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Vachana Pitamaha Dr.P.G.Halaktti
College Of Engineering & Technology,
Department of Civil Engineering

Project on

Guide: Prof.A.B.PATIL
The study evaluated the properties of
Bituminous mix made with Hypo sludge from
paper mill industry as mineral additive. Marshall
specimens should be prepared with asphalt
content of different percentage and additive
content by varying weight by its percentage.
Effect of asphalt and additive content on flow
and stability is to be analysed statically. The
physical, chemical, mechanical properties of
these mixtures containing additives were
compared with reference samples based on
standard methods.
A good road is paved or covered with a structure to
supplement the natural strength of the soil foundation. The
pavement may either be rigid (Portland cement concrete)
or flexible (hot-mix asphalt) [HMA]. HMA pavements
suffer damage in the form of cracks that result in high
maintenance cost. These cracks are caused by any or the
combination of several factors, namely: asphalt, mix,
traffic, environment, pavement structure, construction,
geology, and pavement design . For all types of cracks,
the quality of the asphalt and the mixture used is of
prime importance
The mineral(hypo sludge) additive used in HMA is said
to prevent drainage of asphalt binder and thus improve
binding with aggregates.
Mineral additive can be derived from any
lignocellulosic plant material by pulping. There is,
however, an unavoidable residue also called sludge that
goes into the wastewater stream of the pulping and
papermaking processes. Paper mill sludge still has fibre
in it together with some inorganic matter.
Stated that ,wide range of data obtained to access the
effect of paper mill sludge from different paper mills
indicates that any of the fibre can serve as asphalt fibre
additive at 0.3% to 0.5% addition. The optimum asphalt
content needed is within 5% to 6%.
Stated that in this research the properties of pulp and
paper mill wastes where compared with conventional
aggregates used in the asphalt pavements, in order to
value them as raw materials for this application. They
achieved Marshall Stability and flow value as expected.
K.M.MALLESH AND ANIUDHA N:-stated that use of steel slag
replacement of coarse aggregate by weight of aggregate. Steel slag
is reused up to 40% in bituminous paving mixtures and concluded
that the slag showed satisfactory physical and mechanical properties
and release of pollutant generally below the limits set by the code.
ABHAS AL-HDABI :- Stated that use of Black rice Husk as
partial replacement of aggregate,showed a substantial
improvement in mechanical properties has been revealed for the
new asphalt mixtures.but in terms of water sensitivity results,the
new asphalt mixtures are less sensitive to the moisture damage
DIPU SUTRADHAR AND MITU MIAH :-stated and observed
that waste concrete dust and brick dust filler have almost same
Marshall properties as those of conventional fillers. it is observed
that with increase of bitumen content, the marshal stability of the
mixtures also increased. Bituminous mixes containing brick dust
as filler showed maximum stability of 11.1KN at 5.5% bitumen
content. the maximum stability value obtained for the mixes
containing waste concrete dust and fine sand with stone dust as
filler were 11.1KN and 9.8KN respectively
To determine optimum bituminous content by plotting
Graphs between following
 1:-unit weight (density of sample ) Vs Bituminous
 2:-Marshall stability value Vs Bituminous content
 3:-Flow Value Vs Bituminous content
 4:-Percentage of air voids Vs Bituminous content
 5:-voids in Mineral Aggregates (VMA) Vs Bituminous
 6:-Voids Filled with Asphalt (VFA) Vs Bituminous
Laboratory Tests should be carried out to determine
different properties of Materials.

1:-Properties of Aggregate
Tests performed to determine the Aggregate Crushing
value, Aggregate impact value ,Specific gravity, Los
Angles abrasion value

2:-Properties of Bitumen
Tests should be performed to determine Penetration,
Specific gravity, Ductility ,Softening point of bitumen.
3:-Marshall Mix Design
In this project work Marshall stability test setup should be used.
Tests should be preformed to determine the marshal stability.
Flow value, Optimum bitumen content and amount of bitumen
required for mix types containing differ filler. one should use
1200 gm aggregate , To prepare one specimen of 101.6 mm
diameter and 70.5mm thick.Preparation of specimen compaction
testing should be performed according to ASTM D1559
A bituminous mixture is normally composed of aggregate &
bitumen. The aggregates are mainly divided into coarse, fine and
filler fractions according to the size of the particles.
Coarse Aggregate
Coarse aggregate for bituminous mix has been defined as that
portion of the mixture which is retained on 2.36 mm (No.08) sieve
according to the Asphalt Institute. Basalt rock was used as coarse
aggregate. It was crushed manually and brought to the sizes 25.0 mm
or less. The aggregates were then sieved using U.S. standard sieves
and separated out in different sections.
Appearance of coarse aggregate
Fine Aggregate
Aggregate passing through 2.36 mm sieve and retained
on 0.075 mm sieve was selected as fine aggregate

Appearance of fine aggregate

In this study(PG 60/70,VG 30) grade bitumen is going to be
used. Same bitumen was used for all the mixes so the type and
grade of binder would be Constant

Appearance of bitumen

Hypo Sludge
Hypo sludge or also known as Paper mill sludge is used as filler
material or additive for bituminous mixture.

Appearance of bitumen
Marshall Test apparatus and

Marshall stability test appartus Test Specimen

Presented By
 Shivanand Bhuyi
 Harish Gonasagi
 Shubham Koti
 Girish Padaganur