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Load and Resistance Factor Design

(LRFD)
 is the method of proportioning structural
components such as that the design strength
equals or exceeds the required strength of
the component under the action of LRFD
load combination.
Allowable Strength Design
(ASD)
 is a method of proportioning structural
components such that the allowable strength
equals or exceeds the required strength of
the component under the action of the ASD
load combination.
DESIGN OF MEMBERS
FOR TENSION
TENSILE STRENGTH
ФtPn (design tensile strength) or Pn/Ωt (allowable tensile
strength) must be the lowest value between the two:
Tensile Yielding in the Gross Section:
Pn = FyAg Ae = effective area net, mm²
Фt = 0.90 (LRFD) Ae = UAn
Ωt = 1.67 (ASD) An = area net, mm²
U = shear lag factor
Ag = gross area of member, mm²
Tensile Rupture in the Net Section: Fy = yield stress, MPa
Fu = tensile strength, MPa
Pn = FuAe Ω = safety factor
Ф = resistance factor
Фt = 0.75 (LRFD)
Ωt = 2.00 (ASD)
DESIGN OF MEMBERS
FOR FLEXURE
ФbMn (design flexure strength)
Фb = 0.9 (LRFD)

Mn/Ωb (allowable flexure strength)


Ωb = 1.67 (ASD)
Doubly Symmetric Compact I-Shaped
Members and Channels Bent
about their Major Axis
Mn (nominal flexural strength) must be the lowest value
between the two:
1) Yielding:
Mn = Mp = FyZx
Zx = plastic section modulus
2) Lateral-Torsional Buckling about the x-axis, mm²
• When Lb ≤ Lp, the limit state Fy = yield strength, MPa
for lateral-buckling does not
apply.
• When Lp < Lb ≤ Lr

𝑳𝒃 − 𝑳𝒑
𝑴𝒏 = 𝑪𝒃 𝑴𝒑 − 𝑴𝒑 − 𝟎. 𝟕𝑭𝒚𝑺𝒙 ≤ 𝑴𝒑
𝑳𝒓 − 𝑳𝒑

• When Lb > Lr
Mn = FcrSx ≤ Mp
Lb = braced length, mm
Lr and Lp = limiting lengths, mm
Fcr = buckling stress, MPa

𝑪𝒃𝝅𝟐 𝑬 𝑱𝒄 𝑳𝒃 𝟐
𝑭𝒄𝒓 = 𝟏 + 𝟎. 𝟎𝟕𝟖 ( )
𝑳𝒃 𝑺𝒙𝒉𝒐 𝒓𝒕𝒔
( )𝟐
𝒓𝒕𝒔
𝑬 𝑬 𝑱𝒄 𝟎. 𝟕𝑭𝒚𝑺𝒙𝒉𝒐
𝟐
𝑳𝒑 = 𝟏. 𝟕𝟔𝒓𝒚 𝑳𝒓 = 𝟏. 𝟗𝟓𝒓𝒕𝒔 𝟏 + 𝟏 + 𝟔. 𝟕𝟔
𝑭𝒚 𝟎. 𝟕𝑭𝒚 𝑺𝒙𝒉𝒐 𝑬 𝑱𝒄

Jc = torsional constant, mm4


E = modulus of elasticity of steel
E = 200,000 MPa
ho = distance between the flange centroid, mm
rts = radius of gyration, mm
Sx = elastic section modulus, mm3
c = 1.0 (for I-section)
ℎ𝑜 𝐸
c= (for channel section)
2 0.7𝐹𝑦
DESIGN OF MEMBERS
FOR COMPRESSION
ФcPn (design compressive strength)
Фc = 0.9 (LRFD)

Pn/Ωc (allowable compressive strength)


Ωc = 1.67 (ASD)
K = effective length factor
L = unbraced length, mm
r = governing radius of gyration, mm
𝑲𝑳
𝒔𝒍𝒆𝒏𝒅𝒆𝒓𝒏𝒆𝒔𝒔 𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐 =
𝒓
Compressive Strength for Flexural
Buckling of Members without
Slender Elements
Pn = FcrAg
(nominal compressive strength)
𝝅𝟐 𝑬
𝐾𝐿 𝐸 𝑭𝒆 =
1) When ≤ 4.71 (𝑜𝑟 𝐹𝑒 ≥ 0.44𝐹𝑦) 𝑲𝑳 𝟐
𝑟 𝐹𝑦
𝑭𝒚 𝒓
𝑭𝒄𝒓 = 𝟎. 𝟔𝟓𝟖𝑭𝒆 𝑭𝒚
Fy = yield strength, MPa
𝐾𝐿 𝐸
2) When > 4.71 (𝑜𝑟 𝐹𝑒 < 0.44𝐹𝑦) Fe = elastic critical buckling
𝑟 𝐹𝑦
stress, MPa
𝑭𝒄𝒓 = 𝟎. 𝟖𝟕𝟕𝑭𝒆 Fcr = flexural buckling stress,
MPa