
61

LIBRARY :
• area- 135 SQ.M
• Library is in proximity with mini oat.
• Books are raked in glass shelves

CAFETERIA :
• Capacity for 100 members
• Square table are provided each with 4 seats
• 3 sides open in to the outdoor landscape TEACHING STUDIO:
• It is accessible from all theatre meeting room - 45 sq.m • All the music studios are of the same size 3.3 x 2.6ms
• Central air conditioning is provided for all class rooms.
• Acoustically treated classrooms with the same type of
padding provided for the walls and ceilings.
• Three walls are faced with linen material and glass
wool, the
rest is paneled with wood particle board

PARKING FACILITIES:
• Parking facilities is provided on the south-eastern side.
• Nearly 250 public parking are provided.
• Special VIP and staff parking provided.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Case study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
62
SERVICES:
• The service buildings (AC plant and generator room) are provided on the western corner of the site without disrupting
building functioning
• Two separate service entries have been provided.
generator room and the other
eastern corner of the site.
• The eastern entry caters to the need of the
amphitheatre and the canteen.
• A loading deck has also been provided here
• The septic tank is provided underneath the
garden.

LANDSCAPE:
• Beautiful lawns form the main part of the
site. Trees are provided aptly at the front side
of the building.
• Specially designed benches and lamp posts
line the path Along the river side.
ANALYSIS
• The layout and the building zoning provided
are excellent
• Good acoustical treatment
• Flow of spaces has resulted in a good built-
open relationship.
• Good use of site features has successfully
made the public spaces interesting by
use of sculptures, paintings, seating etc.
• The cafeteria is the most active space with
good view to the river.
Cent er
• Vehicular and pedestrian ways properly
fo r per f o r mIn g a r t s
Thesis 2012
defined.
Jyotsna Mishra Case study
• Service blocks are separated
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
NATIONAL CENTRE OF PERFORMING ARTS,MUMBAI

Selection as case study:


The center focuses mainly on performances and had succeeded in becoming a common platform for
performances ranging from small individual performance to large shows.
My aim to study NCPA was to understand the context . It is functioning and to study the different
spaces it involve. The scale of project is comparable.
63

NATIONAL CENTRE OF PERFORMING ARTS,MUMBAI


LOCATION: Niraman Point on NCPA marg
ARCHITECT: Ar. Phillip Johnson.
BUILDING TYPE: Institution
SITE AREA: 8 acre
INTRODUCTION:
• NCPA is a cultural building , lift
the indian culture in the
society through events
Dance, Music, Drama and
Opera .
• NCPA private sector undertaken
by TATA.
• Designed by ar. Phillip johnson.
• Building having five theatres, Administration area (Music Library, small AUDITORIUM :
gallery, Guest House and the apartments for the Directors) • Jamshed bhabha theatre The NCPA audio & film archives
• Tata theatre Recording studio
• Experimental theatre Library
• Dance theatre godrej
• Little theatre

LOBBY AND RECEPTION:


• Approach to the reception area from the main entry
• Reception desk is located at the building entrance
VIEW FROM MAIN ENTRANCE VIEW FROM NARIMAN POINT
• Right side of the reception located the administrative area

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Case study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
64
SEATING CAPACITY
JAMSHED BHABHA THEATRE • Total capacity- 1109 seats
STAGE
• Stage entry
From east & west foyer 2 Nos. (Stage Right & Left)
• Floor Hardwood timber flooring on MS framing (No traps, No revolve)
• Size 23.7m (w) x 14.6m (d) (Behind house-curtain)
•Top-of-stage from 1m auditorium level

CONTROL ROOM:
• Location Rear of the auditorium behind glass window; partially openable
divided into 4 compartments inter-connected through common
passage
• Compartment 160 sq.m.
• Compartment 228 sq.m.
• Compartment 310 sq.m. (Light Control Cubicle)
• Compartment 445 sq.m.
• Power supply 18 kW, 30 Amps per phase

REHEARSAL ROOMS (FRONT-OF-HOUSE)


These are separate venues
• West room 1 124 sq.m., height 2.88m(second floor West Wing)
(90 sq.m. adjoining open terrace)
VIEW OF STAGE JBT • West room 2 115 sq.m., height 2.9m(third floor West Wing)
DRESSING ROOMS(BACKSTAGE): (50sq.m. adjoining open terrace)
• Ground floor, solo rooms 3 (9 sq.m. each) • East room 1 113.5 sq.m., height 2.9m(second floor East Wing)
• First floor, solo rooms 4 (9 sq.m. each) (55 sq.m. adjoining open terrace)
• Second floor, group rooms 2 (18.5 sq.m. each) (7 persons) • East room 2 99 sq.m., height 2.9m(third floor East Wing)
• Third floor, group room 1 (46.5 sq.m. each) (18 persons) (32 sq.m. adjoining open terrace)

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Case study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
65

