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CIVIL ENGINEERING
APPLICATIONS OF
AUGMENTED REALITY
GUIDE : VIDHYA KANAKARAJ ATHUL VASNIK RAHMAN
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, ROLL NO. :11
CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT S8 CE
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OUTLINE

 INTRODUCTION
 AUGMENTED REALITY
 APPLICATIONS
 ADVANTAGES
 DISADVANTAGES
 APPLICATION OF AUGMENTED REALITY IN CIVIL ENGINEERING
 CONCLUSION
 REFERENCE
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INTRODUCTION

 The outputs of construction information processes (designs, plans and schedules) provide
the control information for the material processes in construction.

 The media to bring the information from the digital models to construction site are 2D
documents such as floor plans, cross sections, sketches, etc.

 Situating information and establishing the relation between the real world of the
construction site and design information is relied on the spatial awareness of engineers .
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Continued…

 Augmented reality (AR) can be used to form a synthetic environment that enables the
integration of 4D building information models into the live picture of real world.

 AR also has numerous other civil engineering applications.


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AUGMENTED REALITY

 Augmented reality (AR) is a field of computer research which deals with the
combination of real-world and computer-generated data.

 AR uses live video imagery which is digitally processed and "augmented" by the
addition of computer-generated graphics.

 Advances includes the use of motion-tracking data, fiducial marker recognition using
machine vision, and the construction of controlled environments containing any number
of sensors and actuators.
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Example of augmented reality using a tablet PC


Source: http://www.augment.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/architecture-2.png
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COMPONENTS OF AR SYSTEM

 Trackers: Black and white fiducial markers, GPS/INS, marker less technology (MLT),
sensors.

 Computing Devices: PCs, Mobile phones, etc. to process real world and virtual data.

 Display devices : Head mounted displays, mobile phones, laptops etc. to display the
augmented view.

 Input devices : Trackballs, mouse, keyboards etc. to give user inputs


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Components of an augmented reality system


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APPLICATIONS

 Various applications of Augmented reality include:

 Education:

• Interactive learning

• Supplementing text books

• Learning via remote collaboration

• Engineering graphics
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APPLICATIONS

 Industrial design:

 Comparison of physical and digital mock-ups.

 Experience a products design and operation before production.

 Medical :

 Projection of pulse rate, blood pressure, etc. during surgery.

 Virtual x-ray view of internal organs.


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APPLICATIONS

 Military:

 Real time data for soldiers in battle field.

 Training of soldiers, pilots etc.

 Advertisement and marketing:

 Promotion using AR applications.

 Assisting consumers.
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APPLICATIONS

 Architecture and construction


 Visualization of building projects, underground structures etc.

 Solution of on site construction challenges.

 Planning and simulation of construction site.

 Damage and failure assessment.

 Onsite machinery and work training.

 Construction management using BIM.


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APPLICATIONS

 Other applications include art, entertainment, sports, navigation, simulation, robotics


etc.
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Applications of augmented reality


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ADVANTAGES

 Essential data can be incorporated into the real world conditions.

 Higher accessibility through mobile phones.

 Enhances the user’s current perception of reality.

 Higher efficiency in completion of tasks.

 Smooth transition along the reality-virtuality continuum.

 Enhance collaborative tasks.

 Models can be tested before production.


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DISADVANTAGES

 Immature core virtual reality technology.


 Privacy control.
 The lack of data portability between AR environments.
 Huge margin of errors due to error in GPS.
 Absence of open standards
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CIVIL ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS

 Visualization of building models.

 Construction site planning.

 Construction management.

 Training.

 Subsurface infrastructure visualization.


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CIVIL ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS

 Inspections.

 Damage assessments.

 Facility management and life cycle integration.

 BIM integration.
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SUBSURFACE VISUALIZATION

 Subsurface features overlaid on real-world views.

 Features include

 major geological structures.

 gas or water pipe-work.

 zones of contaminated land.

 Digitally stored information readily accessible to field engineers.


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 Presentation of data using – HMDs, Laptops/handheld devices or Hybrid system which
utilizes both HMDs and laptops

 GPS/INS INTEGRATION

 AR system produces results based on position and orientation.

 Output from GPS and INS.

 GPS provide positions and INS provides heading.


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 Existing digital maps, position information and survey data must be integrated.

 Constant offsets can be accounted for in the field.

 Modular nature of system enables switching between high and low accuracy applications
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 The possible applications of a subsurface visualization system are listed below

 Trench inspection tasks

 Planning and preparation of digging activities on site

 Visual guidance while digging Locating of damaged buried cables

 On-site verification of assets projected at the office

 On-site correction of legacy datasets

 Assistance for operation and maintenance works

 Mobile Mapping
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Vidente, An AR system for subsurface visualization


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Virtual excavation showing subsurface assets


INTEGRATION WITH BUILDING 26

INFORMATION MODELLING (BIM)

 Building information modelling (BIM) is a set of interacting policies, processes and


technologies that generates “a methodology to manage the essential building design and
project data in digital format throughout the building's life cycle”.

