Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 20

Lingarajappa Engineering College

Gornalli, Bidar-585403

OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATION


www.SeminarsTopics.com

PRESENTED BY : PRIYANKA
OVERVIEW
INTRODUCTION
FUNDAMENTALS OF FIBER
WORKING OF FIBER OPTIC
COMMUNICATION
STRUCTURE OF OPTICAL FIBER
COMPARISION B/W FIBER CABLE &
COPPER WIRE
CLASSIFICATION OF OPTICAL FIBERS
APPLICATIONS
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
CONCLUSION

2
INTRODUCTION
•Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting
information from one place to another by sending pulses
of light through an optical fiber.

•Optical fiber is used by many telecommunications


companies to transmit telephone signals, Internet
communication, and cable television signals.

3
FUNDAMENTALS OF FIBER

• The fundamental principle that makes optical fibers


possible is total internal reflection.
• TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION-

• From Snell’s Law we find that


refraction can only occur when
the angle theta1 is large enough.
• This implies that as the angle is reduced, there must
be a point when the light ray is reflected, where
theta1 = theta2
• Critical angle is giving by
4
WORKING OF FIBER OPTIC
COMMUNICATION:

• When the input data, in the form of electrical signals, is


given to the transmitter circuitry, it converts them into light
signal with the help of a light source.
• The light beam from the source is carried by a fiber optic
cable to the destination circuitry wherein the information is
transmitted back to the electrical signal by a receiver circuit.
5
STRUCTURE OF OPTICAL FIBER

1. Core- It is centre tube .The diameter of core is 5µm-100µm.


2. Cladding- It is outer optical material surrounded the core and
is having refractive index less than core.
3. Buffer coating- It is plastic coating that protects the fiber and
is made up of silicon rubber.

6
COMPARISION B/W FIBER CABLE &
COPPER WIRE

7
CLASSIFICATION OF OPTICAL
FIBERS
1. Based On The Materials Used:
A. Glass Fibers:
Glass fiber is a material consisting
of numerous extremely fine fibers
of glass.

B. Plastic Fibers
They have a plastic core and plastic cladding.
These fibers are attractive in applications where high bandwidth
and low loss are not a concern.

8
C. Plastic Clad Silica:

This fiber has a glass core and plastic cladding. This


performance though not as good as all glass fibers, is
quite respectable.

9
2. Based On The Number Of Modes:

A. Single Mode Fiber:


Single mode fibers are used to transmit one signal
per fiber; these fibers are used in telephone and
television sets. Single mode fibers have small cores.
B. Multimode Fiber:
Multimode fibers are used to transmit many signals per
fiber; these signals are used in computer and local area
networks that have larger cores.

10
3.Based On Refractive Index:

A. Step Index Fiber:


The step index (SI) fiber consists of a central core
whose refractive index is n1, surrounded by a lading
whose refractive index is n2, lower than that of core.
B. Graded Index Fibers:
The refractive index of the core in graded index fiber is
not constant, but decreases gradually from its maximum
value n1 to its minimum value n2 at the core-cladding
interface.
11
APPLICATIONS
1. Telecommunications:

• Optical fibers are now the standard


point to point cable link between
telephone substations.

2. Biomedical Applications

• In medicine, optical fibers enable


physicians to look and work inside
the body through tiny incisions without
having to perform surgery.
12
3.Fiber Optic Cable Sensors
Fiber optic cables sensors are used to measure a variety of
physical properties such as mechanical strain, temperature, and
pressure.
4.Fiber Optic Lasers
Fiber optic cables make convenient lasers since
they are small and flexible.

5. Cable Tv
As mentioned before domestic cable TV
networks use optical fiber because of its very low power
consumption.

13
6. In a decorative lamp or night light
Optical-fiber lamps are used for illumination in decorative
applications, including signs, art, toys and
artificial Christmas trees.

7. CCTV
Closed Circuit Television Security systems
use optical fiber because of its inherent security.

8. Telephone
With the use of fiber optic communication, you can connect faster
and have clear conversations without any lag on either side.

14
ADVANTAGES
• Wide Bandwidth:
Optical fibers offer greater bandwidth due to the use of
light as carrier.
• Low Loss:
In an optical fiber the attenuation is independent of
frequency.
They offer a loss of 0.2 dBm/km.
• Size:
In comparison to copper, a fiber optic cable has nearly
4.5 times as much capacity as the wire cable has and a
cross sectional area that is 30 times less.
15
• Safety:
Fiber is a dielectric and does not carry electricity.

• Non conductivity:
Optical fibers are non-conductive and are not effective by
strong electromagnetic interference such as lighting.

• Weight:
Fiber optic cables are much thinner and lighter than metal
wires. They also occupy less space with cables of the same
information capacity.

16
DISADVANTAGES

 Difficult to Splice.

 Expensive to Install.

 Highly Susceptible.

 Can’t Be Curved.

17
CONCLUSION
Fiber optic transmission has found a vast array of
applications in computer systems. Advances in
technology have enabled more data to be conveyed
through a single optical fiber over long distances. The
existing technology will develop to provide a faster
internet speed and more secured internet environment.

18
References:
www.LecturerNotes.com
www.ProjectsTopics.com
www.SeminarsTopics.com

19
20