MISCELLANEOUS SPACES
Foyers at two levels.
GROUND FLOOR (LEVEL 0)
• Area 930 sq.m.
• Height variable, minimum
2.5m
• Elevator 1 (West Foyer)
• Accessory electric 9 kW
•Service
(East Foyer) Lighting
Counter supplyFoyer and one in West Foyer)
2 (one Front MAIN ENTRY OF THE JBT FOYER AND THE FOOD COUNTER
• LoadFLOOR
FIRST 15 Amps(LEVEL
per phase
1)9
• Area
kW (WestFoyer)
465 sq.m. Lighting
•Height
load 15 Amps per
variable; phase 2.5m
minimum ORCHESTRA PIT
•Service counter 1 (East Foyer) • Forestage orchestra elevator 19m (w) x 4m (d) : travel -2.9m(below stage),
MUSEUM 0.0m (auditorium level) to + 1m (Stage level);locking @ 400mm increments(9)
• Area 165 sq.m. • Capacity 60 musicians
•Height 5.45m • Below-stage pit, fixed portion 15.4m (w) x 4.2m (d) x 3.1m (h)

INTERIOR OF THE REHERSAL ROOM


INTERIOR OF THE AUDITORIUM

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Case study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
66

TATA THEATRE:

SEATING CAPACITY
Total capacity -1010 seats
Capacity reduced in the following cases:
• Use of in-house
• sound mixer/monitor Reduced by 7 seats Sound System
• 8-Channel audio mixing console
• Basic sound system for speech and music reinforcement

STAGE
• Floor Hardwood timber flooring on concrete
• Size 9m (d) x 17.5m (w) at its maximum width:
• Height 3m at upstage: 6m at downstage rotatable stage
FOYER MAIN ENTRY TO THE THEATRE • Operation electronically controlled
• Rotation 180°
• Rotation time 80 sec.

DRESSING ROOMS
Ground floor- Solo rooms 4 (11.6 sq.m. each)
Mezzanine- Group rooms 2 (23 sq.m. each)

ROTATING STAGE BACK SIDE


V.I.P. ENTRY TO THE RESTAURANT

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Case study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
67
EXPERIMENTAL THEATRE SEATING CAPACITY
• 285 seats maximum (variable)
• Plastic bucket-chairs (blue) on modular wooden tiers

STAGE
•9.7m (w) x 7.3m (d) x 0.7m (h) maximum
• Variable configuration; modular wooden platforms

FLOOR
•Concrete floor 19.20m (l) x 19m (w)
•Floor-to-grid height (Catwalk) 9m (h), average

CONTROL ROOM
•Behind glass observation window at first floor level
LIGHTING
•Electronic light dimmer 1
Specifications
•Lighting console -Phoenix Cantor-48 ,48 channels
(ADB make)

DRESSING ROOMS (with toilets & showers)


•Ground floor 2 (7 sq.m each)
•First floor 1 (20 sq.m)

MISCELLANEOUS SPACES
•Foyer (non A/C)
•Size 425 sq.m ; height 3m

V
I
Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s E
W
Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra CaseO study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP F
68
DANCE THEATRE GODREJ SEATING CAPACITY
• 185 seats

STAGE
• Floor Timber flooring on MS slotted angle frame;
• 0.65m from auditorium level
• Wing-to-wing 9m (w) x 5.6m (d) height: 2.34 m

WING SPACE
• Stage- right 3.55m (w) x 6.7m (l) height: 2.34m
• Stage-left 2.2m (w) x 6.7m (l) height: 2.34m OUTER AREA OF THE THEATRE
• Cross-over space 14.9m (l) x 1.1m (w) height: 2.34m
• Proscenium opening 9.55m (w) x 2.40m (h)
• House curtain Maroon velour; motorized travel

DRESSING ROOMS (2 nos)


• Ground floor - 13.8 sq.m & 17 sq.m
• Common lobby - 19.6 sq.M

MISCELLANEOUS SPACES
• Foyer( non-A/C)
• Area-158 sq.m
STAGE OF THE THEATRE AND FIXTURES
• Sunken Garden 232 sq.m

VIEW OF GODREJ THEATRE

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Case study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
69

LITTLE THEATRE SEATING CAPACITY


• 114 seats
• Cushioned chairs (off-white) on carpet (Maroon)

STAGE
• Floor timber flooring on concrete slab;
• 0.8m (h) from auditorium level.
• Size with side wings and 6.66m (w) x
• 5.47m (d) x back concertina flat 3.96m (h)
• Downstage 3.08m (h) upstage

WING SPACE
• Stage-right 1.1m (w) x 6m (l) x 3.08m (h)
• Stage-left 1.0m (w) x 6m (l) x 3.08m (h)
• Cross-over space 8.7m (l) x 0.6m (w) x 3.08m (h)
• Proscenium opening 5.85m (w) x 3.96m (h)
• House curtain Maroon velour; motorized travel

DRESSING ROOMS
• Ground floor 1; 8.5 sq.m
• First floor 1; 15.8 sq.m

MISCELLANEOUS SPACE
• Foyer (air-conditioned)
• Size 13.3m (l) x 5.6m (w) x 6m (h)
• Area 74.5 sq.m
VIEW OF LITTLE THEATRE

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Case study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
70
LIBRARY
RECORDING STUDIO
• Studio is equipped with state-of-the-art multi track
• recording equipment based on the Pro Tools HD platform
• Main recording hub , interconnected to all five theatres
• through fiber optic cable spreading an area of 24,000sqm.

SUNKEN GARDEN (75-100 members)


• Located next to the dance theatre godrej.
• Reception space also used for small-scale performances
• Stepped seating leading down to a performing area.
STRUCTURE
• All the Auditoriums having column beam structure
• JBT and TATA theatre have good span column free space,
• Coffered ceiling is cast for making the space column free.
• Cantilevers more than 10 feets is projected at the entrance of TATA theatre.
• Building is finished with different materials like stone, plastered etc.