 BIM can start with parametric 3D computer-aided-design (CAD) technologies and


processes to design and represent a facility.

 . It can also incorporate 4D and 5D dimensions where 4D includes a time dimension


and 5D time-based costs.
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 Three mental aspects that need to be addressed when assessing the feasibility of using
AR for construction related work processes:

 Information searching and accessing

 relates to how information is obtained.

 Attention allocation,

 relates to the distraction from other tasks.

 Memory,

 relates to sensory, short-term and long-term memory function.


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 To demonstrate how BIM and AR can be integrated and used on-site, a number of
examples that focus on the following areas are discussed:

 Interdependency

 Identification of task and process interdependence by Integrating design and


project data within a digital environment.

 Spatial site layout collision analysis and management

 collisions arising during the construction process due to the change orders or
errors can be addressed by retrieving and visualising data from BIM.
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 Link digital to physical

 AR visualization can provide on-site personnel with an improved understanding


of construction sequencing, which will reduce the incidence of quality failures.

 Project control

 Being able to visualize the difference between ‘as-planned and as-built’ progress
enables ‘current and future’ progress to be monitored and therefore facilitates
appropriate decision-making.
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 Procurement: material flow tracking and management

 The information propagated from an ERP system in the production factory to BIM and
can then be visualized on-site with AR.

 This real-time evaluation will provide a site manager with a real-time dynamic planning
environment.

 Visualization of design during production.

 BIM and AR can provide a full 3D interactive solid model of the design,
providing subcontractors with visual understanding of details.
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BIM INTEGRATION WITH AR


COOPERATIVE REINFORCING BAR 32
ARRANGEMENT AND CHECKING SYSTEM

 Reinforcing bar arrangement and checking are very important as they are directly
related to the strength of a structure.

 It is often difficult for inexperienced workmen to visualize the reinforcing bar


arrangement and sequence in their minds.

 Inspectors often find it difficult to check whether reinforcing bars are arranged
correctly.

 Hence, a cooperative engineering environment for reinforcing bar arrangement using


augmented reality (AR) is proposed.
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 Multiple workmen wear head mounted displays (HMDs) with video cameras, which are
connected with their computers.

 They grab and move markers, each of which is linked to 3D model data of reinforcing
bars.

 By using an AR tool called AR Toolkit, users can view the virtual reinforcing bars
represented by computer graphics on their HMDs.

 They can discuss how to arrange reinforcing bars by moving the markers in a virtual
3D world.
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Cooperative Reinforcing Bar Arrangement
Support

 A collaborative system where multiple users can move tangible markers each of which
represents single or a set of reinforcing bars in an augmented reality environment.

 A prototype was made and tested in the laboratory.


 Experiment 1 35
 A set of five reinforcing bars comprising a section of a prestressed concrete bridge girder
was selected.

 The section was represented by using IFC-BRIDGE product model.

 Five markers, A, B, C, D, and E, were scattered on the table.

 Two graduate students majoring in civil engineering, simulating workmen X and Y, wore
HMDs with video cameras.

 The two workers discussed sequence of arranging the five reinforcing bars.

 They looked at the same 3D virtual reinforcing bars from different angles and discussed
many possible sequences, moving the markers intuitively.
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Cooperative reinforcing bar arrangement using AR


Source: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/220938116 Cooperative Reinforcing Bar Arrangement and Checking by Using Augmented
Reality
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Cooperative Reinforcing Bar Checking
Support
 Reinforcing bars are represented by IFC-BRIDGE and its computer graphics image is
linked with a marker.

 The marker is placed in front of the reinforcing bars at its designated location, and a user
wearing a HMD with a video camera looked at the marker and the reinforcing bars.

 The user can check whether the reinforcing bars are correctly arranged or not by
checking the overlapped computer graphics image over the actual reinforcing bar image
on the HMD monitors.
 Experiment 2 : Indoor test 38
 Two small wood frames were crafted.

 One was made just as designed while the other was made poorly with errors.

 Both models were checked with AR


 Experiment 3: Outdoor test

 A part of a prestressed concrete bridge girder was selected and was represented by IFC-
BRIDGE product model.

 Inspector wore the HMD with a video camera and looked at the marker attached to the
reinforcing bars.
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Wood Models Overlapped with CG images


Source: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/220938116 Cooperative Reinforcing Bar Arrangement and Checking by Using Augmented Reality
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Reinforcement checking And AR View of Reinforcement cage


Source: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/220938116 Cooperative Reinforcing Bar Arrangement and Checking by Using Augmented
Reality
 Results 41
 Experiment 1: The test showed the efficiency and effectiveness of the system over the
traditional pencil-and-eraser method.

 Experiment 2 : The good craft model was overlapped properly with the computer graphics
image, while the poor model was not overlapped with the virtual reinforcing bar image.

