Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 31

Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

8.1 Alloy
Aloi

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

Alloy
Alloy And Formation Of Alloy

An alloy is a mixture of a pure metal with another pure metal or non-metal.

Process of mixing other elements to pure metal is called alloying.

Arrangement of atoms in a pure metal Arrangement of atoms in an alloy

Other substances are added to molten pure


Atoms are arranged neatly in rows.
metal and mixture is cooled quickly.

Rows of atoms can slide over one Presence of foreign atoms disrupts the neat
another easily. arrangement of atoms in the metal because
of the different sizes of pure atoms and
Pure metals are soft, ductile and foreign atoms.
malleable. Foreign atom storm the rows from sliding
over one another.

Alloys are harder and stronger than pure


metals.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

Alloy

Alloying Prevents The Corrosion Of Metals

Alloys are highly resistant to


corrosion.
Pure metals are easily to Example : Iron is easily rust
corrode and rust easily. whereas stainless steel is
lasting and does not rust
easily.

Iron easily get rusted Stainless steel gate strong and lasting

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

Alloy

Alloying Improves The Appearance Of Metals

 Alloying prevents rust, therefore


alloys have nice and shiny
 Pure metals have shiny surface
surface for long period.
but when exposed to air for a
long period of time, it becomes  Example : Copper turns to dull
rusty (metal oxides) which is brown surface when its surface
dull. is oxidized.
Bronze is highly resistant to
corrosion.

Brown Copper turns to dull brown National monument made of bronze

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

Alloy

Alloying Changes The Properties Of Metals

Increase the hardness of metals.

Alloying makes metals harder


and stronger.
Most metal are soft and light. Example
Aluminium is soft and light.
Duralumin is strong and light.

Pure aluminium coil is soft Bicycle frame is strong and light

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industr

Alloy

Example Of
Common Alloys

Pewter Stainless steel Steel

Bronze Brass

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

Alloy

Pewter

97% tin
Composition 3% antimony +
copper.

Nice appearance,
Properties shinny and resistant to
corrosion.

Making household
article, decorative
Uses
item, photo frame and
table ware.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

Alloy

Stainless Steel

74% iron
Composition 8% carbon
18% chromium

Shiny appearance,
hard, strong and
Properties
highly withstand
corrosion.

Kitchen wares like


Uses forks, spoon and
knives.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

Alloy

Steel

99.5% iron
Composition
0.5% carbon.

Hard, strong and


Properties
resistant to corrosion.

Construction material
for buildings, bridges,
Uses
vehicles and
machines.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

Alloy

Bronze

88% copper
Composition
12% tin.

Hard, nice appearance


Properties and resistant to
corrosion.

Making medals and


Uses
decorative ornaments.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

Alloy

Brass

75% coppe
Composition
25% zinc.

Hard, shiny, strong


Properties and resistant to
corrosion.

Making decorative
item, musical
Uses
instrument and kitchen
appliances.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

Alloy

Copper nickel

 75% copper
Composition
 25% nickel

 Nice appearance
Properties  Hand and durable
 Resistant to corrosion

Uses  Making coins

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

Alloy

Duralumin

 95% aluminium
 3% copper
Composition
 1% magnesium
 1% manganese

 Light
Properties  strong
 resistant to corrosion

 Making bodies of
Uses aircraft boat, bicycles,
buses and trains

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

Alloy

The Importance Of Alloys In Industry

Steel used in construction industry


 Steel is hard, strong and highly resistant to corrosion.

Stainless steel used in automotive and kitchen ware industry


 Stainless steel has the same characteristics as steel
 Stainless steel can withstand corrosion better than steel.
 Stainless steel is more shiny than steel
 Type of stainless steel depend on the amount of chromium and nickel added
into iron.
 Stainless steel is used in making car bodies and kitchen ware.