OUTER AREA OF JBT OUTER AREA OF TATA THEATRE WAY TO THE BASEMENT PARKING

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Case study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
71
THEATRE JAMSHED BHABHA TATA THEATRE EXPERIMENTAL
THEATRE THEATRE

ARCHITECT Patel manohar Phillips johnson Patel manohar


and associates and associates

USE Can host any event Indian music , dance Ideal both for traditional
from staged Indian epic and other art forms. folk and performance
and classical concert to type presentation
westerns dance
SEATING 1190 1010 300

SPECIALITY Heavily ornamented Fan shaped, rotating Flexible seating, stage


interiors, with stage, and the convex unit can provide complex
orchestra pit. concave ceiling as well as asymmetrical seating
wall provide with even arena.
distribution of sound.
FEATURES Stage craft has 33 fly bars Built in thrust shape, Additional balconies on
due to which multiple based on the seeing 3 sides with 50 seating
backdrops can be pattern of Indian capacity, situated at a
provided and lighting audience, fan shaped height of 13 feet. Ceiling
facility can change plan, grid frame and catwalk
according to the system
requirement. Also has 3
conference room large
foyer spaces, a museum
and a black box, which is
the ticket and event
information system

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Case study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
TRIVENI KALA SANGAM

Selection as case study:


Study of functional aspect of the center. To study the open air theater and its functions.
72
TRIVENI KALA SANGAM
NEW DELHI (1957-77)
ARCHITECTS: J.A. STEIN

INTRODUCTION:
Triveni kala sangam was founded in 1952 by Smt. Sundhari Sridharni, as an academy of dance,
music and painting with the aim of reintroducing traditional forms of expression into Indian
life.
Each of the functional units of the complex its, theatre, classroom, studios and galleries is
individually articulated in the building massing

LOCATION:
Triveni kala sangam is located on 205, Tansen Marg, New Delhi.
It is the cultural core of the city with similar buildings like Sri RamCentre for Arts,
Rabindra Bhawan and Sangeet Bharati located close by.

ACCESS:
Access to the site is form the Tansen Marg, the road that leads to the Bengali Market.
There is not much heavy traffic on this road.

GENERAL PLANNING AND LAYOUT:


The centre is organised into a four storey classroom block with a canteen and
shaded dining/ tea terrace to the north. And a ground floor gallery back with a
shaded roof terrace above to the west
Opposite to the gallery is a covered stage opening onto an outdoor garden theatre
which is heart of the complex.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Case study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
73

PHASE I- houses the music and dance studios, an O.A.T, a library, café, exhibition galleries and the administrative areas.

PHASE II-comprise of an auditorium for 200 people, painting and sculpture workshops and residential apartments
The building layout is influenced by 2 major factors-
Large no of functions to be handled on a small site
A high degree of flexibility required for various functions. The building has been perfectly designed in a relatively small site of one acre
following individual articulation of functional units in the building massing.
On entering the lobby the principle areas of interest like art galleries, auditorium, OAT etc is visible at once.
The two heavy massed blocks rise up to 4 storeys and are a response to tight program within a tight site.

INDIVIDUAL SPACE ANALYSIS:


RECEPTION AND LOBBY AREA:
• The main entrance to the building leads to a large rectangular
space, which acts as the reception area.
• The wooden partitioned cubicle serves as the reception office.
• A staircase opens into this area and connects various floors to
basements.
• To the right of the main entrance is the “Sridharni Gallery” and
straight ahead is the corridor, which houses the classrooms.

EXHIBITION GALLERY:
• It is located right next to the main entrance.
• The gallery is curved in plan and is supported on a beam-column
structure.
• The displays are hung on the walls
• A special framework of wood is attached on the roof, which has
spotlight on it.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Case study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
74
MUSIC STUDIOS:
•The music studios are used for teaching instrumental and vocal music.
•There are 3 studios in all, each 15'-0"x15'-0", two for instrumental and one for vocal.
•These studios are located on the second floor. The access is from a 6'-0" wide singly loaded semi-open corridor,
which overlooks the O.A.T below.
•The flooring is bare except for mattresses on which the artists and students sit.
•Storage space is provided along one length of the wall, which is adequate.

Cavity walls are provided for insulation.


• The lighting and ventilation is taken care of by providing window opening on the whole length of the wall on
the north side.

AUDIO VISUAL STUDIO:


• The AV studio is located in the basement of phase 1
• It has facility of recording of playback voices and music and a separate chamber
for listening.
The Triveni auditorium is a small hall with a capacity of 200 seats.

PARKING:
There is no parking space in Triveni Kala Sangam. Vehicles have to parked
main road and parking space is also not sufficient

LANDSCAPING:
• The whole complex is well landscaped.
• Three well landscaped lawns in front of the building is contrasting with its
external features.
The whole environment of the complex is calm and peaceful.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Case study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
75
ART HERITAGE:
• Art heritage or a exhibition hall for visual art is located in the basement floor.
• The hall is L type in plan.
• The space is well lit and has good circulation area within.

the ground floor with the AC, green rooms, art room, stores etc, below.
It is a proscenium theatre with the actors and audience in separate spaces.
The side walls have teakwood paneling, whereas the rear walls, stairwells and railings have sound absorbing treatment of teakwood states over fiber glass
wood insulation.
The ceiling is coffered in expose concrete with a few acoustical panels, placed randomly.
The control room is located behind the audience seating. It includes both south and light control.
The lights for the stages are
• concealed in the depth of the coffers and are not visible to the audience.
• The seats are placed over precast slabs, combining the built in AC ducts. This leads to unusually
high ranking of seats for a hall of this size.
• As the AC is fed through ducts below the seats, it causes chill at the audience feet.
• For exclusion of external noise, ducts are treated heavily internally with sound absorbing lining
and externally with plaster.