 Experiment 3: There was not big difference between the virtual computer graphics and the
real reinforcing bar images. Hence the actual reinforcing bars could be judged as properly
constructed
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RAPID ASSESSMENT OF EARTHQUAKE-
INDUCED BUILDING DAMAGE
 Accurate evaluation of damage sustained by buildings during catastrophic events is
critical to determine the buildings’ safety.

 Current practices of evaluating damage to buildings after catastrophic events are labour
intensive, time consuming and error prone.

 The manpower required for the process is substantial in large cities.

 Sustained building damage can be evaluated by measuring differences between the


augmented baseline image and the real view.
 Computation of Residual Interstory Drift Ratios 43
 The interstory drift ratio (IDR) is a global measure that can be computed from external
building dimensions and used to quantify damage.

 The residual IDR is a measure of how far each building floor has moved permanently
relative to the one beneath divided by the story height.

 The residual IDR at each floor of a building can be measured using a computing scheme
based on AR by comparing a baseline image to the actual shape of a structure after a
seismic event.

 By comparing computed IDRs to predetermined thresholds, a quick but thorough


assessment of the level of structural and non-structural damage can be made.
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 Description of Experimental Setup

 Specimen: slender fibre-reinforced structural concrete walls.

 Dimensions: 3,353 mm high and 102 mm thick.

 A base girder having a 610X610 mm cross section at a distance of


1,219 mm away from the wall.

 Top beam: 406X406 mm C/S

 A horizontal actuator of 445KN capable of creating cyclic loads.

 A wireframe CAD image of the wall was registered against and augmented over the real
specimen.
 Experiment
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 Camera captures video of specimen before and after loading.

 The camera was located 4,207 mm above the floor and 4,876 mm away from the wall.

 The camera clearly focus on the point along the wall’s edge where horizontal drift
measurements were to be taken.

 The position and orientation of the camera was constant at each step throughout the
duration of the experiment.

 Augmented graphics is placed over the video and the drift is measured by correlating
number of pixels in an image with horizontal distance.
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 Observations were made at the beginning and end of ten actuator loading strokes to
study the performance of the proposed AR technique at different drift levels
Drifts Measured Using User Position and Orientation- 47
Based Tracking

Loading Stroke Measured drift Actual Drift % error


(mm) (mm) (mm)
1 83 89 -7.2
2 84 90 -6.1
3 112 120 -6.7
4 137 146 -5.9
5 171 180 -5.2
6 180 192 -6.1
7 210 214 -2.1
8 220 230 -4.5
9 262 269 -2.5
10 275 283 -2.8
 Results 48
 The best observation of drift between the CAD image and the wall occurred at Loading
Stroke 7, where a drift of 210 mm was observed

 This corresponded to an actual displacement of 214 mm. The AR method thus under
predicted the drift by 2.1%.

 The worst observation, i.e., highest % error occurred for Loading Stroke 1 where the drift
was computed to be 83 mm in AR corresponding to an actual displacement of 89 mm.

 In all observations, the AR method under predicted the actual sustained displacements.
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Overview of experimental setup


Source : Evaluation of Augmented Reality for Rapid Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Building Damage,

Viet R. Kamat and Sherif El-Tawil


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CONCLUSION

 There are numerous opportunities for integrating AR and improving conventional


methods used in the fields of AEC/FM.

 AR can be used for reasoning the interdependences of tasks, spatial site layout of the
to-be-built, project progress monitoring, linking digital to physical, material flow
tracking and management, visualizing design during production.
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CONCLUSION

 AR was also used for subsurface infrastructure visualization by overlapping the 3D


layout of underground infrastructure over the real world live videos through HMDs.

 An AR based system was developed to assess earthquake induced building damages.


It was found feasible for quick assessment of structures through laboratory testing
using user positon and orientation tracking.
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CONCLUSION

 The main barriers to the adoption of AR technologies are

 Immature core virtual reality technology

 Conservative nature of construction businesses

 Size of building information models.


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REFERENCES

 Sebastjan Meža, Žiga Turk, Matevž Dolenc (2015), “Measuring the potential of augmented
reality in civil engineering”, Advances in Engineering Software, 90 (1-10)

 Hung-Lin Chi, Shih-Chung Kang, Xiang yu Wang (2013), “Research trends and
opportunities of augmented reality applications in architecture, engineering, and
construction”, Automation in Construction, 33 (116-122)

 Xiangyu Wang, Mi Jeong Kim, Peter E.D. Love, Shih-Chung Kang (2013), “Augmented
Reality in built environment: Classification and implications for future research”,
Automation in Construction, 32 (1-13)
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REFERENCES

 Nobuyoshi Yabuki1 and Zhantao Li (2007), “Cooperative Reinforcing Bar Arrangement


and Checking by Using Augmented Reality”, Conference paper

 Vineet R. Kamat and Sherif El-Tawil (2007), “Evaluation of Augmented Reality for
Rapid Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Building Damage”, Journal of computing in
civil engineering, ASCE.

 www.wikipedia.org
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