Duralumin widely use in automotive industry


 Duralumin is light, strong and highly resistant to corrosion
 Duralumin is used making vehicles bodies.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

Alloy

Superconductor Alloys

 Superconductor alloy is a material that has no resistance to the flow


of electricity at a very low temperature.

 Thus, less heat energy is produced and energy wastage can be


avoided.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

Alloy
Uses Of Superconductor Alloys

Medical field

 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)


machines use superconductor alloys to
produce high quality images of the internal
parts of human body.

Transportation

 Maglev trains use superconductor alloys to


produce strong electromagnetic field to
levitate on its track as though it is floating.

 The reduced friction between the train and


the track minimise the loss of electrical
power. The train can travel at very high
speed.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

8.2 The Production and Uses Of Ammonia In Industry


Penghasilan Dan Penggunaan Ammonia Dalam
Industri

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

Production and Uses Of Ammonia In Industry


Ammonia

Ammonia is a colourless gas which has a pungent smell and very soluble in water.

Uses Of Ammonia

Making ammonium fertiliser Making nitric acid


Example Nitric acid is used to make
Ammonium sulphate fertilizer, colouring and explosive
Ammonium nitrate materials.

As cooling agent in refrigerators As cleaning agent in making


and air conditioner. detergents.

In latex industry to prevent Making chemical substance as


coagulation of rubber latex. synthetic nylon.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

Production and Uses Of Ammonia In Industry


The Production Of Ammonia In
Industry – Haber Process
Catalyst : Iron
Nitrogen + Hydrogen Ammonia
450°C, 200 atm

N 2 + 3H 2 2NH 3 (Exothermic reaction)


Ratio of nitrogen : hydrogen = 1 : 3

Hydrogen gas Compressor


Mixture
of N 2
and H 2
Reacting
Nitrogen gas chamber
Iron catalyst
Temperature : 450°C
Pressure : 200 atm
Cooler
Unreacted N2 + H 2
gas are recycled

Liquid ammonia

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

Production and Uses Of Ammonia In Industry

Factors That Affect The Production Of Ammonia

Presence of catalyst (iron)


 Iron catalyst increase the rate of reaction

Temperature
 Haber process is a reversible process, the forward process to produce
ammonia is an exothermic process where heat is released.
 When temperature is high, ammonia decompose into nitrogen and
hydrogen reducing the production of ammonia.
 When temperature is low, more ammonia is produced, but the rate of
reaction is slow.
 To produce an optimum amount of ammonia, the temperature is fixed at
450°C.

Pressure
 At pressure of 200 atmosphere, production of ammonia can be increased.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

Production and Uses Of Ammonia In Industry


The Production Of Ammonium Fertilisers
Ammonium fertilizers are chemical fertilizer which produced in industry.
Example of chemical fertilisers :
 Ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate and urea.
Ammonium salts can be produced by neutralisation process (Alkaline ammonia solution
reacts with acids).
Example :
 Ammonia + Nitric acid Ammonium nitrate + water.
 Ammonia + Sulphuric acid Ammonium sulphate + water.
 Ammonia + Phosphoric acid Ammonium phosphate + water.

The flow chart of the production of Ammonia salt.

Ammonia solution

Ammonium salt + Evaporation Saturated salt


water by heating solution
Neutralisation Cooling
Acid Crystallisation
Crystal of ammonium
salt

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

Production and Uses Of Ammonia In Industry

A type of fertiliser used in agriculture.


The Production Of
Urea
Produced by the reaction between ammonia and
carbon dioxide at 200°C and at pressure 200
atmospheres.