OAT:
•The OAT is located between the
teaching corridor and art gallery.
•It has a capacity of 350-400
people.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Case study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
BHARAT BHAWAN , BHOPAL
Selection as case study:
The only center for folk music in India. To study the opens in plan and courtyard style architecture.
Terraced planning, and site responsive design.
76

Charles Correa the architect found here the possibilities of a series of terraced gardens,
which would be seen cascading down to the lake. The visitors enter at the highest level and
walk down a pedestrian spine, flanked by a pattern of courtyards, to reach the various parts
of the complex. Each curve and space defines itself. Each of the part of the building is
distinct yet flows easily one another, linked by meandering paths. The total effect is one of
the surprise and pleasure. There is always a moment when the eye can rest and the mind
contemplates.

Location : bhopal , madhaya pradesh


Area: 1200m2
Architect : charles correa.
Court of Fountain :
Courts form a major special element in the building. The MUGHALSalways
planned their complexes around the courtyard.From the court ofthe fountain one
has a visual choice due to the level difference.This courtguides the visitor to
TRIBALFOLKART GALLERY & ADMINISTRATION,ANTARANG,
BHAIRANG, & VAGARTH towards west and south. This isthe largest court in the
3 courts.

Folk Art & Tribal Court;


This courtis also square in plan.The walls are barren and thevisitor traffic is less as
compared to the other courts.Informal seating isdone on the steps like GHATS.
SCULPTURE AND LOW LEVELLANDSCAPE are the dominating features of this court

ADMINISTRATION of the complex is housed in this court.At nights whenthe


INTERIORS get lighted the walls become dark and looks like a cavearchitecture.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Case study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
77

Court of Antarang :
Onone enters this court either fromthe circulationaxisfromthecourtoffountain.The overbridge is the main gate for the
entrance tothis court. The court leads to GRAPHIC AREA, PERMANENT GALLERY &ANTARANG.The court
performs as an extension and a out space,passage, room for the visitor waiting to gain entry in the
permanent museum.

ROOPANKAR is the only museum of its kind in India which houses contemporary folk and
tribal art together with urban art. Roopankar has two fully equipped workshop for printmaking
and ceramics. There are about 6000 tribal and folk art objects and nearly 2,500 urban art work in
the collection of Roopankar museum.

WAFFLESLAB ROOF with coffersmakes The otherwiseheavy roof seem light.Large


Cut outs inPYRAMIDICAL SHAPESbreaks the monotony andnatural light is taken
fromthem. Wooden FLEXIBLE

Urban Art Museum :


The skylight over the shells and along the baysand edges form the
“YELLOW POOL OF LIGHT". To avoid the direct sunlight on paintings wooded vertical blinds are
used as controlling devices.
The entry is from a6.0 meter wide gate.Theartificial lighting is done bylamps placed in the waffleslab
and is directed towardsthe exhibit.The images ofbuildings from old Bhopal are
Condensed in the galleries of urban art.The modern art section is sprea over three levels.The lowest
level is plus88.2 and houses the TRAVELLING exhibitions.While the upper level plus90.2 houses the
PERMANENT MUSEUM OF MODERN ART.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Case study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
78

RANGMANDAL is a professional repertory which has at its disposal a fully equipped indoor auditorium, Antarang, an open air threatre
Bahirang, with a spectacular location on the lake, and a studio theater Abhirang. It owns an impressive theater library and data bank.

VAGARTH is the centre of Indian Poetry. It aims to collect and preserve the ancient and contemporary poetry in Indian languages, whether in
the spoken, written or in the printed form.
Vagarth's library consists of more then 13,000 books. These include book of poetry in Indian languages, English translations of poetry in
foreign languages, works on poetics, literary criticism and culture. Rare manuscripts of some renowned, Indian poets, hundreds of audio and
video recordings of reading in Bhart Bhavan by significant Indian poets are also collected in Vagarth's archives.

ANAHAD is the center for classical, folk and tribal music. Anahad, aspires to preserve the tradition and promote its immense contemporary
creativity in all its glory and diversity.
The chief activity of Anhad is organizing performances of classical and folk music and dance. It organizes several series of music concerts.
Anhad possess an archival collection of about 2000 hours of audio and video recordings, books on music and dance and over a 100 long
playing records of foreign music to aid reference and research..

NIRALA SRIJANPEETH is the chair for creative writing instituted in Bharat Bhavan by the government of Madhya Pradesh, the
incumbents have been writers of repute including Nirmal Verma, Dilip Chitre, Krishan Sobati, Kedarnath singh, Krishna Baldev Vaid,
Kamalesh, Ramanath Tripathi, Vinod Kumar Shukla, Ramesh Chandra Shaha and Manzoor Ehtesham.

ASHRAM has hosted artists and writers of national eminence, Mallikarjun Mansur, Bhavesh Sanyal, Namver Singh, Nirmal verma,
Zia
Mohiuddin Dager and Ambadas have lived in residence at Bharat Bhavan's Ashram.