200°C
Ammonia + Carbon dioxide Urea
200 atm

Chemical fertilisers
Ammonium sulphate
React with
Acid Ammonium nitrat

Ammonium phosphate
Haber
Ammonia
Process

Carbon
Urea
React with dioxide

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

8.3 The Effects Of Industrial Waste Disposal


On The Environment
Kesan Pembuangan Bahan Sisa Industri Terhadap
Alam Sekitar

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

Effects Of Industrial Waste Disposal On The Environment

The Effects Of Industrial Waste Disposal


On The Environmental

Burning of fossil fuels Radioactive waste

Waste from agriculture


Toxic waste from industry
industry

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

Effects Of Industrial Waste Disposal On The Environment

Burning of fossil fuels

Source of pollution Pollutants Effect on the environment

Acidic gases When acidic gases dissolve in


Example rain water, acid rain is formed.
Fuels use in Carbon dioxide, Acid rain damages forest and
vehicles and Sulphur dioxide, aquatic ecosystem.
generation of Nitrogen oxides.
electricity Carbon dioxide is a
greenhouse gases which can
cause global warming.
Toxic gas Carbon monoxide is harmful to
Carbon monoxide, human because it reduces the
CFC ability of blood to carry oxygen.
Hydrocarbons
CFC causes depletion of ozone
layer.
Solid particles Haze and dust may cause
Haze irritation to respiratory system
Dust and reduce the rate of
photosynthesis rate in green
plants.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

Effects Of Industrial Waste Disposal On The Environment

Toxic waste from industry

Source of pollution Pollutants Effect on the environment

Corrosive waste Corrosive waste which is


such as acids and drained into river, pond or
Waste from
alkalis. sea may change the pH
industry can be
value of water that may harm
in solid, liquid or
the aquatic organism.
gases form.

Heavy metals such Heavy metals that


as lead, mercury and accumulate in human body
arsenic. may affect the functions of
human organ.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

Effects Of Industrial Waste Disposal On The Environment

Radioactive waste

Source of pollution Pollutants Effect on the environment

From nuclear Radiation such as Radiations may cause


reactor, medical gamma, alpha and cancer, mutation, birth
and scientific beta radiation. defects, infertility or even
research. death.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

Effects Of Industrial Waste Disposal On The Environment

Waste from agriculture industry

Source of pollution Pollutants Effect on the environment

Thick smok of haze Causing air pollution of carbon


Burning of palm and dust. dioxide and haze.
oil waste and
paddy waste. Excessive fertilizers Cause algal blooms which lead
(phosphate). to eutrophication.
Excessive use of
fertilisers and Pesticides
pesticides. May cause cancers, respiratory
diseases and reproductive
Decompose of problems.
agriculture and
organic waste. Organic waste Foul-smelling gas (methane
gas) is released.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

Effects Of Industrial Waste Disposal On The Environment

Methods Of Controlling Industrial Waste Disposal

Environment Quality Acts which contain rules on


controlling sources of environmental pollution.
Enforcement of laws
Factory owners who do not comply with the laws will
be charged in court.

Educating the public on the importance of


preventing environmental pollution and create
Education
awareness of environmental problems through
formal education system.

Toxic industrial waste can be converted to harmless


substances by using a plasma torch which produce
high temperature to break down toxic waste.

Application of
Filter and scrubbers used to filter the poisonous gas.
technology

Biogas technology which process agriculture waste


naturally through digestion by microorganism and
turn it into biogas that can be used as fuel and
natural fertiliser.

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

8.4 The Need For Preservation And Conservation Of The


Environment From Industrial Waste Pollution
Keperluan Memelihara Dan Memulihara Alam Sekitar
Daripada Dicemari Sisa Industri

ITeach – Science Form 4


Topic 8 Chemicals In Industry

Effects Of Industrial Waste Disposal On The Environment

The Need For Preservation And Conservation Of The


Environment From Industrial Waste Pullotion

 Preservation refers to the effort to maintain living things and their environment in
a balanced state.

 Conservation refers to the management of natural resources so as to prevent


damage to the environments.

 Consequences of uncontrolled and haphazard disposal of industrial wastes.

 Water pollution causes water sources not suitable for human consumption,
destroying aquatic habitat, organism and plants.

 Air pollution causes health problem, global warming and acid rain.

 Soil pollution destroys habitat and ecosystem.

ITeach – Science Form 4