CHHAVI is recently opened center for classical cinema.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Case study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
79

ANALYSIS
Plus Points :
(a) Material Economy.
Extensive use of local material like BASODASTONE & ALANGA for
masonry and external wall.These have a lowrejection factor of 33%.
(b) Space Economy.The positioning of columns on a square grid of
9.2 x 9.2 mtr. gives a .large column free space.
(c)Energy
Economy.
Horizontal spread receives maximum solargains of 80% of the roof is
covered with lawn and savesextensive use ofartificial energy.

Negative Points :
(c)Maintenance.High cost of maintenance of the terrace gardenisalackingfactor.40%ofthe annual repair bill goes for thispurpose 40% is spent on
water proofing of roof, skylights, onwalls, floors, stair and expansion joints.
(d) Restricted Future Expansion.
With covering entire horizontalspace available if the- need arrive for expansion there is no space leftfor this purpose. Existing exhibition area
cannot be expanded due tomaximum horizontal coverage.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Case study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
80
Kerala kalamandalam.
location :thrissur kerela
Area : 32 acre

Founded in 1930 by renowned poet Padmabhooshan Vallathol Narayana


Menon along the banks of the river Nila in the Cheruthuruthy village of
Thrissur District, Kalamandalam is an immortal name in the cultural map
of the world. Kalamandalam is strictly a residential center of learning.
Veteran teachers and talented students are its inestimable wealth. For art-
recitals held in Kalamandalam and outside, artiste-teachers and students
participate.

koothambalam
The performing area Waiting area/ karnatic music room
The theatre consists of a main entrance infront
of which a flat pole, used to announce a Administration-
performance. -staff 25
-The raised stone entry steps of flanked by -Total strength 700 students
hand carved stone panels - 3 ladies hostel
-- designed according traditional kerala - 1 boys hostel
lion
motifs Kalari class room
-- capacity of 600 people -Used for learning various art forms
-stone column with hand carved stone dance
poses, bassed on classical posture Library
-green room and toilet facilites .
-wooden stage
Small shop

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Case study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
:
“I have welcomed very greatly one experiment in India: Chandigarh. Many people
argue about it; some like it, some dislike it. It is the biggest example in India of
experimental architecture. It hits you on the head and makes you think. You may
squirm at the impact but it has made you think and imbibe new ideas, and the one
thing which India requires in many fields is being hit on the head so that it may think. I
do not like every building in Chandigarh. I like some of them very much. I like the
general conception of the township very much but, above all, I like the creative
approach, not being tied down to what has been done by our forefathers, but thinking
in new terms, of light and air and ground and water and human beings.”

[Jawaharlal Nehru. Speech, 17 Mar


1959]”
81

Chandigarh
Chandigarh is a city and union territory in
India that serves as the capital of two states,
Punjab and Haryana . The name
Chandigarh translates as Fort of
"The Chandi". The name is from an
derived
ancient temple called Mandir,
devoted
Chandi to the Hindu goddess Chandi, in the
city. It is also referred to as The City
Beautiful due to its beautiful surroundings,
central grid of gardens, each to dedicated to
different species of flora.

The city of Chandigarh was the first planned


city in India and is known internationally for
its architecture and urban design.The city has
projects designed by architects such as Le
Corbusier, Pierre Jeanneret, Matthew
Nowicki, and Albert Mayer.

The city tops the list of Indian States and


Union Territories with the highest per capita
income in the country at Rs.99,262 at current
prices and Rs.70,361 at constant prices
(2006–2007).

The city was reported in 2010 to be the


"cleanest" in India.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Site study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
82

Planning of Chandigarh
Le Corbusier replaced the native Indian town plan with a rectangular grid
based on the metaphor of a human body but totally divorced from ideas
about complex, vibrant Indian cities. He placed the Capitol Complex at
the top resembling the head, the intellectual base, reflecting Nehru's
conviction that government should rule a city as the head rules the body.

The industrial and educational belts on either side of the city symbolized
the limbs. The city center with commercial buildings, shopping, and
offices represented the heart.

The city was further starkly separated into inward-looking sectors of


2600 by 4000 feet (800 by 1200 meters) dimensions, each considered to
be a self-sufficient neighbourhood. A hierarchy of roads separated
pedestrian and vehicular traffic into seven different road types, from V1
for the fast-moving inter-city traffic to V7 for pedestrians within the
sectors.

The most positive aspect of the sectors is that they provide a safety area
for children, they can play, walk to school, and to shopping areas, usually
without crossing a street.

All this was based on his designs for the "Radiant City" - the ideal city of
an omnipotent Western machine-age civilization promising a decongested
city center, filled with sun, space, and greenery.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Site study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
83

Geographical location:
Location: 30.74°N 76.79°E
Chandigarh is located near the foothills of the Shivalik range of
the Himalayas in northwest India. It and shares its borders with
the states of Haryana in the east and Punjab in the north, west
and south.

Average Elevation: 321m/ 1053ft Altitude


304-365 meters above MSL with 1% drainage gradient

Area : 114km2
The surrounding districts are of Mohali, Patiala and Roopnagar
in Punjab and Panchkula and Ambala in Haryana. The
boundary of the state of Himachal Pradesh is also minutes away
from its north border.

Transport: 30.74°N 76.79°E


Chandigarh has the largest number of vehicles per capita in India. Wide, well maintained roads and parking spaces all over the city ease local
transport.

Chandigarh is well connected by road by NH 22 (Ambala - Kalka - Shimla - Kinnaur) and NH 21 (Chandigarh - Leh), and has both a railway
station and theInternational Airport.

The Chandigarh Metro Rail project is underway but recently, due to reduce cost, it is planned to partially replace metro projects by tram and
monorail.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Site study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
84
Climate :
Climate type: humid subtropical climate
Seasons : very hot summers, mild winters, unreliable rainfall
Variation in temperature: (-1 °C to 41.2 °C)
Annual rainfall: 1110.7 mm
The city also receives occasional winter rains from the west.
Average temperature
Spring: The climate remains the most enjoyable part of the year during the spring season
(from mid-February to mid-April ). Temperatures vary between (max) 16 °C to 25 °C and
(min) 9 °C to 18 °C.
Autumn: In autumn (from Mid-September to mid November.), the temperature may rise to a
maximum of 36 °C. Temperatures usually remain between 16° to 27° in autumn. The
minimum temperature is around 11 °C.
Summer: The temperature in summer (from Mid-May to Mid-June) may rise to a maximum
of 45 °C (rarely). Temperatures generally remain between 35 °C to 40 °C (94 - 101F).
Monsoon: During monsoon (from mid-June to mid-September), Chandigarh receives
moderate to heavy rainfall and sometimes heavy to very heavy rainfall (generally during the
month of August or September). Usually, the rain bearing monsoon winds blow from south-
west/ south-east. Mostly, the city receives heavy rain from south (which is mainly a persistent
rain) but it generally receives most of its rain during monsoon either from North-west or
North-east. Maximum amount of rain received by the city of Chandigrah during monsoon
season is 195.5 mm in a single day.
Winter: Winters (November to Mid-March) are mild but it can sometimes get quite chilly in
Chandigarh. Average temperatures in the winter remain at (max) 7 °C to 15 °C and (min) 0°C
to 8 °C. Rain usually comes from the west during winters and it is usually a persistent rain for
2–3 days with sometimes hail-storms

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Site study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
85

Sun path diagram :


Maximum sunshine: in months of july.
Minimum sun shine in months of january and december.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Site study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
86

Mean relative humidity for an average year is recorded as 49.2% and on


a monthly basis it ranges from 25% in April & May to 73% in August.
Winds are generally light and blow from northeast to southeast direction
with exception of easterly to southeasterly winds that blow on some days
during the summer.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Site study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
87

Environment
Most of Chandigarh is covered by dense Banyan and Eucalyptus plantations. Asoka, Cassia, Mulberry and other trees flourish in the forested eco
system. The city has forests surrounding it which sustain many animal and plant species. Deers, Sambars, Barking Deers, Parrots, Woodpeckers and
Peacocks inhabit the protected forests. Sukhna Lake hosts a variety of ducks and geese, and attracts migratory birds from parts of Siberia and Japan
in the winter season.
A parrot sanctuary located in the city is home to a variety of bird species.

Economy
The government is a major employer in Chandigarh with three governments having their base here. A significant percentage of Chandigarh’s population
therefore consists of people who are either working for one of these governments or have retired from government service. For this reason, Chandigarh
is often called a “Pensioner's Paradise”. There are about 15 medium to large industries including two in the Public sector. In addition Chandigarh has
over 2500 units registered under small scale sector. The important industries are paper manufacturing, basic metals and alloys and machinery. Other
industries are relating to food products, sanitary ware, auto parts, machine tools, pharmaceuticals and electrical appliances. Yet, with a per capita
income of Rs. 99,262, Chandigarh is the richest city in India. Chandigarh's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $2.2 billion in current
prices.

Three major trade promotion organizations have their offices in Chandigarh. These are: Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce & Industry,
(FICCI) the PHD Chamber of Commerce and Industry (PHDCCI) and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) which has its regional headquarters at
Sector 31, Chandigarh.

Chandigarh IT Park (also known as Chandigarh Technology Park) is the city's attempt to break into the IT world. Chandigarh's infrastructure, proximity
to Delhi, Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh, and the IT talent pool attracts IT businesses looking for office space in the area. Major Indian firms
and multinational corporations to the like of Quark, Infosys, Dell, IBM, Tech Mahindra have set up base in the city and its suburbs. According to a 2007
survey, Chandigarh is ranked ninth in the top 50 cities identified globally as "emerging outsourcing and IT services destinations".

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Site study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
88
Demographics
As of 2001 India census , Chandigarh had a population of 900,635, making for a density of about 7900 persons per square kilometre. Males constitute
56% of the population and females 44%. The sex ratio is 777 females for every 1,000 males–which is the lowest in the country. Chandigarh has an average
literacy rate of 81.9%, higher than the national average of 64.8%; with male literacy of 86.1% and female literacy of 76.5%. About 12% of the population
is under 6 years of age.
Decennial Population Growth 40.33%
Literacy Rate 81.9%
All
Description Chandigarh Punjab Haryana
India
Density of Population-2001 Census
313 7900 484 478
(Km2)
Literacy Rate (%) 64.8 81.9 69.7 67.9
67370
Per Capita Income (Rs.) (At
23241 (Highest in All 30701 32712
Current Prices) India)
Bank branches/ 1000 persons - 0.25 0.11 0.79
Credit-Deposit Ratio (%) - 107 62.19 51.94
Per Capita Consumption of 79.00
Electricity (2004) (2002- 853.34 902.76 902.76
(Kilowatt hours) 03)

Hospital Beds /10000 persons N.A. 23 10 5


25.00 21.45 20.6 26.3
Birth Rate/1000 persons
(2002) (2005) (2003) (2003)
Infant Mortality Rate/ 1000
63.00 44.13 49.00 59.00
live births
C nt e r f or p e r f o r m In g a r t s
e 2012
Th
Mishra Site study
62 | Xt h Sem |MSAP
esi
s
Jy
ots
na
89
Land use:
Land Use
residential/c
o
mmercial

industrial

public/semi
public and
Soil type: recreation
al
transportati
on

The soil texture varies from sand to sandy loam with 10-40% gravel. The
dominant soil are loamy skeletal typic ustorthents.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Site study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
90

Seismic Map:
Delhi, Chandigarh and many parts of Haryana lie in Zone IV and
thus they are extremely vulnerable to earthquakes. Most
earthquakes in this region are shallow though a few earthquake of
intermediate depth have been recorded in Haryana. The alluvial
cover of the Indo-Gangetic plain makes even distant earthquake felt
here quite strongly.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Site study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
92

View from the site : site surroundings.


SWOT analysis
strengths :
-a developing sector not much of development has taken place, so freedom of elevation
design.
- Site surroundings are mostly related to development of culture, like mela ground, ect.
Weakness: no much of trees, so have to plant trees in the design process.
No good skyline to enhance the proposed building.
Opportunity as the backdrop of the site is very dull a vibrant elevation can come
contrasting it.
Threat : site is in isolation, and all building in construction phase, attracts anti-social
activities.

View of site from the road.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Site study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
93

Climate Humid subtropical climate, very hot summers, mild winters, unreliable rainfall.

Temperature Mean annual temperature ranges to 13°Cto 32°C


Mean maximum temperatures is 36 °Cin the month of June (hottest)

Rainfall Rainfall of 39% in month of july (280mm)

Humidity Mean relative humidity for an average year is recorded as 49.2% and on a monthly basis it ranges from 25% in
April & May to 73% in August.

Wind Winds are generally light and blow from northeast to southeast direction with exception of easterly to
southeasterly winds that blow on some days during the summer.
Soil The soil texture varies from sand to sandy loam with 10-40% gravel. The dominant soil are loamy skeletal typic
ustorthents.

Tectonic actitvity Chandigarh and many parts of Haryana lie in Zone IV and thus they are extremely vulnerable to earthquakes

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Site study
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
94
Requirement Area in sqm
Requirement Area in sqm
SITE ENTRY AND PARKING -recording room 10
-Security 4 ppl(20) -editing and maintenance 15
- Parking -store 10
• visitor parking (100 cars + 200 two wheelers) 4500+ 450(6
SHARED RESOURSES
buses) (8cars+30 two wheelers)500 Estimated visitor 200/day
•staff parking -Entrance 230
ADMINISTRATION -Foyer 30
Estimate visitor (50/day) -Box office 10
-Entrance foyer 25 -Enquiry 15
•Foyer 15 -Lobby/ lounge 50
•Reception/enquiry(1 -Book shops 20
20
-Store 15
staff) (20 ppl) 100 -Toilet 50
•Telephone exchange(1 20 -Administration
staff) -Office 20
-Waiting 20 -Meeting 25
•Lobby and lounge 20 (4 ppl) EXPERIMENTAL THEATER(200Ppl)
•Toilets 60(6 people +common area) -Lounge 20
-Toilet 15
-Administration -Enquiry 10
•Director -make up and rehearsal room
•Visitor room 20 • Lounge 15
•Dy. Director 30 (2ppl) • Dressing 20
•Administrative 20(4ppl each) -Monitoring
assistance office • Projection 15
• Sound recording/video 15
-Planning department 15
-Performance
•Technical manager 15 (6ppl) • Stage 60
•Planning assistance 10 • Auditorium 200
•Helper/visitor 15 -Gallery
-Publicity and public 10 • Display 300
relation • Security 20
•Public relation • Preparation area 45
• Outdoor exhibits Te
•Visitor room PERFORMANCE AREA
•Assistance 15 m
Estimated visitor (200ppl/day) po
•Art director 10 -Mini theater OAT ra
•Audio/video publicity 10 -seating ry
-Audit and accounts 50 Green room
•Accounts officer 20(2ppl) Store
•Cashier
DANCE 500
LIBRARY
•Safe vault THEATER
Estimate visitor(200/day)
•Cashier counter 50
-Entry 20
-entrance
•Mailing and dispatch • Foyer
• Foyer(1 staff) 30 • Control
• Check room (1 staff) 20 desk
• New arrivals 20 • Tickets
100
-Visitor
• Toilets 20 waiting
25
-locker 20 15
• Lobby and
-lending and return 20(1 staff) lounge
100
-administration 30(2 staff) • Toilet
• Administrat 70
• Director 20 40
• Secretary 10 ion office
-Make up
• Visitor room 20 100
and
• librarian 15 rehearsal 150
-Book section 175(5000 books 3 staff) room 50
-Digital lib. 150 • Lounge 150
• Rehearsal
room

Cent er for per f o r mIn g •


Discussion
room
Dressing
a r t s
Thesis 2012 room

Jyotsna Mishra requirements


070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
95

Requirements area in sq m
-Production TOTAL AREA:14,726
•Stage manager 15 CIRCULATION:30%
•Stage workshop 100
•Scene store 100 GRAND TOTAL: 19,144
•Costume workshop 40 EXPECTED NO. OF PPL ON AN AVERAGE 500/Day
•Store 20 ON THE DAY OF PERFORMANCE: 1000 ppl
-Monitoring 145
-performance 810
-auditorium 120
0
LEARNING AREA 786
CATERING 130 (20Ppl/day)

RESIDENCE 120(10PPL)

LANDSCAPE AREA 60

SERVICE 1680
S FIRST 40
AID 400
MUSIC
THEATER

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra requirements
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
96
Design guidelines:
Foyer
Exterior
-Floor surface should stand a lot of traffic
-Properly lit building/driveways and parking .
- self closing doors
- signage's
-Walls and ceiling clad with material of higher absorption
-Changes of level are best made with ramps
co-efficent
-Steps should be properly marked and lit.
-Air conditioning/ if required
-Walk able distance between all the facilities.
-Light music on the pathway (to reflect the cultural heritage)
Check room
-check room counter should take 5 attendants/ 1000 seats.
Box office:
-Located on left side of lobby from foyer.
-Minimum of 2 windows required, (for 1250 seats)
-Access is by single door inside the theater.
Lounge
-Mostly placed in the vicinity of the entrance
-located opposite side of check room
-Should accommodate refreshment area, telephone, water
Lobby :
cooler and lavatories.
-Sound from lobby should not come in the theater.
-The lounge may be out doors/ in this case it has to be huge.
-Warm lighting and proper signage's.
-Indoor space should have rental exhibition space.
-High ceiling sense of luxury.
-Mirrors to increase volume.
Lavatories
Door and foyer
-Should have ante-room
-Theater door must open out
- one dressing table/600seats.
-Hung in pair generally
metal with glass pannel

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Guidelines
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
97
Design guidelines:
Proscenium
House
- The audience looks at the show through the proscenium
-wall behind the last row of seat should be min. 1.4m
opening.
-Comfort in the house depends upon:
• Shape and upholstery of seat and the distance between the rows.
• Temperature ,humidity and freshness of air . Orchestra pit:
• Position and width of aisles. -Minimum 1sqm per person apart from space for instruments.
• House lighting
• Floor slope. Feeling of tightness should be avoided by creating semi open
Absence of distraction and open spaces which can also act as interaction area.
• Flat black chairs are desirable.
• Marginal comfortable seating back to back is 34’’.
• Spacing to permit easy passage past seated patron is 45’’ Integration of all the spaces can be achieved by landscape,
• central aisle to be avoided. built form- such as connecting corridors, pergolas, pavement
design etc.
Stage :
-the shape , size and arrangement should naturally develop Open air theater should me located considering the wind
from the performance involved. direction from performer towards audience.
-The stage is divided into 3 parts, catering to the performer,
the Noise can be avoided by use of landscaping
scenic investiture and the storage. elements.
- solo dancers require a floor space of 300sqft. Vehicular entry should be restricted.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Guidelines
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
98
Layout
1buildings should be orientated on an east—west axis, the long elevations lacing
north and south, to reduce exposure to the sun
2buildings should be planned around small courtyards if thermal storage is
required for most of the year. i.e. when the hot-dry season is dominant
Spacing
3buidings should be broadly spaced for breeze penetration As a rough
guide:
space between long rows of building should not be re than five times the
height
4if wind penetration is needed only for part of the year. item 3 still applies, but provision must be made for protection from cold or dusty hot winds.
See diagnosis in table 2 and wind directions in table 1
Air movement
This is influenced by planning arrangements:
6rooms should be single banked with windows in the north and south walls, to ensure air movement by ample cross-ventilation
7rooms may be double banked, but the plan should allow for temporary cross- ventilation (e.g. large interconnecting doors). If wind is unreliable, or
site limitations restrict planning for cross-ventilation. celing-mounted fans may be considered These would require a room height of not loss then 275
m, which will affect the basic built form
8if air movement is never essential and is desirable for not more then a month rooms can be double banked and there is not much need for cross
ventilation.

Openings
Openings in walls are classified in three categories:
9‘large’, between 40 and 80% of the north and south walls. These need not be fully glazed, but should be protected from the sun, sky glare and rain,
preferably by horizontal overhangs 10 ‘very small’, less than 20% of the wall 11 ‘medium’, between 20 and 40% of the wall area. Openings in the east
wall may be desirable where the cold season is long in west walls openings are acceptable in moderate or cold climates, but under no circumstances in
the tropics
There are two broad categories of walls.

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Guidelines
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP
99

13both external and internal walls should be massive


Roofs
Two basic types are distinguished:
14 a light but well insulated roof, with Low thermal capacity
15a heavy roof, with substantial thermal capacity, giving a time-lag of at least
8 hours
Outdoor sleeping
Provisions for out-door sleeping is either required or not If so:
16it should be provided on roofs, balconies or in patios, so that sleepers are exposed to the coldest part of the night sky (the zenith) to increase
heat loss by outgoing radiation
Rain prootection
17special protrctive measures are needed if rain is frequent and heavy — such as deep verandahs. wide overhangs and covered passages

Cent er for per f o r mIn g a r t s


Thesis 2012
Jyotsna Mishra Guidelines
070901162 | Xth Sem |MSAP